Dream House

Dream House Floor Plans

How to design a dream house floor plan

Follow these 10  steps, it leads and  guides and a serious student of Design( Interior Designing ,Architecture or Engineering) to design a dream home.

Step 1-Design Brief for a dream house floor plan

A Design Brief is a list of requirements for of the home design , The size of of the brief is pending on the size of the project. The brief will correspond in its size requirements . For a large project a Design Brief may be as thick book listing all the requirements of design from Interior Designing ,Architectural, M&E and Civil and Structural requirements.
Request for a Design Brief before commencing to design .,Some clients may not have a proper brief, if so you may have to sit with them and assess the brief.


The Design brief may outline :
1)the details of the building and the Interiors
2)details of the interiors,
3)the quality of building construction,
4.)site conditions ,
5.)compliance to the building codes,
6.)studies that needs to be undertaken etc

Net Zero Building building site analysis

Eco Green building site analysis

Step 2-Site Analysis for a dream house floor plan

A Site Analysis is a  study of the conditions of site, its features. the characteristics of the site, the adversities of the site, the weather (wind directions) conditions, the topography features, the flood levels, the direction of sun path, the views and vistas, existing vegetation, slopes, building set back of the site and other conditions existing in the site.

In some instances the type of soil and ground conditions should be analyzed  as it will affect the cost of building.This is refereed to as geotechnical investigation. Please read on..for site analysis for Net Zero Energy and Eco Green building design

Bubble diagram for designing a house

Bubble diagram for a dream house floor plan

Step 3-Bubble Diagram for a dream house floor plan

A Bubble Diagram is a study of the relationship of spaces as required in the Design Brief (Step 1) and connecting with the site analysis( Step 2). The spaces are approximated in shapes of bubbles and those bubbles that are related closely by functions are placed closer to each other. and spaces that are affected by the site conditions are approximated and reflected in the Bubble Diagram.

Step 4- grid

The approximated bubble diagram layout is laid out over a grid line. A grid line either in 2 ft (600mm),4 ft(1200mm) or 8 ft(2400mm) grid are necessary and used to designing the building as it helps to minimize the cost of materials or structures in the building construction.  A 2 ft (600mm), 4 ft(1200mm) grids lines are used with the intention to save material  and detailing the interiors and 8 ft(2400mm) grid lines are used to save the construction cost of structure.

Step 5-Template of the room (spaces)

Draw a templates of the spaces( such as the bedroom, the kitchen, the toilets, the staircases, the Great room etc) as identified in the Bubble Diagram required in the client brief, and place them over the grid as your bubble diagram  and the Grid lines and  study the spaces and  makes senses of the  design layout plan.The  design layout may seems like this.

Preliminary house design layout

house design layout

Step 6-Design Layout and Form for a dream house floor plan

In finalizing the design layout ensure all the requirements of the clients brief are met and correlate it with the form of the building. Make the adjustments in relationship with the form you have minded. Visualize the form with the layout as they correspond with each other.

Finalize the design layout in relation to the Form of the building or make adjustments to the Layout due to a Form or the adjust the Form to the layout. At this stage all the interior concepts should be integrated with the building, eg garden in the toilet, or garden in the Living, water pool in the building, water fall view from the Dining, BBQ areas etc.

toliet with green

toilet with Eco-green layout

Step 7-Details for a dream house floor plan

God is in the details and so at this stage ensure the details you have in mind are incorporated. Ensure the details are thought thoroughly  such as spaces of storage, cabinets, shelves, interior layout ideas, Net Zero Energy requirements, Eco-green and sustainability requirements details…you may at this stage want to revise the above step 5,6 as you may discover a problem in trying to establish the layout or even so you may have difficulty in detailing a corner correctly. These steps are cyclical in nature you may want to revisit the layout with the forms as many times as you may want too. Check our how to design baths, how to design kitchens, how to use stones in designing,how to design swimming pools and  how to select colors

Step 8- Architectural Styles and Appearance for a dream house floor plans

Design the style and appearances with the ornaments that symbolize the styles, such the Victorian styles have the front highly ornamented, the timber is crafted, the fascia board is crafted to illustrate a style.

material mapping

3d Model with mapping material for a dream house layout

Step 9- Create a 3 D Model for a dream house floor plans

Create a 3 D Model and study the design, review the interiors in the 3 D model, you may review the layout to suit the forms proportions, or the required interiors are not attainable. I would recommend google sketch up software as it is easy to use and the warehouse downloads are just amazing, where almost any thing can be downloaded.

Step 10- Materials selections and Rendering 3 D Models

Select materials for exteriors and the interiors and start rendering the 3 D Models and review if you obtain the views you wanted, review the rendered interiors. I would recommend I-Render as a rendering software and Google sketch up for creating the 3 D model.

perspective of room Level 1The Traditional Japanese House Floor Plan

perspective of room Interior of  Japanese House Floor Plan

Check our our beautiful house floor plans going really cheap, place an order for special rates

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


coastal beach house

beach house on stilts

What is a Beach House?

  • Beach House that near the sea.
  • Beach House is built on a beach, lakefront, coastal area or any land with water views.
  • Beach House Is use as a vacation or second house for people who commute to house on weekend or during vacation periods
  • Beach House Is also named as Coastal Houses or Waterfront House
  • Beach House are range in style from Traditional House Plans to  Modern House Plans
  • Beach House are all about summer and warm weather living



  7 Features of Beach House 

 Designed for shoreline living with the main living areas typically raised one level above the ground to accommodate rising tides and prevent flooding. This is achieved by building on a pier foundation (or pilings).

  • The parking area is located beneath the home and made possible by the pier
  • Features Large windows in the Beach Floor plans are strategically placed   to give the breath of the grand views of the shoreline or coastal views
  • Beach Floor plans with large decks ,porches for functions such as out door living such as to soak up under the sun and listen to sounds of coastal waves beating.
  • An open floor plan allow gentle sea breezes to cross ventilate flow through the home.
  • The elements of the homes is specialised in materials and construction methods to cater for the marine or coastal environments.
  • Floor plans style offering everything from a simple beach vacation bungalow to a luxurious oceanfront home.




There are 3 types of the Beach House:

  • StiltBeach Houses , Pier Beach Houses  and Platform Beach Houses
  • Weatherproofed Year-Round Beach Houses
  • Luxury Beach Houses

  1. Stilt Beach House, Pier Beach House and Platform Beach House

  • Structuressuch as stilts, piers foundations or columns arebuilt , to allow siting on a  steeply sloping terrain next the water
  • These structures alsoprotect the beach house from large waves and high tides.
  • Beach housesare raised at least 8 to 15 feet above the lowest land level. The higher the level that is raised above the lower levels the stronger the piers foundations to support the beach house.
  • These bases also serve to anchor houses to the underlying ground during harsh winter storms with high winds.
  • Steel I-beams, concrete columns or pillars and timber piles, posts and framesmay be appropriate for the construction of a beach house floor plan.

  2.Weatherproofed Year-Round Beach Houses

  • Constructed with withstand a variety of hazards, including falling trees, high winds and floods.
  • These types of beach houses are seen in the barns of farms in New England.
  • Structures built in this manner survive events such as earthquakes and a heavy build up of snow that weighs down the roof as they are constructed from large, heavy wooden beams
  • Octagonal house with a low roof
  • This design withstands high winds easily
  • The force is directed down onto the roof and around the sides of the house.
  • Strong softwoods, such as yellow pine, are preferred over hardwoods because softwoods under stress bend slightly, rather than break.
  • Storm windows with high-impact safety glass

3. Luxury Beach Houses

  • With as many bedrooms
  • Features like swimming pools, guest houses and extensive gardens for large families.
  • These types of larger beach houses require larger plots of land


Style of Beach House

Why do people love beach houses, is it  being near water that attracts them to the beaches? Is it primarily due to fact that people love the outdoors where activities such as swimming, kayaking, canoeing, sailing, and it’s a perfect place to read next to.people also want to live as close to the beach as possible.


Written by Carmel Ho Kar Wei

eco sustainable home using photovoltaic solar panel

eco sustainable home

What is Eco Green Homes Design

An Eco Home is rating scheme in UK for encouraging low-impact on the environmental home designs and build homes using materials and technology that reduces its greenhouse effect and lowers its energy needs.It rating is based on Energy,Transport,Pollution,Water,Land Use and Ecology,Health and Well being and Management.
Going Green with homes are related to using material that affect the environment and energy savings, see the difference between Net Zero Energy Architect to Green solutions

Eco has reference to the ecological in the environment, therefore it is using the landscaping and green ecological strategies to enhance the environment’s sustainability.

Hence Eco Green House suggest that house that maintains the natural green environment in a house, applying the principal of reduce, recycle and reuse as in produce clean air, healthier environment, improving quality of water, more energy efficiency and minimize waste. green environmental design as in friendly and sustainable. The focus is in energy conservation, improving water and air quality and using building materials which helps to achieve these purposes of energy savings or improving water and air quality. so that we can lives well without needlessly damaging the environment using ecological strategies.

Types of Eco Green Homes

There’s two types of Eco Green house designs, namely:
Eco friendly house designs, Eco friendly home literally refers to minimizing harm to the environment by using eco friendly materials.
Sustainable Eco house designs , Sustainable Eco home means environment conscious design to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability of the environment.

The Eco green home make use of the available resources such as wind, water and sun to lower the environmental impact and reduce the energy consumption.
For following instances are the case:

The main facade and the larger window should face at south during summers in the temperate areas And in the east, west and north have to place a few small windows to prevent heat loss. An the small opening have to be on the north side to help cooling.
In the tropics the FACADE should be aligned along the east west direction minimizing heat gain of the building and windows should be facing the rising sun and large window are avoided in the setting suns side of the homes.
Solar panels are also used to recycle the solar energy to produce electricity and hot water.
Use Natural day light harvesting will enable a savings of about 20% of energy bills.
Energy Efficient light fittings are also used in this Eco Green home design to save electricity. These may be high performance LED lights .


Eco Green Homes designs may use the cross ventilation by the prevailing winds to cool the house using a wind tunnel.
Mini wind turbine energy for residential use to produce electricity.Tubines can generate electricity where there is sufficient winds. Read on factors that make the wind turbine work.

Eco Green Homes are designed to collect rain water from the roof into drums or collection tanks and reuse it as portable water.How this is done may vary from one to another.
Bios-vales can also be used to collect water and to dispense the water a little by little for the landscape areas instead of running off tot the streams as this minimizes the flooding the rivers with run offs. This options also reduces the option to installing over-site water tanks to retain the overflowing of the streams.
Bios-vales can also be used a replacement for external drains as it will serve as a collection point and discharged or retained for future use.Remember that external drains if poorly built can breed mosquitoes and rats which can be a sources of spread of pest related diseases.
Bios-vales can also be used as underground retaining ponds and treated water can be recycled as drinking water. Contact us for more information on bios-vales
Waste water is also treated to produce clean and reusable water.

Other Factors for Energy Savings strategies in Eco Green Homes:

1)Insulating from the sun

Energy is saved on heating and cooling of house by insulating the walls and ceiling well. Super insulation of homes will keep the heat in during winters and keep the heat out during summers. Insulation acts as a barrier both against the undesired heat and cold air from outside and reduce possible leaks inside the home. With good insulation you can make financial savings of the energy bill up to 20-30%.

2)Thermal Zones

Materials that are used in Eco Green homes have walls of high thermal insulting character- high resistivity, and with an air chamber spaces created , to act as thermal zones to control the heat gain and lost of heat, such as Trombe Wall.
Glass walls are double glazing to give a greater insulation as the air in between the glasses are a good insulating matter . Besides, shading element for that house are important to prevent the unwanted heat gains.

Eco friendly and sustainable green house

3.)Eco strategies-Living Roof

Another good solution for improving thermal resistivity on roofs is to cover them with plants, or geothermal heating as it takes the advantage of maintaining the temperature that earth has thermal insulation, thermal inertia. This is called living roof, Living roofs are excellent noise insulators, reduce pollution from dust and other agents and provide a natural habitat for local fauna. The roof also collects the rainwater and processes the water clean for consumption, the water can be diverted into bios-vales.
Presence of plants ensures optimal air quality due to the purifying effect of the plant masses and many other benefits, Read the benefits of ecological strategies..

Eco-friendly  homes are homes that support the Green strategies.

4.)Renewable -Biomass Energy for Eco Green Homes

Biomass material available in the neighborhood can generate energy for heating and cooling the building. There’s many advantages to biomass. The Biomass Energy is cleaner than energy generated from fossil fuel oil and electricity, and from the environmental perspective the biomass stoves are less cleaner and less polluting than convectional energy from fossil fuel. It may be cheaper pending the sources of biomass.

5.)Green Material used in Eco Green Homes

Eco green home would mean a healthier home too as materials free of the volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde are used.Materials such paint solvents, glues, silicone, etc such as non-toxic materials, odorless paint and solvent-free materials free of the volatile which is harmful to occupants and the environment.

6.)Waste is reduced, recycled and reused in Eco Green Homes

. It has many benefits by minimizing waste. The designs are following the principles of reduce, recycle and reuse to produce a healthier, cleaner and better quality environment. This design can also provide a high energy efficiency living area, more valuable over long term, more delightful to come home.

Eco green home design principles are a new concept as a response to the demands of the global call for climate changes and climate warning. Hence this principle can be adopted into any homes styles such as modern green home designs, cottage green home designs and mountain green home designs.

Written by Winnie Kong. of Saito College and Ar Perumal Nagapushnam, Eco Green architect. http://www.sda-architect.com/

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

 The Salt Lake temple was built during the Gothic revival

History of Architecture –Theories in Antiquity

The following will be the outline  of the History of Architecture
A) Definition of Architectural Theory
C)Principles of Classical Period-Greek and RTime line of World Architectureoman Architecture
D)Architects in Antiquity
E) Song Dynasty-LI JIE

A) Definition of Architectural Theory in History of Architecture

 Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture.It is also the principles of designing in architecture. A theory is a body of thoughts if Not proven wrong with time will become a hypothesis, and eventually evolved to become a LAW. Hypotheses becomes a Theses , Theses becomes Theory ,Theory will  become a LAW . Laws will eventually attempt to become scientific  truth. Newton’s Laws were proven wrong by Einstein and replace with Gravitational Theory. As such architectural theories used over the years to define art of designing buildings have been prpoven wrong and have in some instances were rediscovered and some displaced with time.As all theories eventually attain for establishing the truth.The time line of the History of Architecture shown that the early thoughts that once called the golden rule of Architecture has been found to be not true .
Here I would discuss the theories that were discusses in Architecture in antiquity in Greek and Roman times , the early times of Western civilizations.

B)Time line of World Architecture in History of Architecture

This is brief time line of the history of architecture, primarily focusing on the western civilization in comparison with the Chinese Architecture of the Sung Dynasty ( the Indian Period of Architecture has not been included in the time line.) I would add on the Indian Architectural  and Chinese Architectural periods later on for better overall perspective of the History of Architecture.

Time line of world architecture

Time line of world architecture, Bar Chart of Architecture

C)Principles of Greek and Roman Architecture in History of Architecture

The theory of Greek Architecture is centered on ‘Classical Orders’ .The Design was centered on proportions of elements and portions between the individual parts. The belief was any size of building was to be built around a rule of proportions. From this Principe derived  the three orders : the Doric, Ionic & Corinthian. The Doric orders were popular in Greece but not in other places.As these were defined by a certain proportion, the columns were placed almost in every building of importance,which expressed power and authority of the Roman Rulers.

Architectural Priorities of Ancient Rome
The Roman use buildings to wind the hearts of  the people such as the case of  rebuilding of  the Jews temple in Jerusalem, refereed to as the Herod’s Temple – to please the Jews citizens there.

As a world power they tried to impress , entertain cater for the citizens for the needs of the people. While they increased in power and majesty they reflected them by building strong and majestic buildings.

They had their share of problem such as: security, drainage, public utilities such as water supply( aqua ducts of Anio Novus), bridges (e.g. the Pont du Gard), public baths Baths (of Caracalla ),roads, sports facilities, amphitheaters(Colosseum 72-80 CE) and urban planning with 2 streets along the north-south axis grids. Rome had  5 level apartment buildings , many temples and theaters were also built.

The roman civilization which was successful to dominate the world for about a thousand years, laid the foundation to our day and age, such as the Roman letter that we use in English were from Rome, like wise our lives have been influenced by the Roman civilization in Governments(principles in government, language,democracy,senators,Olympics and in even our Buildings)

Use of Arches, Tiles & Concrete in Roman History of Architecture
Arches and Dome used in designs  were exploited to the maximum. Water ducts were supported by arches to transport water from city to city. Central large spaces for meting hall were built of Impressive domes , columns and arches to communicate the  majestic and power of the Romans.

  1. Concrete was invented by the Romans as described by Vitruvius in his book De Architectura. , called it opus cementicium, a mixture of lime mortar, sand, water, and stones. This revolutionized Roman engineering and architecture.
  2. Tiles were laid over concrete structure, in lieu of marble .Buildings were freed from the rectangular Greek design-plan and architectural layout were less geometrical and broke away from the rigid grid line designs of the Greeks traditions.
  3. Sculptures were embellished the buildings together with work of art-such as relief’s, statues, bust m mosaics decorations and mural fresco

D)Architects in Antiquity and in Rome in History of Architecture

The Architect’s in the History of Architecture of the Romans  contributed to-days principles of Architectural design and Architectural theories were Vitruvius, Abbot Suger, Leon Battista Alberti, I will discuss some of the thoughts of these men and also the work of Chinese architect at Song dynasty in China.



  • Vitruvius was a Roman writer, architect, and engineer who lived in the 1st century BCE. He was the most prominent architect in the Roman Empire, he wrote the De architectura, ( The Ten Books of Architecture), and dedicated the book to the Roman Emperor Augustus. Divided into ten sections,it covers aspect of architecture such as:
    town planning,
    building, civil, temples,
    water supplies, aqueduct
    landscape, pavements
The Classical Greek House Plan

The Greek House Plan Vitruvius Greek House Plan( from wikipedia )

  • It also proposes the three fundamental laws that an Architect must follow:
    1.) Structural adequacy
    2.) Functional adequacy
    3.) Beauty
    These are termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad.


  • The Man by Leonardo da Vinci

    Vitruvian Man redrawn by Leonardo da Vinci

    He referred to architecture as a copy of nature, as the birds construct their nest so do human build houses to give shelter from the elements that threaten him- such as sun, wind, rain and enemies. As man is of a certain proportion, so should building should be designed to have the sense of proportion. The man height was the same as the arms stretched. The Greeks invented the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian with perfect proportions base on these principles.

  • It is until these days that Architects of today still use the word proportion ,” the proportion is not right” only in a arbitrary sense. In the Romans times it was a mathematical order.
  • Leonardo da Vinci: who inscribed in the circle and the square in the Vitruvian Man, reflected this fundamental geometric pattern of the cosmic order.
  • The architects in the Renaissance architects were influenced by his teaching in his book. Architects at that time were involved in landscaping designs and Engineering works such as- civil, mechanical and structural designs.

Head of Doric Order Head of Corrinthian ColumnsIonic Capital columns

Vitruvius taught that beauty was defined by proportions and were as what he believed of a certain order:

Doric Order (1.6)

The Doric columns had the following rules in its order:
a)Vitruvius said the height of Doric columns is six or seven times the diameter at the base.
b) This gives the Doric columns a shorter, thicker, masculine appearance, whereas slender Ionic was a more feminine
c)The Doric style was common in mainland Greece and later spread to the Greek colonies in Italy.
d) Doric architecture (as in the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens)
e) Doric more popular during the Classical age and for formal buildings in larger cites such as Rome.
f)It represented male body proportions as strong, masculine and stout.

Corinthian order (1:6.5)

The Corinthian columns had the following rules in its order:
a)The ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio
b) its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column,
c) differences between these styles is n the ratio between the base diameter and height of their columns.
d) Ionic style gained the upper hand during the more relaxed Hellenistic period.

Ionic Order(1:8)

The Ionic columns had the following rules in its order:
a) Ionic columns, which have 8:1 proportions
b) represented the female body proportions, therefore it was a order suitable for libraries and courts of justice, as building were categories as male or female buildings
c)The Ionic style was built along Ionia, west coast of Turkey and Aegean.
d) the Ionic was less restrained and more decorative.

D.ii)  of the Abbot SugerMiddle Ages

a) wrote a document, Liber de rebus in administratione sua gestis,
an architectural document that emerged with gothic architecture.
b)He is possibly the Father of the Gothic period, noted for his use of stained-glass windows, a central element of Gothic architecture.
c) He is a friend of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII of France
d) Abbey of Saint Denis, Paris was credited to Abbot .This building employed every Gothic styles in the architecture- pointed arches, column clusters and cross-rib vaulting
e) It was the beginning of Gothic Era, the St Denis became a proto type model for churches all over Europe to pattern after.
f) Knowledge was spread by word of mouth.
g) Most works that from this period were theological, and were transcriptions of the bible, so the architectural theories were the notes on structures included therein. Due to the laborious nature of transcription, few examples of architectural theory were penned in this time period.

St Denis, Paris, http://christine-skaar.com/assets_d/22215/download_media/abbot-suger_150.pd

St Denis, Paris

D.iii) Villard de Honnecourt’s
a)He left a heritage of a portfolio of drawings at about the 1230s.
b)His famed due to his uniqueness of his portfolio
c) The inventions at the 19th Century was credited to his portfolio, have built church all along the Christian world
e) He was an Architect , http://www.villardman.net/diction.htm
f) During the 19th Century ,at the height of Gothic Revival movement in France and England they found his portfolio drew great attention
g) From the drawing which he produced , and that we were found, it can be concluded that he was a trained mason

Architect in Antiquity-Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti

Div) Leon Battista Alberti

The first great work of architectural theory belongs to Leon Battista Alberti, He wrote the – De Re Aedificatoria,

  • He followed the theories of Vitruvian virtues.
  • He believed in a theory that beauty could be defined mathematically and in proportions which is harmony.
    The proportions found in Romans buildings were beautiful and harmonious
  • Around 1434-35, Battista published theoretical treatise on painting known as “Della Pittura”, explaining  the rules of linear perspective, which would  have enormous influence on artists that followed him.
  • Architect need to follow the design as existed in nature not to follow blindly and objectively but to copy where the real objects of nature meets human needs.
  • He said architects, artist, sculptures and painter should accentuate beauty as “beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary.”
  • De pictura (“On Painting”) contained the first scientific study of perspective


Facade of Santa Maria Novella

Facade of Santa Maria Novella


  • He designed The Church of Sant’Andrea, and at Rimini The Church of Tempio Malatestiano (San Francesco).
  • He completed the principal facade of The Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.
  • Alberti is also involved in the redesigning a village called Corsignano, in 1459. It was the birthplace of Pope Pius II; Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat ,which radically transformed the center of the town, included a palace for the pope, a church, a town hall, and a building for the bishops who would accompany the Pope on his trips. This city is an example for re-urbanization for planners.

E) Song Dynasty-LI JIE in History of Architecture

Li Jie was a Chines who lived during the Song Dynasty China who influenced Chinese Architecture in a major way till to day.e
He published the Yingzao Fashi in 1103, it was an architectural treatise that codified elements of Chinese architecture

Revolving Budha

Sino-Judaic scholars believe the Chinese (Kaifeng) Jews used one of these to house their 13 Torah Picture of a revolving-Buddhist ark drawn by Li Jie and published in his Yingzao Fashi  Sino-Judaic scholars believe the Chinese (Kaifeng) Jews used one of these to house their 13 Torah


Yingzao Fashi brackets

Yingzao Fashi brackets

The 5 Brackets types for connections of columns and beams and 2 cantilevered brackets were predominately used in Chinese buildings of Worship or Chinese Official building , even in the Emperor’s Palaces, for a long time.

Yingzao Fashi door elevation

Yingzao Fashi door elevation

Li’s book used material from preexisting architectural writings. The documentation of the inherited traditions of craftsmen and architects passed down by word of mouth.It provided  a glossary of technical terms that includes mathematical formula. He included topography in his estimations for buildings on various types of sloped sites He also estimated the costs of hiring workers of different trades in crafts.
i)it incorporates building rules and regulations,a system of accounting information,standards for materials

it is book with 34 chapters in the book specify in detail the units of measurement, the construction of moats and fortifications, and standards for stonework as well as for greater and lesser woodwork. It is a detail account of brick, mason, timber details and specification for constructions

Although others were written and compiled beforehand, Li’s book is the oldest technical book on Chinese architecture to have without having to be destroyed but had remained intact in one single document.

Prepared by Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Site Analysis for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

Net Zero Building building site analysis

Green building site analysis


In carry our a site analysis the following considerations should be considered:

  • North direction- Solar Path

The North directions should be established for the site, as this will help the analysis of the solar path. This will help to study which of the side of the building is heated up and which part of the building need special insulation.

The setting sun during summer is the part that needs treatment (insulation or louvers shading for window). It is necessary to avoid the suns heating sun to fall on the wall as the heat is thermally conducted into the building. Winter setting sun is desirable as the heat gain is necessary to keep the building warm. In fact this is the side where a Trombe wall is placed to keep the building warm during winter.

The solar path is easily studied by using software’s such as sketch up and Revit’s Vasari and Rivet’s Ecotect or Design Studio. These soft-wares will help evaluate where sun is setting, but some of these soft wares evaluates the relatively hottest part of the building and even the amount of energy required for a specific model designed. And the solar path with these soft wares combined will help make design decisions.


  • Wind direction for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

The direction of the wind s and the   strength of the wind and the season of the winds will help you to understand for the following design considerations.

  1. Direction of winds can use in the cooling of corridors and courtyards and public spaces.
  2. Strength of the winds if is beyond 5m/s can be used to generate renewable energy for the clean energy in place of energy from fossil fuels.
  3. Obstruction to the use of winds sources have to be identified.


  • Thermal energy potential sources for  Green Building

Sources of renewable energy should be identified, such small streams, geothermal sources or wind energy and potentials for photo voltaic sources of energy.

  1. a) A small stream could generate hydro- electricity through out the day.
  2. b) Proximity to geo thermal ground can be used as a source for energy for building through out the day.
  3. c) The photo voltaic energy is limited to use only when the sun is visible, without clouds in the sky and not available at night.
  • The topography of site for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

The topographical features of the site is necessary such as the contours, valleys, slopes, cliffs, the locations of streams, the main roads entrances façade views and other features that may be potentially an advantage to the site. Connections of utilities such as telephone connections points, water supply connections, sewerage connections points and power connections points.


  • Vistas and view for Green Building

The location of good panoramic view and potential vista creations from the drive in and main entrances should be noted for designing purposes. The setting sun, rising suns in the morning views, or view of the beach, mountains or night views of the cities are the features you may want to look out for and if available they need to be identified.


 site analysis for Green building

view of site analysis for Green building

  • Adverse situations- smell, harsh winds for  Green Building

The harsh wind during the winter season should be diverted from the building using landscapes or wall, cold wintry winds can conduct the heat away from the building and this will cause the energy bill to escalate.

Forest in the Office AIr Quality conceptIf the site has poor air quality  especially if the site is confronting a busy main road , that eco-green architect would consider ways for the poor air quality to be scrubbed clean so that air quality is maintained. the ecological parts of the site could be maintained for air to be processed. read on why green design can process the air by ionizing the air and removes the dust in   the air and remove air pollutants such as the dirty dozens.

Prepared by Green Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


cracks in homes

cracks in buildings,http://sandra-markle.blogspot.my/2011/03/writing-docudramaspart-one-i-survived.html

How to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Cracks are common in buildings, one should not be alarmed to see cracks on the walls but sit back get the help by following these steps.

Cracks can be classified as  active or dormant.  Active cracks tend to get larger and changes with time.  Dormant cracks are those have settled and need no alarm , are of no danger, but should be not left not repaired as  moisture penetration may cause further  damages.

Cracks may be classified as structural cracks or non structural crack. If it is structural cracks, one has to take immediate actions to rectify the cracks and if it non structural cracks, you need to touch up the cracks. On may recognize the structural crack by the direction of the cracks.

Cracks can also be classified by  1) direction 2) width, and 3) depth of the crack.  They may be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random.  They may range in size from less than 1 mm (fine) to between 1 and 2 mm (medium) to over 2 mm (wide).

The following are some of the types of crack occurring in concrete:

1. Pattern Cracks:  Fine openings in regular arrangements which due to inconsistent volume of concrete which is lower near the surface.

2. Checking cracks:  Small openings which are  closely and  irregular direction and space .

3. D-Cracks:  Fine cracks at close intervals in a progression with  random pattern.

4. Shrinkage cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, which are straight lines parallel to each other.

5.Plastic cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, appearing as diagonal lines in the top of a slab, caused by rapid drying of the concrete surface when curing additives are added.

6.Settlement cracksCaused by local restraining  around re-bar.

7.Structural cracks:Cracks that are a result of corrosion of the re-bar or structural over stressing or due to under designing of load.

8. Tension cracks:  Cracks which appear in concrete which are  caused by the stretching  of the reinforcement which are subjected to tension.

9.Rust cracks:  A serious cause of  structural cracks caused by insufficient rebar cover. The cover may crack off and the exposed rebar are subjected to rust.

10.Thermally-induced cracks:  Cracks appearing from stresses created by the diurnal of temperature changes over the day or seasonal.

11.Hairline Cracks:  Small cracks and fine crack lines that are randomly placed.


serious structural cracks

structural cracks that needs to be resolved

Cracks in brick walls(CP 111)

Cracks found in 215mm thick brick walls   by more than 25mm wide in a stepped or slanting cracks are not a concern as invariably it is deem to carry the load, as shown in test at the Building Research Establishment in England( provided it was not accompanied by considerable transverse movement). Also note the strength of a cavity wall is approximately 20% less that that of a 215mm brick wall.

The reasons for cracks in brick walls may be:
changes in ground conditions,
inadequate consolidation of ground,
shrinkage-able clay,
fast growing trees,
unsound materials(brick, mortar joints)
|corrosion of iron and steel,
shringakage and expansion of walls during cold and hot seasons,
climbers, ivy , climbing rose, morning glory,etc., may cause damage to the walls,
mining subsidence of the foundations.

Cracks, of 1.5 to3.5mm wide are called fine cracks and need to be repaired but has not structural impairment, the repair may be replace the brick or fill it with mortar(1:1:6)pointing and refinish with wall paper or paint etc.

Structural cracks

Structural cracks are large cracks and will be either vertical lines or 45 degrees line cracks or any cracks that runs between the vertical lines to the 45 degree line. Structural cracks are further characterized by the cracks where you can place your finger (when you can insert a large coin) within the crack lines. Further more these cracks would crack the structural member of the building, such as the beams, columns, lintels etc


serious cracks

Diagonal cracks- almost always are structural in nature


Minor cracks are hairline cracks which are superficial that have no structural members are affected by the cracks. A quick check can be done by hacking the plastered surfaces or the rendered surfaces and check if the cracks are merely superficial on the plaster or rendered surfaces or it has affected the walls within and the structural members, if the structural members are cracked, than you need to find out if it a hair line crack or deep cracks that affects the structural integrity of the structure has been affected.

Hairline cracks in structure and on finished surfaces are acceptable and sometimes beyond the means to control them. Hairline cracks on structural members are considered normal, it may be caused by the heat that is caused by concrete when it is curing at  the construction stages.

Hairline cracks on finishes may be due to the cooling ( air conditioning)and heating during the mid day may causes it, and fissure cracks appear is considered quite normal. It may be caused by an incorrect mix of cement and sand in the plastering and rendering during constructions  or excessive exposure to the hot sun, in case the walls should have been constructed with expansion joints and movement joints to reduce these cracks

Hairline cracks

The mere size of the crack as described in the above para will decide the seriousness of the problems.

hairline cracks

hairline cracks, a minor concern

Minor cracks should be repaired and observed for further development of crack.

Step 1 in the Buildings

Identify the causation of crack to solve, this is necessary so as to avoid redundancy of rectification, and this will avoid a repetition of cracks even after the rectification of cracks were carried out.  Cracks and the following may be the causation or reasons  of the structural cracks.

  1.  The causes of structural cracks may be due to the foundation may have been under designing of the structure .
  2. The structure may have not been built structurally sound and the failures in the beams or columns may be the cause of the cracks. These may even so for cracks in drains, walls, roof slabs or ground floor slabs.The shoddy supervision of work or the lack of  materials compliance as per the specification may have been short changed
  3. There may be s sudden shifting in ground conditions such as shifting of underground streams, which may result in creating a vacuum, causing earth to collapse and thereby affecting the buildings ground structure.
  4. there may be due to vegetation or trees in the close neighborhood which roots may cause the house to be lifted up or the absorption of water by the roots may cause building lift
  5. The supervision of the ground compaction may have not been done correctly; this may results in cracks in the ground, beams and roads.Poor compaction of ground or earth sub grade or sub grade of the road may cause cracking, the sub grade should be compacted to 90-95% FDT( Field Density Test). non suspended ground floor slabs may also cracks due to lack of sufficient compaction, often the apron of a building may be seen to cracking cos of lack of sufficient defective compaction.


cracks on the road

cracks on the road winter quakes

The cracks may appear due to differential compression and expansion of the building m such as walls or road, the wall need to provided with expansion joints to allow for the expansions so that cracks are minimized, in colder countries such as Wisconsin the roads are often cracked due to these reason, Provisions for expansion should be provided to reduce these cracks during the winter seasonal quakes.

measuring and monitoring thecracks

measuring cracks for increasing width of crack size

Step 2 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Monitor the increase of the crack size, and  note the changes in the crack width. if the crack width is increasing. if it increasing in size , call the engineers to review the conditions. if the crack size is constant and you are safe to conclude the night mare is over and you can rectify it and sleep soundly.



Step 3 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

If the cracks are large and getting serious large and looks dangerous, get the advice of engineersA structural Engineer need to be called in, for inspection and for his advice should be sought on the nature of cracks and advice on the course of rectification action.Take the follow steps to resolve the cracks in your home.

Step 4 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Repair the major cracks and minor cracksThe existing cracks are be grooved widen along the crack line and filled up with a suitable sealant and closed up with fabrics mesh and plastered and repainted. A simpler method to repair hairline cracks is to fill it up with a filler and repaint the surfaces or redo the finishes of possible.

Step 5 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Watch out for the re occurrence of cracks, if the cracks appears, you need to evaluate the situation for reasons for these phenomenon.On repairing the cracks should be monitored for any cracks redeveloping in the future.


Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,Eco Green Architect & Net Zero Energy Architect


The 50 men who can save the world by Green ecological strategies

Haze in Singapore

Can Green and Sustainability strategies solve the Haze in Singapore and Indonesia

The Guardian on the 5th Jan 2008 published the 50 people who can save the planet earth and justified why they could save the world.  In  this  article  I  would  like  to  review  the  flawed  sensibility  of  that  article  published  by  The  distinguished  Guardian   focused on the Green ecological strategies  that could save the world as a watered down review of the serious matter. Six reasons reasons why this  is so.

1)Green ecological strategies

Firstly the people listed were mostly those who championed the green  ecological strategies to avoid the  destruction of  the world such as loss of trees,melting of the  icebergs, Green ecological Architect, extinction of whales , tigers  in  the  Eco  system and  the Eco city planned by English engineer.

The basis of argument forged seems presumptuous and shallow. In fact a reputable newspaper should not have attempted a shallow major undertaking of such without responsibilities.As these articles has been often quoted as if they were truth.

2)No Proof of global warming in Green ecological strategies

As of today the weather changes and the causes global warming caused by CO2 emission is still a not a establish fact, Scientists are divided on this matter and some has suggested the weather changes is another grandiose hoax.The reasons for deluge of calamities, inundating floods, disaster , diseases etc have never be connected to as a divine messages from divinity for the human discordance with divinity, was never considered or even trying to establish the reasons by scientific means of the reasons for the global issues. At least or perhaps   was  the  Guardian  should  have  attempted  to  establish the  facts by convergence of scientist instead choose to select  Hollywood ;s  Leonardo  Di  Caprio  sudden  awareness  of  the ecological disaster .

3.) Qualified men but no clout in Green ecological strategies

Thirdly the world cannot be saved by some burst of exuberance for Green ecological strategies of  some  unheard  school  child  raising funds ( USD7,600) of  the  extinction  of  tigers  in  India  or  African  Minister  preaching  the  planting  of some ten thousands of planting of trees or a Civil Engineer following a design brief , which in the first place which was not even his ideas but of the Chinese officials to building an Eco city in China and  as  if  the  prototype  city ,  will  take  be  an  example for all the world.For   now the success of the Eco city has yet to even been proven.

4.)Men of Green ecological strategies who have spurious agendas

Fourthly men such as the spurious Al Gore who made riches out of the global warming agenda, Leonardo Di Caprio who had a reputation for ecological destruction of a beach for the show The Beach, Green ecological architect Ken Yeang ”who has not arrived yet” of what he preaches  or an Indian school boy who raised USD7.600  and men who preach savings carbon emission but live a hypocrite luxurious heavy carbon foot print -are  be  able  to  influence  the  world  to  bring  the  changes   in  the  global  weather  changes . Do these men covered with deception and falsehood have sufficient clout to bring changes which may have no eventual  effect.

5.)Multi faceted strategies in multi faceted Green ecological strategies

Fifthly the Green ecological strategies  solutions  seems  is  the  only  solutions  to  save  the  world  from  its  impending  dangers. Should not there be a multi faceted combinations of many strategies ranging collaboratively from the sciences, computer technologies, ecological,engineering, urban planning, architectural ,innovations and modern technologies that will bring s solutions to our problems.

No one person or knowledge, skill or group will have sufficient clout to save the world, for instance the Indian had knowledge of the atom for thousands of years but thus singular body of knowledge was not sufficient to save the Indians from famines, hungers, floods and destruction they endured for many years. As such no  one  single  knowledge  is  able  to save   humanity and  no  ecological  strategies  alone  is  able to  save  the  destruction  that  is  so  imminent .It  takes  a  combine effort and combined human effort- the Net Zero Energy architects, Net Zero Energy town and urban planers, the ecologist, the environmentalist, the engineer, the innovation, scientist,medical discoveries, the financial systems, the bankers, the builders, every groups of peoples to come together to be aware of the failures and ring the changes in a concerted effort.

6.)Prejudiced Facade of Green ecological strategies

Finally the article indicates that that only 5 men from the US were qualified , as if this really mattered if it where these men were from, but it seems to matter most in this article matters it was a form of  whipping the US.for such a pitiable performance.. The whole article seems like a prejudiced facade .

Perhaps we can learn a lesson or two from the American Founding Fathers seeking in prayer.[1] for divine help after weeks of not being able to solve the constitution , they sought to prayer and all have attested o the fact they had received divine help. The leaders of the world could do this, humbling enough to find access to the above and find a solution to our problems. After all is it not that the 1% of inspiration of the 99% perspiration that constitutes a genius.

Even if divine help is not reachable, the disasters can be sustainable not alone by Green and sustainable solutions  but by our preparedness for the worst.And our only survival will also depend on how we are self reliant , not dependence on the utility companies or ecologist for saving the world, but our own preparedness for survival, we should be self reliant.  Where  w e  are  organically  dependent ,  which  is  Net  Zero  energy  strategies,  off  the  grid,  self reliant of water supply from the utility companies, Independence of waste water and sewerage disposal ). This should apply to us a building or as a city.Our cities should be Net Zero Cities, every building should be Net Zero Energy Building


.[1] Max Farrand, The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911), Vol. I, pp. 450-452, from James Madison’s Notes on the Convention for June 28, 1787.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam



Green and Sustainability solutions for our Cities

All over the world the we generate much domestic waste from New York City to New Delhi, a call for reduction of waste should be in calculated by Architects. Buildings are the sources of waste and it should be reduced, reuse and recycled otherwise we will find ourselves living among the waste.

Waste designs failures

Failure of Disposal Waste designs by Green Architect

We can learn from nature how waste is processed. The spider eats up the waste webs , plants consume the Co2 we dump, and the bacteria consume our waste, the earth does not have a dump center. But our domestic waste is left to decompose and we are running our of land fills as the waste takes about 30 years to decompose and diapers takes 500 years to do like wise, to a stable conditions.

We generate much waste as the figures listed below reveal; Architects can do much to solve the problems.

  • New York City generates as much as 36,200 tones of garbage every day.
  • London city’s waste can generates 9,100 tones per day, equivalent power to power 2m homes
  • The amount of domestic waste( Municipal Solid Waste) generated is 2,400 tones per day in Kuala Lumpur
  • New Delhi generates about 7,000 tones of waste per day

In the absence of a comprehensive Integrated Strategic MSW Plan all over the world, Architect can forge a plan to reduce the waste at the source-the building, where 95% be recovered and recycling the aluminum and steel and the wet waste to be reprocessed composted for reuse. Or biomass waste power be generated and re-supplied into the grid.

Consideration by Green Architects  in Domestic waste( solid) disposal

As Green Architects our responsibility lies in designing for Waste Collections Centers (waste dumps) where rubbish is sorted out not dumped. Sorting should be done at every floor of the office tower so that it is not dumped at the waste dumps but easily sorted out early at the source.Sorting should be wet waste, paper, cans and bottles waste.Every waste dump at every residence, industrial buildings, resorts, hotels, commercial centers are
to be designed like wise for waste sorting.

Consideration by Green Architects  in Domestic Waste water disposal

As Green Architects we ensure the drains are built properly ,the collapsed drains can be a source of to breed mosquitoes. Bios vales may be considered to replace the external drains as the waste water can be recycled as portable water even for human consumption.


Consideration by Green Architects  in Wet Waste disposal

As Green Architects we should ensure the food waste ( wet waste)are not dumped into the drains which help to breed rats rampantly, liters in drains can encourage the rat population to breed.

Wet Waste mixed with the landscape waste, should be sent to the composting yard at every building which should be reused as compost manure which is a better manure for the landscaped areas as it stabilizes the acidity of the ground helping to maintain Eco balance in the ground, See the Edmonton waste center in Canada, an example where waste is recycled as manure. We can start small composting places at our every building sites . If it was a campus style development or a housing scheme where wet waste generated could be massive amount, a Net Zero Energy Architect would design for generating  biomass renewable energy from the wet wastes.

Consideration by Green Architects  in Construction waste disposal

Construction waste should be minimize by using construction systems that reduce wastes such as IBS system or waste is recycled within the site, ensure the contractor reduces waste in the first place. As architect it is our responsibility to design buildings as a waste sorting, reducing and recycling at the source than to shove the problem to city municipalities to solve green and sustainable issues before the waste sites swallows our living spaces.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam Read more!

The common misconceptions about Net Zero Energy Building as reported by Wikipedia: A zero-energy building is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building yearly equal to the amount of energy created on the site. This is only partly true in the early day when this principle was first conceived. And to this day this is the common misconception among many .

In fact the energy (the energy pie) consumption is reduced to about 80% of the conventional consumption and then the balance 20% of the balance of energy is made up by the renewable energy, the renewable energy may be sourced from solar Photo Voltaic panels, geothermal, wind turbines or biomass energy.

This article is about the case for Net Zero Energy Building and why we should perpetuate this goal: There has always been some anticipation of imminent disaster that we need to be cautious about, such as the ones illustrated below:

  • Recently Bill Gates asked the, If some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge was destroyed, what is the one line fact that next generation of humanity needs to know!
  • About 50 years ago the question schools debated on was the earth was depleting its resources and the end is near.
  • Recently with the major obvious undeniable weather changes and so called global warming in the Arctic glaciers!

There have been many calls for Green Sustainability movement called -Going Green, thinking this is the solution to the impending juggernaut disasters. In reality the solutions in Green are really superficial and will not help very much with self reliance and self sustainability.

  1. When Japan faced the Fukusima earthquake that destroyed the Daiichi nuclear plant they experienced a power crisis that awaken to the importance of energy conservation and lead to the need for Net Zero Energy Building A new standard for construction was implemented to this end of 2020. We need Net Zero Energy Building for our future survival.
  2. One would think that even this should not be the goal would not suffice unless there was a total independence for electrical consumption and not be dependent on the utility company for energy consumption should be the ultimate goal, with Net Zero Energy Buildings which is off the grid. Net Zero Energy Buildings tend toward self reliance.
  3. Net Zero Energy Buildings reduced the waste in as much as 80% purely on the basis of passive strategies and shading, smart landscaping and other active strategies. The buildings are more efficient and low energy consuming where not wasting is reduced and resources and minimized;
  4. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you have clear conscious that you are  morally doing the right thing, stopping the unwanted wastage.
  5. By installing Net Zero Energy Building, you indeed saving money , which could be used meaningfully elsewhere, imagine the regular monthly bills amounting to USD200 could be used meaningfully else where.
  6. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you are responding responsibility to the climate changes demands that us undergoing world wide by reducing the foot print and closer towards becoming self sustainability for our future survival..
  7. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you have Value for your rent able space or value for property, Developers will find the Net Zero Energy Buildings as a marketing tool to bargain for higher rental compared to Going Green for certification. Green building do not receive higher rentals as tenants do no see the need to pay higher rentals for Green sustainability certified building.
  8. By installing Net Zero Energy Building, you secure government grants and benefits from most governments of the world.
  9. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you may receive taxation incentives
  10. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you don’t have to pay the monthly electric bill
  11. By installing Net Zero Energy Building you are making the buildings, cities ,world economies more efficient and  enhances the productivity of the  individual and collectively at large.



Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect  Perumal Nagapushnam, Green Sustainability Architect

Here are reasons persuading for the case of Greening our Cities and Green Ecological Biodiversity for all Architects to be informed.

Reason 1-Remove the Heat Island effect by Green Ecological Biodiversity
It is known from research that the heat island effect is reduced as there is more green vegetation in the surrounding, the ambient temperature is lowered. Building aprons around the building which tend to conduct the heat into the building, therefore it is best to use grass Crete or turfs at the building surrounds in lieu of aprons. Road pavements should be replaced with grasscrete.

Reason 2- Reduces your energy consumption by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Smart landscaping reduces the energy consumption in the building, where it is primarily used for shading and warding off the heat from the building and in redirecting the cold wind winters away from the building will help to reduce the energy consumption by 10 to 50 percent of the energy bills. Shading the air conditioning units will help to improve energy efficiency. Read on save energy by landscaping.

Reason 3- Reduces pest controls and Waste by Green Ecological Biodiversity


compost by Green ecological biodiversity

  • Pest controls –Green Ecological biodiversity will certainly go a long way to reduce pest controls, such as reduction of mosquitoes, rats which is a prevalent problem from New York to Singapore. In NYC which is a concrete desert , which has little trees resulted in an ecological imbalance of rat population, which as large as the human population in NYC. The problem arising from this imbalance is rat related diseases, oriental mites, etc. The solutions may be to enhance the Greening the city with Green ecological Biodiversity.
  • In the recent Greening of Singapore City, which was to green the city but failed to keep ecological bio diversities in place is keep away the bird and bats from the city, which resulted in an increase of mosquitoes and rats. The bird and bats eat up mosquitoes and rats and help to keep the balance. And eventually the recourse was to increase pesticides to kill the mosquitoes which in turn affect the water ways. The solutions to these cities going Green Ecological biodiversity.
  • Humus compost Waste– the waste from the Green landscape can be converted to natural humus compost, natural manure which helps the soil acidity in balance, healthy soils and keeps the bio-tic cycles( worms and living organism) of the soil in balance. When petrol-chemical based fertilizers are introduced into the soil, it destroys the worms and destroys the balance of the acidity of the soil and harden the ground and destroy the productivity of the soil whereas the compost based manure created by plants builds and keeps the soil soft and moist with a Eco balance.
compost bin

compost bin in Green Ecological biodiversity

Reason 4- Increase oxygen content in the air by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Oxygen is necessary for our bodies in the following respects: a lack of it creates a tendency toward committing suicides, In Utah there is an suicidal epidemic due to the lack of Oxygen in the thin air, and an aggressive greening strategy of Utah city will certainly help to reduce the thin levels of Oxygen in the mountain tops air.The green ecological biodiversity will introduce more oxygen into the air.

Green ecological biodiversity

Green ecological biodiversity cycles


There are many hundreds of other reasons why Oxygen is needed – for brain developments, speedy human body recovery, reduce respiratory diseases, improves immune system , which are emphasized in the alternative medicine .

Reason 5- Improves air quality by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Green trees ionizes the dust and the dust from the air falls to the ground and thus helping to keep the air scrubbed, fresh for human use.

Reason 6- Reduces the air pollution by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Further more the pollutants such as SO2, NO2 and Carbon Monoxide is removed by the trees and helps to keep the air refreshed

Reason 7- Reduce stress and helps recovery and sick leave by Green Ecological Biodiversity

  • It was discovered from researches that if beautiful scenes placed in hospitals bedrooms helps patient recover 30% faster and uses 30% less medication for recovery. This goes to say the same for homes and offices; we are resilient from the mental and physical stresses that we are inflicted at work by having green scenes in our building s and cities.
  • Research also reveals that the no of occupants taking sick leave is dropped with green ecological biodiversity. This will help to enhance the productivity of the staff and people.

Reason 8- Increases the value of property by Green Ecological Biodiversity
The investment on Green ecological biodiversity comes with an increase in the value of property . This based on the Green of Singapore resulted in overall increase in value of the city.. I refer to landscaping with Green ecological biodiversity and and not the “Go Green Certification movement” ( such as LEEDs, or Mark, GBI certification). A developer complaint that he does not get higher rental by having invested on Platinum certification by Green bodies.

Reason 9- Improves the presenteeism, decreases absenteeism and sick leave by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Research reveals that greening with landscape within the building and in the surrounding will tremendously improves the quality of life and decreases the absenteeism of the workers and tenants working in the building and this helps to increase the productivity of the occupants.

Reason 10-Improves the water quality by Green Ecological Biodiversity
As rain water is treated in the blue infrastructures that work in complement with the green infrastructures, water is stored and recycled for our consumption by water hydrology, which in turn reduces waste water and polluting the rivers. Bios vales are used to clean up the water, reprocessed and recycled for consumption even as portable water.

Reason 11Self Reliance and self sustaining by Green Ecological Biodiversity
The forest does not need human care such as watering the forest; neither does it need insecticide and pesticides to survive. We can learn from the natures bio-metric to be independent self sustaining and self reliant. If we can establish the green ecological biodiversity of plants and landscapes, biodiversity of the animals that inhabit the landscape and biodiversity of the Eco cycles that help symbiotically one cycle to another for survival can we be self sustaining and self reliant. The fish in a water tank, with enzymes, bacteria, fungi, green weed and the snails is self reliant. The weeds produces O2 for the fish to live on, which in turn produces C02 for the weed to live on, the enzymes and bacteria eats up the waste of the fish and keep the water clean. The symbiotic relationship exist and so should we as Architect do likewise for our future survival and self reliant sustainability.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, Green architect






Haze in Singapore

Can Green and Sustainability strategies solve the Haze in Singapore and Indonesia

 8 valid reasons to go Green and Sustainability and the 8 valid weaknesses in the Green movement principles

Here we discuss the flaws in the Green and Sustainability movement that is catching on so rapidly world wide.

Reason 1- Sustainable planning
The cities and buildings are planned well for reduction and recycling of waste , energy efficiency, cleaner air within the office, and clean water for consumption, The green architecture is sustainable-sustaining the existing the environment for high quality of life well planned for the sustaining of life

Weakness of this
It is a weak attempt to solve the larger problem such as domestic waste, improve the life in urban living, improve the air quality or improve the poor water quality as they portend to improve. It should be aggressively attend to the issues rather to tend to it superficially, for instance” Can the Green and Sustainability stop the haze into our homes”

Reason 2- Waste
It will reduce outlandish waste in our environment, which is a serious problem as the land fills are full and the waterways are polluted by the landfills which return into our consumable systems dangerously affecting our health.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Waste should be removed all together and not reduce, but reused and recycled completely. In nature what waste we produce as CO2 in the air from our breaths is converted to O2 by the green landscapes. All waste from domestic and industrial waste should be like wise treated completely obliterated or reprocessed to useful matter.

Reason 3- Energy Efficiency
The buildings are energy efficient and installed with higher performing systems to reduce the energy consumption.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
The Energy consumption should be Net Zero Energy Building and not a weak attempt to reduce energy consumption. And more importantly removed the dependence on the Grid. Wind turbines should complement with solar PV panel and combined with geo thermal energy. When there is no energy from the sun at night the wind will compensate for supply and when both fails to supply in case the eventuality of a disaster, geo thermal could be the alternative supply of energy.

Reason 4- Air quality
It helps to keep high air quality, which controlled and regulated which is improves healthy living environment but does not improve the haze or reduce the dust in the air.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
No air quality is really improved; it is a real attempt to temper with air quality. The air is polluted with CO, NO2, SO2 or dioxin should be cleansed for consumption. There are no real attempts to even address this problem.

In the event of a Haze,( as in South East Asia by the recent burning of trees in Indonesia, or volcanic dust in the air etc) Does the Green building cleaned the air that we breathe in! No! It is not. One should reprocess air to remove the dusts, the pollutants, the hazes and bacteria and Viruses, in the air for use.

Reason 5- Water quality
It helps to reduce the wastage of portable water but not improve water quality, As much as high air quality the water quality will have a direct effect on the health of the residents.It focuses on the rain water harvesting.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Portable water is reduced, rain water is harvested but water in the pipe is contaminated, the water should be harvested for consumption, water from the underground for consumption should be considered as an alternative sources as supply in an eventuality of a drought of off seasonal weather changes affecting the water supply.

Reason 6- Reduces Energy consumption, Saves Resource, Reduces Waste
Every person is conscious of reducing consumption, waste and a new life style of economy. Material made from recycled Waste material is favored .Domestic waste is reduced, paper is not throw away, but either reused or avoided from being used.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Waste is reduced but not totally eliminated. It is said that the spider eats up the web waste and in nature there is no waste. Organic matter is recycled into inorganic matter,which is consumed again into the system.

Reason 7-Innovation
Creativity to think out of the box is granted some point for qualifying for the green certification.

Reason 8-Reduces long term cost of living
It does not cost much for now and it will eventually reduce the cost in the future and some propose that cost should not be factor; the cost of human life should be saved at all cost, as future of human life depends on sustainability.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
In reality there is no reduction of cost in the future as the cost of sustainability is always higher and this is a cost already into the future and therefore the cost does not reduce in the long term. The argument that sustainability saves life to justify the high cost now is a fallacy.
In reality there survival of the human race does not depend on rainwater harvesting, pv solar panels etc but by eco biodiversity, net energy building off the grid and total self reliance as in the biometric of nature.

Reason 9-Sustains Environment for the future
In reality all the above principles as and the argument has been flawed

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Green and landscaping not an essential feature of Green and Sustainability Architecture

  • Issues not considered in Green and Sustainability Architecture
    The ecological balance is not considered as we live in a eco system and the environment has taken a bitten and if it fails our survival will be at stake,
  • Sewer waste is not at all in design consideration. Sewerage and domestic waste is processed and recycled into the environment as in The Edmonton Composting Facility – Canadian recycling plant where human waste is recycled into manure for the city use.
  • Waste waster should be recycled as it is done in Singapore for human consumption.
  • The Net Zero Energy calls for total reduction of energy consumption which is not merely touching on sustainability, but attaining higher levels of Green and Sustainability. If we are able to be off the grid our sustainability will be even better still as self reliance is attained.
  • How can the Green and Sustainability help in the smog that polluted south East Asia with the recent spate of burning in Indonesia. In the light of the haze that is not considered, haze is a serous issues in China ( pollution from the industrial waste, in Singapore, Malaysia a result of burning in Indonesia)
  • If a disaster like a Tsunami where the power grid was destroyed, or a volcanic exploding dust in the air cutting of the suns rays for months, a blizzard of rays from the sun hit the world how can we survive this independently and be self reliant in the midst of catastrophic disaster.
  • The forest is sustainable and self reliant where no human care for treatment with pesticide or insecticide or regular watering is needed but it is self reliant surviving on the natural rain water unlike our farms where pesticide, manure, insecticide and regular watering is needed for its sustainability. We can learn from the nature’s Green and Sustainability as it is because of its biodiversity where one depends on the other and so should we live together with nature’s ecosystem. Read further on why green landscaping can help our sustainability.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Case of Net Zero Energy Building all over the world
Many are skeptical about the reality of Net Zero Energy Building Design. As such I though it is best to show you the buildings which have achieved the Net Zero Energy Building Design status. This Net Zero Energy Building Design approaches and strategies has become a trend world wide as the movement is catching on quire rapidly. Here there are 5 cases of the strategies adopted world over from Indonesia, Malaysia to the US.
Case 1

Apartment in NY ( read on Apartment in NY )
The Apartment had 48 apartments of an gross area of 53,000-sq-ft
Approaches to Net Zero Energy Designs strategies(The strategies adopted contrived a 90% reduction of consumption of energy);
• wall and roof insulation,
• window glass with low-e coatings and insulated frames,
• shading of building
• Reduction of infiltration through building skin
• Compartmentalization of ventilation spaces provided the best controlled fresh air into the apartment spaces.
• A high-performance air-source heat pump was introduced as a heating plus cooling system.
• One VRF outdoor condensing unit is recommended per apartment
• Domestic hot water included heat recovery from the drain as a pre-heater and recovering the waste heat from the VRF system by using a heat exchanger.
• Improved zone temperature control and substantially reduced energy usage
• Higher-efficiency cooling/heating
• Improved tenant comfort; potential to sub meter heating, cooling, and DHW
• Resiliency (no boiler on the lower floors); and most important, dramatically lower carbon emissions.
• Lighting strategies include low lighting power density (LPD) design solutions while maintaining acceptable levels of illumination. Where applicable, occupancy sensors and bi-level lighting controls are evaluated. The most efficient available appliances are considered for apartments and common areas.
• Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays
• High performing Appliances s such as : refrigerators, Clothes dryer, Television and TV set-top (cable) boxes


Case 2

The Bullitt Center in Seattle, Washington, 6 storey Office block of approx 60,000ft2

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Design strategies:
• Day lighting harvesting
• geothermal heating and cooling,
• Operable windows and other measures to increase its energy efficiency.
• increase the height of each floor of the building to allow for improved day lighting further into the core of the structure,
• Reducing the need for heat-generating light fixtures.
• Geothermal and radiant floor heating & cooling are used to efficiently moderate temperatures
• The BMS controls the heating & cooling , the window shades, operable windows , composting, water treatment, and ventilation.
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Case 3
Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Zero Energy Office Building ( PTM ZEO)

The area of building was 43,000sq ft averaging BEI of 35kW/sqm.year with a reduction of 80% of the national average BEI
It is the world’s first net zero energy commercial office building.

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Designs strategies :
• Double-pane windows reducing heat gain and provide day light harvesting.
• Energy efficient building envelope.
• Day lighting with controls of blinds and light shelves.
• High efficiency pumps and fans.
• Desiccant heat wheel DE-humidification.
• Energy efficient office equipment.
• Concrete slab thermal cooling and storage.
• Wet/ trickling water night cooling roof.
• Phase change thermal storage.
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Case 4

NREL Building, USA

The floor area is about Area-360,000sq ft , energy use intensity target of the new building is 35 kBtu/SF/year, (110kWh/m2/year)
Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Designs strategies :
The largest commercial Net-Zero Energy Building in the United States
Energy performance for the facility is 50% better than ASHRAE 90.1 standards.
• orientation of the building to minimize heat gain and
• maximize day lighting harvesting
• operable triple-glazed windows,
• hydronic heating and cooling using thermal slabs, and
• demand-controlled outside air system with energy recovery.
• a combination of evaporative cooling,
• outside air ventilation,
• waste heat capture
• efficient servers
• The data center has a remarkable power usage effectiveness (PUE) rating of 1.12 compared to a national average of 1.91
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy 2.5 MW solar PV rooftop and parking canopy
Case 5

Pertamina Building
There Pertamina Building , a 99 storey office tower will be a Net Zero Energy Building

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Designs strategies :
• A ‘wind funnel generate energy.
• The tower’s curved facade will reduce the heat gain throughout the year.
• Exterior sun shades will dramatically improve the workplace environment
• Artificial lighting in the office
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Other case are reported here read on: http://living-future.org/casestudies
Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to use House Architecture in designing your dream house plans


An Architect is one who designs your house but an Architect unless he has a great burning passion and a great love for his work and the people he designs for, can he realize the house into a home. This creation of a home from with love is refereed to as  house architecture. The house architecture constitutes of the following aspects of architectural design

  1. A) Styles

The architectural house style adopted today have a storey to tell of the past. It tells the evolution of styles with time due to changes in our society such as development of new material and sciences of construction for instance:

  • The architectural house style available for selection are of the
  • In choosing a style you may want to choose from the past as they were and modernize the styles and layouts, to suite the availability of material and skilled craftsman that may have long lost.
  • The houses of the Founding Fathers in the America had water-wells outside the home. The slaves will fetch water from the well for them to take cold showers.*1
  • Any attempt to recreate the buildings of the past may be skilled labor cost prohibitive. For instances the windows of building of the past are highly ornamented but present day houses are simplified to a great degree.
  • Today’s design is less simplified during the industrial revolution which warranted mass productions. New motto “Less is more” to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a …”by Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. As such houses are designed with less pediments and ornaments on the facades of building as they did in the past.
  • Buildings today are built with a purpose, rather than to copy fully from the standard building of the past
  1. B) Layout – Cultural and Lifestyle for house architecture
  • A good layout is one that best suites your lifestyle and what you can afford.
  • If you love the river views, than design your architectural house styles to optimize the views from the Living, Master suite, etc.
  • If you love the summer heat provide a patio, balcony or terrace to sun bathing.
  • If you love to party outside have a great BBQ set with a large indoor and out door dinning space.

The house layout is best described by your love for life and your taste.

  1. C) Comfort for house architecture
  • Home and the Cottage –two words most suggestive of comfort in the English language…
  • Comfort is not relative and fleeting. Homes, well designed can be comfortable and removal of stressing with the sound of birds, the water fall, the ruffles of the winds should be employed to distress the stressed mind.
  • Design your dream house for comfort, read on..
  1. D) Landscape for house architecture
  • The landscape well done, weathers comfort and even a sense of comfort to the eyes.
  • As Andrew Jackson Downing, a cottage prominent American architect said. “… no architectural decoration however beautiful or costly can give the same charm of truthful decoration to a cottage as flowering vines and creepers…vine on a rural cottage always express domesticity and of the heart”.
  • It reduces the perceived scale of the house, it reduces the heighten effect to a comfortable on.*3
  • smart landscaping reduces energy consumption in homes and buildings.

In choosing a house plan choose well with the above consideration, you may want to check out – by http://www.sda-architect.com/

for some great house floor plans and house architecture.

Check our some great house architectures we have created within our web site at: log house floor plans, cottage house floor plans, Modern house plans, Malay house floor plan, log house floor plans, etc…



*1 pg. 20 ,”Houses of the Founding Fathers “ by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus III

*2 Willian H Rantett( writing in The Architect “, 1851)

*3 pg. 228 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin”


Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


What is House Architecture?

House Architecture is the spaces within our houses, in which we live in. This is architecture.

Some define architecture as ” Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music ”

There is some truth in this in a broad sense but in a practical sense it is limited only to the shell and the simple relationship that it creates within and around. It is not everything.. as to say “ Architecture is”, because it is encompasses all  sciences, psychological happenings and hence it is not “IS”.

Traditionally Architecture of the house design is derived from the Architecture of the Temples, Cathedrals, churches, and places of worship.

As King Solomon built a House for the Lord (Temples), he like wise built a house for him self in a similar manner of the simpler version.

Our houses in almost every culture derived it shapes and form from our places of worship. The house was a type of place of worship deity.


conventional layout

conventional layout


House Architectural design is the placing of the Living room, Dining, Kitchen, Bedroom, Study, Library, Music room, Visitors, Baths and Garage in good space that make it beautiful and which gives :

”         Comfortable, Functions to what we do.

”         Durability with time

”         Reasonable Cost to the house.

If any of these are not found in your Architectural designs, it may because of a deliberate omission. As to achieve all, may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building may have terrible structural design and incurring a high unreasonable cost.

So a good Architectural designs -is all about balancing one for the other.How to make a design a wonderful house floor plans with great architectural designs?There are many concepts in house plan design (nothing to do with styles) such as:

  • The Traditional Layout, which for today needs are obsolete, but these layouts are remodeled with modern utilities, such as the layouts of house of the Founding Fathers remodeled.



compact layout

compact layout

  • Courtyard Layout such as Courtyard centered layout. Where all views and vistas in the house plan is centered on the courtyard. see link for samples of courtyard design: http://www.sda-architect.com

This is rather pleasant in respect of views of the courtyard, which could be a feature of greenery, garden, breeze way, corridors, patios and of course which can calms the stressed mind, even contributes to fresh supply of oxygen leading to healthier residents.

layout House Architecture

courtyard layout House Architecture

courtyard layout House Architecture

  • Compact Layouts

Cozy tight spaces for small houses, especially in Cottage, Log houses, Vacation Houses and Beach house where the ambiance of a cottage is necessary, for no pretense of grandeur. see link for samples of compact design http://www.sda-architect.com/

Where on parking his car in the Garage, one walks through footpath along the garden to the kitchen and the kitchen views towards the garden with features such as swimming pools. There may be even waiter falls, a naturally running stream or specially designed garden. The rest of the rooms are rather conventionally designed. See samples design of this layout in http://www.sda-architect.com/



  • Apartment’s layout is rather confined to a small space. Where the layout are packed to the minimal and the best of the design comes out of creative use of little spaces, nook and corners. The best of the apartment in the great view overlooking the hill and the cityscape and the common spaces such as open garden where you could go down to relax.
  • Open Layouts, where Living, Dinning and Kitchen are simply in one big space.
    • This give flexibility to function such as party, there is sufficient space for big gatherings,
    • Flexibility of space for other use
    • Overnight room space for sleeping over for large families
    • Play area for children within the house, instead of being cooped in.
  • Conventional Layout

Conventional Layout is where the entry is made at the Hall by visitors, whose visit is kept barred within the Living room, and formal dinning.

  • The owner makes a Garage entry via the mud room into to the kitchen.
  • Groceries can be unloaded direct in to the kitchen fridge from the garage after shopping.
  • Kitchen, Living and Dining are placed together for convenient movements that take place among them.
  • Bed room all clustered together for privacy and convenience

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


Conventional Layout

Neo classical

Neo Classical Architecture

Neo Classical Architecture, Photo taken from Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia


What is Neo Classical Architecture?

It evolved during the 18th Century .Much of its influence has been felt in America and world over. The following are some of the buildings of distinction that were remarkably been influenced by this period:

  • Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • White House (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • Massachusetts State House (Boston, Massachusetts} read on
  • Washington Arch (New York, New York) read on
  • Beacon Hill Memorial Column (Boston, Massachusetts) read on
  • Second Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Bank of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Philadelphia Stock Exchange (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Monumental Church (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Virginia State Penitentiary (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Baltimore Basilica (Baltimore) read on

The characteristics  of Neo Classical Architecture is:

  • its planar qualities
  • Projections and recessions
  • sculptural bas-reliefs
  • Tablets or panels.


Prepared by: http://www.sda-architect.com/   Net Zero Architect Perumal

What are the Characteristics of  houses in Tudor Architecture?
The Tudor Architecture was beautiful and elegant with the impressions of the  black and white structural lattice framing on the facade. The semi exposed beams and vertical structural members accentuated the beauty of the house.This style has been popular among the modern homes where the elements have been modified to suite the modern times. In is very popular in Asia to which vividly symbolizes English homes.

  • the In Tudor Architecture the houses are made from a wooden framework of beams.
  • The timber beams in Tudor Architecture are uneven because they were cut by hand rather than by machine.
What is Tudor Architecture?

Tudor architecture

The  above Building mimics  the Tudor Architecture styles  where the timber works are replaced with cement or timber external lining to resemble Tudor architecture. It is treated to look akin to the Tudor Architecture, whereas during the times of Tudor the beam were serves as a structural member.

Today the architects , even the famous living Architect, continue to use the above features in recreating the architecture of old.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam



It was period during the time of King George’s Rule in England from 1720 to1840. It is during the rule of George I , George II , George III , and George IV.

What are the characteristics of houses styles and building in the Georgian Architecture?

  • Pillars in the front of the house.
  • Square symmetrical
  • A paneled front door in the center
  • Tiled hipped roofs (A roof which slopes upward from all the sides of a building.)
  • The roof was often hidden behind a parapet
  • low wall built around the edge of the roof
  • Fan light above the door. ,Paired chimneys
Georgian Architecture

Sash Windows of the Georgian Architecture


  • Sash windows (windows which slide up and down)
  • Panel front door centered, topped with rectangular windows (in door or as a transom) and capped with an elaborate crown/ entablature supported by decorative pilasters
  • Cornice with decorative moldings,
  • Multi-pane windows were symmetrically vertical or horizontal
  • Roof: are Side-gabled roof , Gambrel roof and Hipped roof
  • Chimneys on both sides of the home
  • A portico in the middle of the roof with a window in the middle
  • Small 6-paned sash windows ,dormer windows in the upper floors,
  • Large windows with 9 or 12 panes on the main ground floor


Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal

The Victorian Architecture is refereed to the architecture during the reign of Queen Victoria.

potrait of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria

The Victorian period is the time when Queen Victoria ruled Britain from 1837 to 1901.During this period new inventions in Railway and manufacturing process made building materials manufactured available more abundantly every where in England because of cheaper cost of transport..

This helps industries develop, due to rising demands and building material were    made available cheaply, to all over England, such as timber, bricks and slate. This is the era which Charles Dickens describes the city of London with vivid details in the Tale of two cities ( London and Paris) and in The Great Expectation.

The working population in the countryside was still living in tiny cottages, hovels and shacks .. In urban area, the poor people lived in terraced houses.Terraced Houses were made of brick walls  and simple brick sills and chimneys with window that constituted the  architecture of that  time.


Victorian Architecture
Terrace housing during the Victorian era


the Victorian Architecture
Villa reflecting the Victorian Architecture

 Victorian Architecture

public housing in town reflecting the Victorian Architecture


The wealthy people in Victorians preferred villas ( not the same as Roman villas), The middle classes lived in superior terraces with gardens in the rear of the house and in the front of the houses. What where the character tic features of Victorian Houses, Villa.

The Terrace House which was propagated widely as an acceptable  mode of housing  in the countries ,which Britain were ruled all over the world were a derivative of the Victorian era.  It constituted the following character:

  • Red face Brick
  • High window with stone borders
  • Pediments over the window
  • Arched doors ways

It should be noted it was during the Victorian Era the British empire expanded all over the world and the inhabitants of the British empire imbibe the Victorian education, which help to spread the knowledge of laws, English, Christianity,sciences, geography, engineering,land surveying, town planning, public administration. etc which educated the world at large. Roads and railway Infrastructures  were constructed which helped to develop the nations such as Singapore, Israel, Middle East, India and Africa. After the World War II it retracted from governing the Empire and Independence given to all the Commonwealth nations, it had shrunk being a super power.

The Gothic period lasted from the 12th to the 16th Century. It started in the late Medieval and

ended at the beginning of the Renaissance.

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture

Its architecture evolved from Romanesque, of Roman Influences of architecture.


It was characterized by:

  • Ribbed pointed arches,
  • ribbed vaults, and
  • High buttress.
  • High windows permeating light inside building
  • Tall building with greater span and any other period of time
During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

This allowed the building unlike the Roman building to be larger and taller. The span of building were greater and the spaces inside auspicious. Lights were allowed in at high window an allowed the bright special divine radiance inside the buildings.

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

Design of houses and building are primarily a composition of ornaments borrowed and in traditionally were religious significance of a meaningless object of beauty today because the meanings have been lost..

The architectural house layouts are different from location to locations varying only because of the difference of lifestyles.

The roof tiles used were of distinctively characteristic of the Chinese architectural house styles. It was a small tile which lapped over well. The small sized tile allowed the roof to arch in both directions to allow the characteristic Chinese roof style. The last row of tiles was held up firmly with a cemented ridge..The view of a Chinese ornamented roofs, lighted, unusually brilliant at night.


Chinese home

Chinese home

Here is a classic modern design where use of the exposed roof tiles from the interior which with the light radiating from the edges creates a wonderful design with a pleasant ambiance copied from the Chinese architectural house styles.

The windows used in traditional architectural design styles are similar to the Georgian or Asian styles. They must have been influenced by the cross border trades that occurred among them influencing the architecture as well

Here are some great large timber decorative doors used in Chinese design.





Chinese courtyard typical of the way small Chinese enclaves lives with a central courtyard which held the community together for utilities at the center for the courtyards. – the water well were located in the center of the courtyard. The courtyard was also the place of meeting and functions.Courtyard houses are enclosed, without any windows on the external walls, and with a main entrance to the enclosed buildings with in the compound.It may be noted with caution the courtyard is typical of Indian homes and the source or origin of courtyard homes are still not yet established.


Chinese home interiors

Chinese home interiors

These Chinese architectural layouts designs provided privacy for the family and security from thieve. The courtyard houses created a protection for the family life from the outer world.


Ornaments in Chinese home

Ornaments in Chinese home

Chinese artifacts made the wall and entrances with traditional religious symbols and marking or family stamps were typical of Chinese architectural house styles.

Chinese home had family awards and pride displayed in the center of the house to see, much similar to the Japanese display of family artifacts.

Chinese hardware for door entrance were designed specially to ward off the evil spirits away. This is a way to keep save the people residing in such quarters.

Pre modern Chinese homes held much in common among both rich and poor Chinese people; they used similar techniques, such as foundations of pounded earth, timber framing and brick and tile facades. Though there are regional variations–China is a very big country, after all–and few houses from ancient China remain, scholars have isolated basic principles of traditional Chinese architecture. These centuries-old principles include emphasizing the orientation of the house, the layout of rooms, and the importance of symmetry.



Chinese house design requires that the front of the house faces south. This tradition stretches far back in time, as archaeologists have found evidence of many rectangular houses with a door facing south from the Neolithic era in China.

The oldest Chinese houses that are still extant date from the Ming dynasty (1368 to 1644 C.E.) also tend to face south, as do later houses. The north-south orientation of Chinese houses, outside of issues related to sunlight, probably had much to do with wind direction (colder winds generally blow in from the north).


Feng Shui

The importance of orientation eventually developed into the Chinese architectural theory known as feng shui. Feng shui literally means “wind and water” and its concepts dictated the placement of rooms dedicated to certain activities, as well as the types of materials used in buildings. Designing a house according to feng shui concepts was thought to direct beneficial energy to the household.

Foundation and Roofs

Most Chinese houses had pounded earth foundations. Builders pounded dirt and soil into the shape of a foundation or into bricks. Earth was also used for the walls in areas where wood was rare.

Traditional Chinese houses had roofs made of clay tile. However poorer households in certain areas made roofs of thatch and bamboo.

Wood Framing

In areas with enough wood to make its use affordable, builders used wood to frame house walls and provide roof support. The wood framing system was standardized during the Ming dynasty, and while ordinary people could often do much of the rest of their house construction, they often had to hire experts to construct the framing.

In the study of traditional Chinese house architecture, the consideration of wood framing is important. In Chinese architectural theory, the basic building block of a building is “the space between,” or the bay; that is, the space defined by the vertical posts that support the roof.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy  Architect Perumal Nagapushnam



Indian House in Goa

Indian House in Goa

It is hard to put in a nut shell that what and which constitutes Indian house design. India has been ruled by the British, Afghans moguls, that Indian house designs character has not been defined by these colonial master. or rather the British learn much words from the Indian culture( words such as shampoo, lantern, bungalow, cantonment, canoe, cyber,etc)

The houses in the North of India is not different from the houses in  South neither  were they any different form homes in the East – nor the West. However some enclaves in Goa and Pondicheery had remarkable difference because of the Portuguese and French influences for a much longer period of time than rest if India.

The Royals(refereed to as the Raj) lived in huge palaces where their wives and nuclear family lived in. In most places there were a large central courtyard where royal functions took places , where guards paraded with the elephants and a place of ceremony for the Raj. It was heavily guarded with one main entrance and with secret passages for Princely families to exit during wars. Water supply was secretly duct-ed underground to from the mountains for consumption at the Palaces .These water were designed for fountains in the gardens and dropped along window openings to allow the wind to pass through creating a cool breeze into the courtyards. the Net Zero Energy Architects should note that the passive designs were traditional used in the ancient architecture of India with respect to cooling with water and massive walls were good insulator of heat during he summers.


Indian house floor plan, Goa India

Indian house floor plan, Goa India

While in the courtyards held functions, the children and the wives were not to be seen in public spaces, they watched the function form hidden rooms from above the courtyards. The word Bungalow, is an Indian word adapted by the British for single storey house in large compounds.Landlord lived in Bungalow whereas peasants lived in Villages. These Bungalows were places where the rich landlords lived in.

Traditionally this bungalow , Indian House Design patterned after the palaces of the Princely palaces-courtyard house were common. The bungalow was elevated above the ground which led to an central hall which led to the master suite on one side, and to the visitor’s room on the other and the main dining hall.

Check out for some great design of Indian houses at http//:www.sda-architect.com The dinning hall had view of the central courtyard which was visible form the master suite, and all the other bed rooms. The maids quarters and the kitchen were at the end of the courtyard. A corridor led to the kitchen that butted the courtyard.

indian courtyard

Indian House with a courtyard ,Another great courtyard design of Indian House Plan

 Indian had a great love for their Gods and devoted to their gods in Temples ,and housed their gods in Indian design Temples. The palaces had temples and offered sacrifices to the god before going to war. They offered gold, precious stones, diamond, jade etc to their God when they were victorious in the wars and business ventures. These offering were held in Temple

Treasuries chest vaults.

The Temples were built in granite stones, sometimes mountains en block were carved and chiseled out to form the temples in the South of India. Use of precious stones in the temples were quite normal in their devotions.Marble for surface treatment was also common as it was found abundantly eg the Taj Mahal.


 places of worhip

stone work on Indian places of worhip

Houses in the villages were usually had a front terrace where the folks sat out in the evening for a yarn.On entrance it lead to a common hall which was like Living room and Dinning room combines. There were rooms in the rear for the privacy of living.

In the Mohenjo-daro the civilization it was known to have been built in grid lines and the houses were known to have public sewer lines and common utilities. But with the advent of rapid modernization  and urban migration   during the British rule the  these urban planning once in greatness was  lost.where the focus was not exploiting the industries of India rather than planning the cities for urban living.

 The houses are traditionally timber house plans. Some of oldest houses dated from the 16th Century. These houses are now in museums which is an object of study by craftsman and builders.

The plan of the house and how it is used also remain traditional. Only the kitchen and sometimes the place for eating meals are modern; the other rooms, for working, sleeping and social intercourse, remain true to tradition. The floor is covered with straw mats (tatami); the family kneels at low tables to eat and drink, and they sleep on the floor as from time immemorial. <4>

Thus living in the Japanese style broadly implies adherence to tradition, just as we would do if we dwelt in modified chalets in our central European cities. The architect, as a ‘creative’ designer, has no part to play in the traditional housing of Japan. The craftsman designs the house according to ancient traditional rules, as was the case for centuries in our mountain valleys.

The Design of The Traditional Japanese House
The Traditional Japanese House has view into the garden, the house is flexible , the strength  of the house and the beauty of the house is amazingly well built all together that creates a wonderful and comfortable ambiance as one enters into the The Traditional Japanese House. The comfortable feeling is what Architects try to create, a feeling that put you to ease as you are inside the home.

 a)Views into the garden

The houses are design for views in to the garden, balconies are surrounded with cuts the sun and the harsh weather in the homes. Balconies are essentially a major feature of the Japanese House.

b) Flexibility

The partition made of light material to allow flexibility of the use of room. A living room could be the dining, or even a common family area. Sliding Shoji Screens are common.

 c)Strength of structured

The structure of the timber that is used of extra strength to endure the weathering and the earthquakes that Japan is so frequently subjected too. While the structure is robust the internal materials are light weight using paper, bamboo, straw and timber.


The elegance and grace of the house is aesthetically designed to bring a simplistic view of the house with little furniture which helps the mind to likewise be simple and functional in thinking and living.This helps to think straight and live straight disciplining the mind and the body.

The Japanese House Plans
As you enter into the house, the shoes are removed at the Genkan( Hall way) and slippers are worn .

 Architectural Insights
Economy and brief of material used is maintained and the use of light passing into spaces via translucent material is common.

The perfect proportions of squares are used relating to the tatami mats.

Haiku timber House
Haiku is a type of poetry, which means each poem contains seventeen syllables–frequently in the order of 5, 7, 5 syllables .The theme of haiku poetry is the relationship and interaction between nature and humankind.Haiku says that form and function are one. This philosophy was adopted by Frank Lloyd Wright. Haiku Houses have many of the features of their Bungalows.It is elegant and beautiful, priceless in its inherent peace, tranquility and harmony.

The Traditional Japanese House were in many way designed for Net Zero Energy Building, firstly  the house were made of timber which was a naturally abundant and the veranda  were thermal zones which kept the heat away during the summers the smart landscaping  kept the heat  away during summer and the homes were lifted above the ground to keep the heat away from the ground which air below the floor was a good form of insulation, the interiors were made of paper which was an excellent material which insulated the interiors form gaining heat nor losing heat during winters, with respect to Green sustainability the choice of timber could never get better.

Before leaving the site, please check out for our boutique designs for Japanese floor plans at : http://www.sda-architect.com/

And enjoy.

Thank you

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam: http://www.sda-architect.com/

The Challenges of Net Zero Energy Building Architect

The Challenges of the Building Architect is greatly increased as the Knowledge that an Architect should imbibe is already a difficult and a broad one.But the additional roles of the Net Zero Energy Building Architect. for now and in the future is becoming even a more arduous and a difficult journey to undertake and to become a Net Zero Energy Building Architect.

Building Architects are becoming acutely familiar with the need to produce high performance energy buildings in the Green and Sustainability certification Requirements by the certifying bodies such in LEEDs ( USGBC), GBI (Malaysia), Green Mark (Singapore), Passivehaus ( Germany) and Zero Carbon( UK)etc

There was much accolade and hue and cry when Pyramid Building in Putrajaya attained the Platinum certification of GBI, all over the world. The achievement of sustainability and low energy consumption buildings is only the beginning of a greater goal of being organically independent. (read below) In reality achieving a level of sustainability is only the tip of the ice berg.

Net Zero Pie

Energy Pie

Energy consumption can be minimized by using the principle recommended by Ashrae 98.1 and Living Challenge. Modern technology makes it possible to produce Net Zero building, it is no more a fantasy for Net Zero Energy Building Architect .This is possible for high rise building and large scale commercial developments.Read on

Net Zero Energy Building Architect should be able to meet the challenges the climatic situation poses, as necessity is the mother of invention. Architects now have found relevance in the world with sciences and not merely delve in the realms of creative and artistic world.


Net Zero Energy Building Architect

Net Zero Energy Building Architect knowledge should be extended to the world of Building Physics and  ought to be able to:

  1. Provide an integrated procurement system with the Net Zero consideration in place at the outset. Integrating the Net Zero component into design at the outset of schematic stages, which conventionally is never done
  2. Be familiar with the technologies that enhance the reduction of Net Zero and those qualify Energy Star Renewable energy types such as Photo voltaic systems. Solar thermal systems. Wind turbines, biomass harvesting, geothermal heating and cooling systems and day light harvesting, chilled beams
  3. Familiar with Building Physics of the heat gain, the thermal heat gain, the sciences of heat (conductance, conductivity, specific heat gain, the psychometric chart of air characteristics of moist air), Heat wheel and recovery, enthalpy wheels, daylight factors, Resistivity, energy modeling, solar analysis. plug load, peak loads,
  4. Familiarity with software’s such as Ecotect, Vasari, Therm, design studio etc
  5. Familiarity with standards that govern the Net Zero Energy Building such as Ashrae Standard 90.1, Building codes established by Calgreen, IgCC, Standard 189
  6. Familiarity  with the requirements of certifying programs such as LEEDs, ( USA) GBI(Malaysia), Mark standards( Singapore).


renewable energy

wind turbine

The definitions of Net Zero Energy Building is defined by the NREL, read definitions The highest of the goals of NZEB is the Zero Energy Emission (Carbon) which is difficult to calculate and achieve. This goal is more difficult to achieve that Net Zero Cost.  There are many professionals that are pushing the agenda on Net Zero such as Architct MacClay, many should emulate stand and help to move this principles forward.However the our future with Green sustainability and Net Zero is not enough, we need to be ecologically well balance, ecological biodiversity integrated benignly and furthermore for our survival be organically dependent( read below)


The Future with organic dependence

The future for Net Zero Energy Building Architect will depend on how we look to nature and learn the bio metric of nature which does not waste, where waste is reused by others ecological systems.The forest does not need manure, pesticide or insecticide neither watering for survival. They are organic and independent from the external sources for survival. The Forest is organically independent. I wish to coin the term organically dependent

This goal is to be organically dependent of the utilities provided by the National Utility providers for electricity, water and waste disposal etc.

As much as the US should be minimizing the dependence of oil from the Middle East, so should we be in every aspect of maintain and achieve independence to outside sources.Imagine we had a Tsunami as in Japan, our total dependence on the Utility companies can pose a great danger, if the Tsunami was worst than it did, Japan may have been wiped out the world power.

Our long term survival depends on our independence from the external sources. This principle is greater than the sustainability of building which is a trend through out the world.

For one to be organically independent the following should be considered:

  • Energy consumption should be produced economically at the site or building. which we have defined as Net Zero Energy Building.
  • Waste should be saved form the rain harvested at the site and reserved at the site for use where water is not supplied form external supplies. Options such as pumping from underground wells should be considered as a last fall back on reserves when water in the store runs out. Rainwater can be stored underground using Biosvale storage systems.
  • Waste water disposal should be recycled for reuse at the site. Portable water for drinking and use at the site should be harvested at the site.
  • Sewerage waste should be processed at the site and reused for vegetation.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


Beach House Floor Plan


There are many designers claiming to have designed good beach house designs, but what a good beach house floor Plan should constitute. I think fundamentally the good beach houses designs should have these considerations:


  1. First and fore most Beach House floor plans needs to be designed as a resting abode, after a stressful working time. It should be a place where ones nerves are calmed settled.
  2. Secondly the plans need to be designed for recreational activities such as games by the beach, a BBQ by the patio or terrace etc. The idea of a beach house is also to get together for some fun.
  3. View of the beach from the living, dining and the bed room is essential feature. Create a warm spectacular view of the beach, jetty and surrounding landscape. You may achieve this by having large glass window panels for visibility but carefully shaded for energy savings. Read on smart landscaping on how you can achieve Net Zero Energy building by smart landscaping.


Beach house and cottage house

Cottage Beach house, 1*


  1. Use a courtyard with landscape within the beach house as it creates a world of the beach within where views are not permissible or even a swimming pool to relax within when it is not comfortable at the beach.



I love the design of swimming pool in the design of Equis House*2 by Barclay and Crousse. The view of the swimming pool is in the path of the blue ocean. The blue pool is built lifted up in the air that is seen with the blue ocean as the background from the beach house . Where the beaches are scares but merely rock out crops-“a spacious terrace, designed as a man made beach, extends to the horizon line via a unique narrow swimming pool. This area is characterize by its relationship with the sky and the water”*3



Beach house with a swimming pool

Beach House- Equis House 1*

  1. The beach house shall be a comfortable place- shaded from the heat or cold winds and designed for your specific needs- a sun bathing summer sun or winter views.


  1. The floor plan for house need to take the harsh weather beatings- the salt spray in the air would rust down metals and any metal that is not protected well will be rusting away very quickly. So the houses need to be protected well against the weather extremities. And the house needs to be well detailed to serve these purposes.


  1. The floor plan for house , should keep the sand out of the foot ware, where it is NOT needed. A good design should to care of this. Sand and dust in the air, can also minimized by a good landscape design to cut of these elements.


  1. Don’t forget the context of location. Beach house floor plans need to be designed for the surroundings .If you are in the tropic use the coconut palms as a good element for design. Palm trees make great landscaping for the house. If you are in the Mediterranean Sea use the natural stones, that are richly found in your house design so that it sits comfortably in these settings.
Beach House- house by the sea

Beach House-Play house by the sea




If you are perched on top of a stone outcrop, design for the winds, the great sun sets or sun rise for great vista of the horizons. Remember you can install a wind turbine to harvest wind renewable energy where you can earn money when you are not there. Wind energy harvested well can make your home a Net Zero Energy building, where you can sell your net zero carbon emission as money earner.


  1. If you run out of ideas, visit us at http://www.sda-architect.com for some great design. Enjoy your visit. These designs have great visuals for floor plan for house.


  1. In modern floor plans for great flexibility the open house plan concept is also an option as it provides spaces for privy and wide open space for children to run around within and to have great indoor functions with wide spaces.
  2. Net Zero Energy Architect

It is pertinent that homes are designed for Net Zero Energy building where there total power consumption is reduce to zero over a period of 1 year. A beach house has plenty of sun and wind these resources will contribute much renewable energy. It is a shear waste of resources in the light of the Net Zero Energy building favored by the Department of Energy in the US (DOE). Ashrae 2020 envisioned that all building tends towards Net Zero energy building by the year 2030.

  1. Should you need advise kindly call our Net Zero Energy Architect in our website at http://www.sda-architect.com
  2. Our Net Zero Energy Architect will attend to your needs as soon as possible to your satisfaction
  3. Lastly have fun in your venture in seeking for Net Zero Energy building plans.







*1 pg.85 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin

*2 pg.52. “Beach House” by Hauser Am Meer, Maisons En Bord De Plage, Huizen Aan Zee

*3 pg 54 “Beach House” by Hauser Am Meer, Maisons En Bord De Plage, Huizen Aan Ze

*4 pg.66 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin”



The Amazing Beauty of the Traditional Malay House

The Traditional Malay House is a special dwelling distinguishing form western dwelling.  The Traditional Malay House  are dwellings which evolved over time. It was  influenced by the Ethnic Malay styles, Indonesian styles and the memorial cultural events which were celebrated then. The construction skills for traditional houses are being lost over the day. However the architectural forms, such as tropically roofs and proportions with decorative elements are considered by some to still have relevance.


Traditionally materials such as timber, bamboo, attap, zinc roof, rattan were used to construct the Malay house. Pre cut holes and grooves were used to connect the columns and beam. This gave flexibility and strength to the house. In Some homes Rattan ropes were used to fasten the members.

The roof is made is made of attap( a local thatched roof), laid over timber trusses. The roof may be curved to represent the shape of bulls horns as in case of Seremban Malay houses. The roofs may also be constructed of zinc sheets.

The walls are fixed with timber planks horizontally or vertically.

The flexibility of homes was essential to make shift from one place to another easily. Hence the use of nails was used to fix window and door. The advent of nails was rather a latter invention which was used rather moderately.


Traditional Malay House in Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak were built on stilts raised above the ground to keep animals and floods away as to survive in the remotes of the Malayan Jungle. The raised homes also provided ventilation from below and thus keeping the house comfortable.

The roof overhangs also provided cover from the tropical heat and heavy rainfalls.

Traditional Malay House

Veranda of Traditional Malay House

Veranda of Traditional Malay House

 were design with a Rumah Ibu, Rumah Dapur and Serambi. Rumah Ibu is the house proper, Rumah Dapur is the kitchen annex and the Serambi is the veranda.

The windows were constructed of adjustable window timber slants. The windows allowed wind to move into the home, and cutting the heat off, with the panels in a closed position.

The staircases are molded, the roof fascias are highly ornamented, carved timber lattices. This timber lattices are used generally at the floors to decorated the facades. The Gable ended roofs are similar to the Japanese, Thai, Cambodian and Sumatrans Roofs.

The houses in Malacca were influenced by the Portuguese Colonial Masters. The staircases are decorated with colored tiles

Please see our Traditional Malay House  designs in our websitehttp://www.sda-architect.com/

Prepared by:Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Net Zero Energy Building ( NZEB)

Here are steps which we used to design Net Zero Energy Building  for an office commercial tower. the located in Kuala Lumpur for a utility company.We hope to win the award and as we do we will reveal the details of the project. The proposal is being considered in a favorable light.

Methodology/ steps
                              Proposal Proposal details Savings in the electrical load
Step 1

stage 1 to Net Zero design

step 1 to Net Zero design

Baseline building Low Energy High Performance Building.

  • Standard 189( standard for design of high performance Green building)
  • Defining NZEB, classification by NBI Benchmarking by BEI based on NBI
  • Energy modelling by Ecotect software

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 2  

Stage 2 to Net Zero design

step 2 to Net Zero design

Heat gain analysis

solar path analysis

  •  Optimizing the orientation the building based on the study on the  energy model with respect the solar path. best layout produces optimum savings

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 3

srages 3 to Net Zero design

step 3 to Net Zero design



 Shading the worst side of the building with green planting, vertical green walls and the theme of Office in the Forest and Forest in the Office will help the air con temperature by 4 degree 10%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 4

step 4 to Net Zero design

step 4 to Net Zero design

step 5 to Net Zero design

Thermal zonedouble skin

double skin cladding

double skin

 Double skin cladding will provide super insulation at the inner skin wall( composite alum panels ,fiber glass and high density board with a Thermal Zones  and   Thermal Bridging and greening the zones with the double skin wall glass wall with a Low Energy glass ceramic frets. 10%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings


Step 5   LED lightsstages 5 to Net Zero design The use of high energy LED lights for the external and internal useDay light harvesting for the inner part of the building by using light shelves, sin harvesting using the latest technologies to the inner part of the buildings 18%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 6  

stages 6 to Net Zero design

step 6 to Net Zero design

High M&E Performance systems

High Performance systems

High performance mechanical systems, pumps, equipments, air con systems
Technologies such as Energy recycling wheels, Hydrocarbon refrigerant, PowerPact to reduce the hikes in energy supplied

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 7  

stage 6 to Net Zero design

step 6 to Net Zero design

BAS Sensor monitoring and controls

BAS monitoring and controls

 Saving of lighting by using BAS systems, actuators etc
A BAS that monitors the energy consumption, by provision of sub meters and good regulators to keep the energy  consumption down.

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 8  

stage 8 to Net Zero design

step 8 to Net Zero design

Solar panel
wind turbine

Photo Voltaic Panels

renewable energy PV

Wind turbine

Wind turbine renewable energy

Solar Panels will produce about 10 percent of the power consumption using high performance PU panels, the flat roof at the car parks, the elevated eco walks, the horizontal louvers above the building or car-parking lots etc. will be providing shade using the solar panels .A Wind turbine will be located  at the roof top of the  building. For wind turbine to be effective the wind speed ought to be a minimum of 5m/sThe Biomass produced form the site of Campus of 80 acres site could be used to generate electricity. 7-10%

Energy Pie savings

Renewable Energy Pie savings

Total saving in the electrical load 100%

Diagram above is a modification and reinterpretation of Tom Hootman‘s energy savings concepts.

Other Design Process which ought to be integrated in the building design are:

a) create a shoe box model of the tower and analysis the energy consumption, using this model as a basis of comparison for the proposal for the detail design.This will be called the control energy model

b)Add features which will help to reduce the energy consumption as listed above from  Steps 1 to Step 8. Using he control energy model above, the energy saving are evaluated and compared for each of the proposal

c) The Benchmark for energy consumption is established by the Consultant using the Peers Buildings Baselines and the energy pie is created with benchmark for each category of the energy pie.

d) Specific modification are made based on this energy data.

e)The renewable energy normally are a very costly element. it is advise that the options such as Photo Voltaic systems , wind turbines, biomass energy harvesting systems, geothermal heat/cooling systems  from the ground are studied carefully  to make up for the  last remaining portion of the energy pie to create the Net Zero energy building . The last remaining portion reduced to a minium of the total 20-25 % of the total energy pie.

There are 4 Definitions of Net Zero Energy Buildings by the NREL (The National Renewable Energy Laboratory):

  1. Net Zero Site Energy Building -a building that produces as much renewable energy as it uses over the year.
  2. Net Zero Source Energy Building – a building that produces as much renewable energy as it uses over the year when accounted from the energy source.
  3. Net Zero Energy Emission Building -a building the purchases or produces enough emission-free renewable energy to offset the emission from the energy used in the building
  4. Net Zero Energy Cost Building-a building that receive enough financial credit to offset the energy consumption of the building over a period of a year.

The Net Zero Energy Cost Building is preferred definition as it is much easier to achieve and convince the building owners to adopt the proposal of  can see the actual cost benefits for the money  invested in to achieving the Net Zero energy building. In the case of a large development such as a 64 storey office tower, the cost for Green and sustainability would range about USD15million. therefore any vested investor would like to see invested money returned over a period of time. The achieving Net Zero Energy Emission Building are long shots deals as it can be capitalized eventually by selling  Carbon print to companies of vested interest


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam of http://www.sda-architect.com































List of World Famous Architects ALIVE

Here is a List of World Famous Architects ALIVE and there are much discussions if they have been under rated or overrated.I wrote  this article so that  clients or students of architecture can search with ease the Living legend ALIVE .It is interesting that they all have an identity , strong individuals and differing entirely one form another. During a competition among these architects the solution to the sites problems even among the best of architect differ. And this it is a misnomer to think a site has only one solution to the problem.

There are interesting differences among them- such as Zaha uses difficult  geometrical curves in her design because of her first degree on Mathematics, which laid the foundation for 3 dimensional curves. And Rem Koolhass has a early background as a journalist and he continues to communicate using building sculptural forms to the masses.Frank Gehry departure from the orthodoxy is fundamentally because of early influences comes as working as a driver.As such one can see in a competition, the solutions they offer to a specific site are so breathtakingly different from one another.One would think there is a solution to every site and not a host of solutions varying and departing from one to another.


  • Frank Gehry(1929-)
  • Zaha Hadid(1950-)]
  • IMPei(1917-
  • Renzo Piano(1937
  • Rem Koolhass(1944-
  • Daniel Libeskind(1946-
  • Norman Foster(1935-
  • Santiago Calatrava(1951-
  • Jean Nouvel(1945-
  • Tadao Ando(1941-
  • Richard Miers)1934-
  • Moshe Safdie(1938-
  • Shigeru Ban(1957-
  • Robert Venturi(1925-
  • Cesar Pelli(1926-
  • Richard Rogers(1933-
  • Bjarke Ingels(1974-
  • Alvaro Siza Vieira(1933
  • Denise Scott Brown(1931-
  • Peter Eiseman(1932-
  • Peter Zumthor(1943-
  • Tom Wright(1957-
  • Maya Lin(1959-
Famous Architects ALIVE

Famous Architects ALIVE

An article will be posted soon on each of their  individuality, work designed by them their famous quotes and criticism in their work  look out for this article  in the web site http://www.sda-architect.com/

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to Build a Log House-Part 1

Construction Lesson 1 (Sill Logs, Floor and Joints)


What are the Sill Logs?

Sill logs are the logs that rest directly on top of the foundation and its connected to it by the anchor bolts.


How to Choose Your Logs?

  • Just about any type of log can be used, as long as it’s relatively straight and it is around 8”-10” diameter.
  • It has only minor tapering no more than 2”. And the length for it is around 16 ft.
  • Conifers such as pine, fir, spruce and tamarack are preferred because these softwoods are workable, durable and relatively lightweight.
  • Hardwoods, particularly oak can also be used, though their sapwood is highly susceptible to infestation by borers and fungus.


Sill Logs:

  • After completing the foundation based on the house plan the work on the upper part of the house begins.
  • The first step in the house structure is to install the sill log on the floor plan
  • Note: this is an important part of the job because if the sills are not laid as mentioned in the house floor plan and if its not laid squarely and securely that might effect the whole structure.


Steps of Constructing the log house Sill Log.

  • If you don’t want a full basement, you must excavate the house plan dimension at least below the frost line, install footings and construct a wall up to 20 in. above grade level.
  • You must also install piers within the foundation walls as mentioned in the architecture plan to support the floor girder. Also, install anchor bolts along the top of the walls to attach the sill.
  • Begin floor construction by hewing or cutting flat the bottom of the sill logs.
  • Then make holes in the sill logs to fit in the anchor bolts and install sill sealer or a termite shield according to the local building code.
  • The corner joints are made by bottom notching the logs based on the house design.
  • Hew flat the top of the girder and install it over the support piers.
  • Join it to the sill with a mortise and tenon joint. Drive nails through the top of the tenon and into the mortise to complete the joint.


Steps of constructing the log house sill log and floor:

  • In a similar manner, hew or cut flat the top of the joists and install them between the girder and sill logs so they are flush with the top of the girder.
  • Install the sub flooring perpendicular to the direction of the joists. Now you’re ready to start on the walls as designed in the architecture plan.

Steps of constructing the log house wall joints:

  • Many different types of notches can be used to join the logs, but a good choice for the beginning log builder is the scribe, fit, round-notch method.
  • It features semicircular notches cut in the bottom of the logs to fit over adjacent logs. Also, a V-shaped groove is cut down the length of each log bottom so the entire length can sit flush on the log below.
  • Although this method is slower than others, the corner joints are self-draining-water running down the outside of the house hits the log tops and runs off, instead of being trapped in the notch.
  • The V-grooves also eliminate air drafts between the logs.
  • The joints between courses do not need chinking, so you can avoid one of the most chronic maintenance problems of log homes: repairing cracked chinking.


Prepared by: Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Check out our log house designs : http://www.sda-architect.com/

The different Types of Architects and what they do?

key words: Project Architects,Resident Architects,Design Architects,Bungalow Architects,Shopping center specialist Architects,Interior designing,Hotels Architects Architects,Hospital Architects, Architect Arbitrator ,Commercial Office Architects,Architect Planners,Landscape Architects,Timber building Architects,Resident Architects. arkitek

There are many Types of Architects  listed below are some of them and what they do:
Many types of Architects are covered in these website such as Green Architect,Net Zero Energy Architect, Eco Green Architect.

Principal Architect

He is runs the Architectural company, he may be the founder, owner of the company

Project Architects

What does a Project Architects do?
The Project Architect  manages a team of Architectural office staff consisting of Resident Architects , Design Architects and a team of draftsman .He ensure the project is managed contractually ( contract administration. A Project Architect is  used for a large project  or he would be required to deal with many smaller projects.

He reports firstky to the Pricipal Architect of the comapny and he may report to the Owners of the building ( or a Project Management Team). He rports on the overall progress of works,manages changes that occurs which may arise from time to time ,manages the Program or any issues that may arrise at the site. He also manages a consultant teams of Civil & Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Urban Town Planner, the Cost consultants( called the QS), and Landscape Architect, Interior Designers, Specialist Consultants such as –Acoustic consultants, Lighting consultants, Façade consultants and Green Sustainability, Net Zero Energy Consultants and Ecologist. The contractor or the builder reports to him on the progress regularly

Design Architects

What does a Design Architects do?
A Design Architect designs the building, by complying with the client’s design brief and local building code and  bye law requirements. He report to the Project Architect or to the Pricipal Architect. 

He submits the plans to the local authorities for approval and coordinating the approvals of the engineer’s plans to the local authorities as well. The design architect during the construction will ensure the design aspects of the building are attained and reviews the approvals of materials submitted by the Contractor and ensure it is compliant with the specifications of the contract.

Bungalow Architects

What does a Bungalow Architects do?
An Architect that specializes in designing of Bungalows as the design and construction of Bungalow is a rather confine to a very specialized area of work. The difficulty of putting up a Bungalow cannot be underestimated. He  meets the needs of the owner of homes both at a macro level and at a micro level of details. Every nook and corner of the bungalow is subjected to review by the house owner . This Architect ought to be rather knowledgeable about the details of material, construction and aesthetics of the buildings. He should be familiar with the different types of house plans,history of house architecture, the types of houses, large homes and small homes, timber materials , log houses, cottage houses, beach houses, 2 bed room houses, 3 bed room houses, duplex houses, southern living homes, Asian homes and Green Homes, modern house plans, Open house floor plans, Japanese house floor plans etc, It is varied form place to place and region to region. He  designs homes according to the need of the owner and it meeting with the local market value systems to maintain value of the homes.

Shopping CenterSpecialist Architects

What does a Shopping center specialist Architects do?
The shopping specialist architect , deasl with large shopping centers, hyper markets and supermarket. It might seem like a simple thing , which is not true otherwise; in fact a mistake  undertaken in the design of a shopping centers, may result in a gargantuan tragedy. It may resulting in a white elephant or a ghost shopping center. Therefore in selecting an Architect to design a shopping center one should evaluate his background of experiences in shopping centers designs. The strategies to capture the flow of traffic, direct the flow,captivating their interest,lighting levels and the latest trends in shopping is rather important for the success of the shopping center and creating a thriving shopping center.
The Architect will study the types of shops and how it will be laid out to create demand and reduce dead ends of circulation of traffic and is aware of the magic of working public traffic using anchor tenants.

Interior designing Architects

What does, a Interior designing Architects do?
An architect who is specialized in the interiors of the building and creates and transforms the interior spaces to a functional space or a space of beauty. The interior design should begin at the outset of design process making the spaces as an integral part of the building and not as a make over of the design as an after thought. There is a difference between an Interior designer and a interior decorator. A Interior decorator merely provides the make up of the building .

Hospital Architects

What does, a Hospital Architects do?
A Hospital architect deals with an area of specialization  with the internal planning of hospitals. These are medical and health requirements, which shall be complied. All aspects of the spaces are designed with the health of the patients in mind .For instances the lifts are specially  much slower that the conventional lifts it takes into consideration of patients with weak heart or high blood pressure who are susceptible to heart attacks. The rooms are designed for clean room conditions and the air will be designed for clean air to minimize the spread of air borne diseases.Room are subjected to view for quick recover.Planning of the services are necessary for Energy efficiency as Hospitals guzzles energy.

Hotel Architects

What does a Hotels Architects do?
Hotel Architects are specialist in designing the bed rooms, the commercial kitchen, ballrooms, restaurants, lounges, connectivity of service corridors to service lifts, loading, unloading area and the maintenance areas. There are many types of hotels. Some hotels that are  centered around golfing circuits, some are based on beaches fronts, some on ball rooms and seminars services and others dependent on visitors from the Air port or local retail centers etc .Operators of Hotels, such as Hilton  have their own manuals for designing hotels in keeping with their brands.Architect  design according Hotels Operator’s  guidelines stipulated in Operator’s manuals. This will  ensure the operations are efficient and profitable. All 5-6 star hotels will be designed with the Operators requirements at the outset. This will avoid design tragedies and mega failures in Hotels. If you need to know if Design matters, look around at Hotels that have failed in business other than  that “location matters”.

Commercial Office Architects

What does a Commercial Office Architects do?
The design of high rise office towers shall be designed with low maintenance free designs, efficient layout floor plans, high energy performance building, shaded well from the heating sun and conservation of heat during summer and cautiously with the safety of the end users during maintenance of building, design for easy management of the building. New concepts such as Net Zero Energy Building, which is our area of special focus.  Green and Sustainability concepts are introduced by certification bodies such as Living Challenge, LEEDS, Green Building Index,Green Marks etc.

Architect Arbitrator

What does a Architect Arbitrator do?
An architect that is familiar with the contractual relationship between the parties in the building industry and how the function and further more he is most familiar with the designing and the design process and the work that all parties are bound in the industry. And this makes him as a suitable candidate to arbiter the arguments that arise among the parties in the industry. In some countries where there is no Construction court, many lawyers and even Judges are not familiar with the terms of the contract, duties of the parties of the contract and the relationship between them and make the proceeding and the judgments to be miscarried. Therefore it is best to have architects who are legal based who are the best arbiter to conduct and make the best judgment in arbitration case.

Architect Planners

What does a Architect Planners do?
An Architect who is trained academically as an Architect and  as an Urban Town Planner.An architect is aware of what is happening within a building . Town Planner designs a collection of buildings in a Town or country settings. An Urban Planner designs the interrelationships between the buildings. He interconnects the buildings with open spaces, parks and garden etc. Building are designed by architect without any consideration to the buildings in the neighborhoods. It is said that building have to talk to each other and the design of park in relationship with the footpaths leading to one another is necessary to create an wonderful urban environment. Urban Town Planning fills in  these gaps and is a go in between Planning and Architects in urban areas.

Landscape Architects

What do Landscape Architects do?
A landscape architect, at a micro level, is one who designs the soft landscape (plants, lawns, shrubs etc) and the landscape (pavements, benches, footpaths, street lights bollard etc) .
At a macro level he may be a designer as a Town Planner. He may also design the country sides and be involved as Town and Country Planner does in Town and Country Planning.

Timber Building Architects

What does a Timber building Architects do?
An architect who is familiar with the architecture of  timber, the different type of timbers ,how to preserve timber, the art and crafting and beauty of timber . He has an appreciation of the fine timber quality, how to design rustically in some situation ,making a beauty out of the ruggedness of the house.He is a master of timber homes.

Resident Architects

What does a Resident Architects do?
Resident Architects are those who oversea the quality of materials used and overseas the workmanship,during the construction of the building. He will ensure where  standing supervision is required especially where concrete works are carried out.He is partly responsible for the works carried out by the contractor. He ensures the contractor uses materials , specified by the designer (Architects), He is engaged only during the construct of the works until the building is successfully handed over to the Owner of the building. The Owners of the building, may extend his engagement as A Residential Architect until the Building is certified fit for occupation (in some regions this is called the Certificate of Fitness in others it is called Certificate of Completion and Compliance.)
a) He should be able to study all drawings such as Architectural and Engineering . He identifies errors in drawings and missing details .He checks and conduct test on the material that is used by the contractor.There are times although the approved samples submitted are never used on the building during the construction by the contractor. The materials are short changed during the construction . This leaving the building with a massive maintenance problem ,during the life span of the building.
b) He may send the materials to the laboratory for testing to ensure compliance with the specifications.
c) He submits progress report to the building owner and the Principal Architect of the project. He reports the works is in progress and the no of workers at the site. He also report  the equipment used at the site.He reporst the weather conditions at the site.
d) He monitors the Health and Safety Manuals and enforces it at the site such as ensure the use of  Hard Hats, Safety boots, Safe erection of scaffolding , Safety cables, safety nets , safety platforms are in place, ensure no water-ponds are found at site to minimize the breeding of mosquitoes, healthy the living quarters for workers, the Electricity cables are elevated above the ground with proper switch outlets etc.
e) The Resident Architect endorses the correctness of the Contractor’s Progress report.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, contact us

What do Architects do?

Architects are designers of buildings and creators of spaces. The spaces are designed for a purpose, which is referred to as function of the spaces. This may sound simple and enjoyable but can become more laborious and burdensome as the details of the design are thought through. Eventually the whole experience of designing can be a wonderful experience of joy and satisfaction as he sees the end results and the realization and actualization of his creativity. The designing also involves knowledge of technology of construction, selection of materials to create the right effect he is trying to create. He may use advantageously the effects of light, sounds, and other effects to create a space with a certain type of experience he wants the people to feel as they come into this space. The intrinsic ability to design is some times inherent but with others it can be developed with time and practice.


He is employed by a land owner who may want the Architect to design a building in his plot; the Owner may limit the design with a budget which the Architect will design with in. There may be other parameters that limits the design such as local authorities requirements, building codes , the soil conditions, neighboring vistas, views, wind directions, smells( in a sense of adversely from the neighboring drains, septic tanks).

In my opinion the Architects more often than not specialized into areas of specializations such as- Design Architects, Project Architects, Design Architect, Bungalow Architects, and Timber building Architects, Paper Architects, Shopping center specialist Architect, Interior designing Architects, Landscape Architects, and Hospital Architects , Residential Architects, Hotels Architects, Commercial Office Tower building Architects, Residential Architects, Architect Planners or Architect Arbitrators.


What does a Project Architects do?

He is the Architect that manages a team of office staff consisting of Resident Architect , Design Architect and a team of draftsman and he ensure the project is managed contractually ( contract administration. This position is normally used for projects of a large scale.

He reports to the Owners of the building ( or a Project Management Team)-on the overall progress of works and manages changes that occurs which may arise from time to time.. He also manages the consultant teams of Civil & Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Urban Town Planner, the Cost consultants( Called the QS), and Landscape Architect, Interior Designers, Specialist Consultants such as –Acoustic consultants, Lighting consultants, Façade consultants and Green Sustainability, Net Zero Energy Consultants and Ecologist. The contractor reports to him on the progress regularly.

Greening the site ,Green Architect

Greening the site ,
Green Architect

What does a Green  Architect do ?

What does a Green Project Architect do?
A Green Project Architect utilized the means of Total Integrated Delivery Process in achieving a Green and Sustainability designs, It is centered in 5 core areas of Green and sustainability which are:
a) Energy Efficiency
b)Water Harvesting
c)Air Quality
d)Green Planning and Monitoring
e) Innovations
The word Green does not mean Green colored building or having Green landscaping  on the building. In actuality the Green Movement has forgotten the benefits of Greening the buildings. Read on the benefits.

As an off shot of the Green and sustainability movement, a new breed of Architect was created the Net Zero Energy Building Architect . Net Zero Energy Building Architect establishes the goals of Net Zero Energy consumption .

Net Zero Energy Building Architect  establishes the  bench marks of energy levels at the outset of the projects inception and maintains the benchmark of energy through out the project delivery at the documentation stages and completion of construction and until  the maintenance stages.The actual results are monitored and maintained .The Net Zero consultants are engaged through out the job.The Project Architect will coordinate them which is not done so in the Traditional Procurement  System.

Salary of Architect is pittancewhat is Architect’s Salary all over the world, on browsing the website and listening to architects, I have listed their salary in a table for ease of comparison. And an interesting revelation is found that the world’s economy is some what  is depressed except in a few growth centers and the growing feeling, which  is they are not paid well.

Salaries of Architect’s Around the world per month in USD
The Salaries of Architect’s Around the world including the US  is summaries here below,  this info is  derived from a survey  into the web, which I put it together as a matter of interest.I have come to know that the work the Architects engage in a laborious and a extremely stressful work and yet the salaries  around the world is not a positive one. It seems after many years of studies and after many years of hard work the Architects are paid much below the average salaries of other professions.Please see below the facts :

Salaries Around the world per month in USD

Country Graduate Architect Experienced Architect
USA{Albuquerque} 3600 8000
Ireland 1500 4000
Kosovo 450 900
Malaysia 800 4000
Bangladesh 300 750
Kenya 450
Mexico 500 1000
Germany 2300
Croatia 200
Japan 5000
Saudi 1500 4700
Canada 2800
Hong Kong 2800 5000
India 350 1000
Singapore 2500 6000
South Africa 1200
Israel 2000 4000
Serbia Belgrade 500
Indonesia 350
Brazil 1150 4000
Vienna 2200
Argentina 500
Poland 450 2200
China {Shenzhen} 1200 3000
Colombia 2200
Russia 1800
UAE 1500 4500
Kuwait 10,600
Qatar 4600

How to build a Log House-Part 3
Foundation Lesson 3 (Perimeter Foundation & Full Basement Foundation)

This  article on how to build a Log House-Part 3 is the last part of the session, which deals on the subject on how to build a Log House in totality from the foundation to the roof.

Perimeter Foundation:

  • It can be made of concrete, concrete blocks or concrete faced with stones.
  • If made of concrete it can be Single pour and Double Pour (footing and foundation).

Single Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • It’s not used as much as the separately poured footing and foundation.
  • However it simplifies the task and cut down on time.
  • Lay out the outside dimensions of the footings, the wall thickness and outside boundary of the wall on the batter boards using the house floor plan.
  • Then position the builder’s string to show the dimensions.
  • Excavate the footing and construct the forms.
  • Bring All Service pipes in below the footing and frost line before pouring the footing.
  • Make sure any low spots under the edge of the footing are filled with stones

Double Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • The footing is usually poured separately from the foundation.
  • If the soil is stable, the footing is poured directly in a trench dug without forms.
  • If the soil is less stable, forms must be constructed to hold the concrete in place.
  • The forms must be leveled by using the carpenter’s level and stones are used to fill up the holes around the form to keep the concrete from running out
  • If pouring without forms drive small wooden stakes into the soil at the bottom of the trench where their tops should be level with the height of the footing.
  • Pour the concrete and smooth more or less to the height of the stakes then pull the stakes out and fill the holes with concrete and smooth over.
  • Form a key in the footing to help hold the concrete foundation in place and it can be done by using a beveled 2”x4”. However in the tropical countries water stop is need to be added to prevent water seepage.
  • Reinforce the footing with two to three reinforcing bars spaced about 3”-4” off the bottom of the trench.
  • Make an inspection after the form for the footings are completed.

Pouring the Foundation for the House Plan:

  • After the footing has cured for 5-6 days the foundation can be formed.
  • Remove the footings forms and construct the form for the foundation.
  • Individual sections of forms should be nailed together from the outside.
  • Set up the outside forms first and level it by using the carpenter level and then do the same on the inside forms.
  • Higher and larger foundation walls should be poured slowly to allow the concrete enough time to set up.

Basement Foundation:

  • Basement foundation has the same fundamentals of the perimeter foundation however its has additional features such as:
    • Foundation drains.
    • Insulating the basement.
    • Basement floor.

Foundation Drain & Basement Insulation:

  • A drain should be placed around the foundation to help carry off excess water that collects at its base.
  • Put a 2” layer of gravel around the outside of the bottom edge of the footing.
  • Then put clay drainage tile or perforated plastic on top of this around the outside of the footing.
  • Throw from 2”-6” of gravel over the clay drainage to extend it up over the top edge of the footing by at least 2”.
  • If you need insulation for the basement, install 4” thick batts of rigid foam with moisture barrier below the concrete floor and on the gravel. It can be installed on the outside of the foundation wall as well.

Basement Foundation Floor:

  • Usually poured after the foundation forms are removed.
  • Before pouring the floor first position the drain as needed.
  • The floor drain should be ½” below the surface of the finished concrete floor.
  • Pouring basement floor should be done with a fast pace to prevent the concrete from setting up before you can get it all finished.
  • Check out for some great Log House Floor Plans at :



How to build a log House-Part 2

This article on How to build a log House-Part 2 is part of a 2 other articles on this subject of how to build a Log House from the foundation to roof in totality. On hard ground where bedrock is close to the surface, buildings usually require only a minimum foundation.

The Types of foundation generally used in a log house:

1– Pier foundation:
Its the simplest and least expensive, where concrete or flat stones are mortared or laid dry.

2– Slab Foundation:
The Slab Foundation for a home plan is, of the simple kinds of foundation where a concrete slab is used as the foundation.

3- Perimeter Foundation for a house floor :
Its made from concrete, concrete blocks, or sometimes stones. Follow the architectural Floor Plan very closely with respects to the dimensions as this will cause the finishes to look tardy, if it is not correctly followed. The ceiling lines, the tiles finishes and the wall straightness will appear tardy if the dimensions of the Log House floor plans are not strictly followed.

4- Full Basement Foundation:
This is the most complicated type of foundation, Its made of poured reinforced concrete or concrete blocks
Note: Regardless what type of foundation is chosen a proper footing is needed to be placed slightly below the frost.

How to make the foundation for a log house?

Step One: Establish the Boundaries.
1-Establish the exact outside boundaries of your home using a 2”x2” stakes, nails & a rope.
2- Make one end of each stick sharp to be able to drive it into the ground easily.
3-After placing the sticks hammer a nail into the upper center of each stake
4-Once the stakes are placed in position use a rope and connect it to the nails on top of each stake
5-Once three stakes are connected you will able to outline an approximate 90 degree between two walls.
6-Make sure that the angle between the two walls is a perfect 90 degree angle using a triangle with proportions of 3:4:5

Step Two: Erect Batter Boards:
1- The batter board is made by driving 2″x4″ stakes into the ground in an L shape around the corners
2- Nail, a 1”x4’ or 1”x6” batter board, to the stakes to create a right angle and it have to be set back at least 4 feet from the outline stakes and the height is minimum 18″
3- Make sure all batter boards have been installed on all corners at the correct height.
4- Tie weight to builder’s string and drop them over the tops of the batter boards and drop a plumb bob where the two strings cross.
5-Make sure the plumb bob falls exactly on the nail head in the corner stakes this locates the outside boundary of your foundation.
6- Use the same method to locate the inside boundary but by deducting the width of the proposed foundation.

Check out for some great and handsome architectural floor plan for Log house at:http://www.sda-architect.com

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to treat for termite in house plans

Hello there this article will be discussing is about how to treat for termite , which is one of the important aspects in construction. Termites are small, pale soft-bodied insects that lives in large colonies with several different castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth. Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly destructive to trees and timber While each termite species thrives in different climates and eats different types of food, all termites require four things to survive: food, moisture, shelter and optimal temperature. Unfortunately, all homes, regardless of their construction type, can provide these ideal conditions for termite infestation.

Before Construction
Treating termite before construction can help you defend against possible claims in the future. Where construction specification for several projects requires the protection for termite in their finishing’s. To help you in dealing with this problem this article will provide you with some tips that you must incorporate in your construction activities. Food and moisture resources around and inside home should be eliminated because termites are attracted towards moisture.

Where Are The Termites?
Termites are frequently living where there is a high concentration of moisture and dampness. In old houses these are frequent problems because they tend to live in obstructed or block water supply and sewerage pipes. Also there is evidence that inside wood products or decaying wood surfaces are high probability areas for a termite to live in where they end up actually eating wood and wooden products inside your house.

Pre Construction Chemical Treatment
Termite treatment in pre construction stages includes few steps that must be done to ensure an area of termite-free construction.

Treating the soil before any slab placement with insecticides is the most common method of termite treatment. This will form a chemical barrier between ground slab and masonry that will prevent the insects to approach the building. The chemical treatment can be done as follow:

  • Before making the foundation the bottom and sides of excavation must be treated with chemical products.
  • make holes in the earth where slabs on grade will be built and fill them with chemical products.
  • Be sure to use chemicals where walls and floors intersect.
  • Treat the perimeter of the construction by making holes filled with chemicals all around the structure.
  • In pipe bedding fill an area with chemical products to secure the future of the piping.
  • Use specific anti-termite chemical to treat the portion of the buildings were wooden products such as cabinets, doors, among others, will be placed.

Post-construction termite treatment
We can’t be acting in the pre construction chemical treatment all the time. Sometime termites are found after construction, so what can we do?

Start with an assessment of the entire area before starting any kind of treatment. A deep investigation will determine the extent of the damage, if any damage is found then determine the location of the termite, the access points to the structure and their spread in the area. The following tips should be kept in mind during chemical treatment.

  • As in the pre construction process, make holes and filled them with chemicals, to create a barrier around the house.
  • Treat the floors and walls by drilling holes and filling them with chemicals. All walls or the vast majority of the walls have to be treated to ensure that no more spreading will continue.
  • Apply chemicals on all points of contacts of wood with the ground or with any part of the building.
  • The voids in masonry can be used with anti-termite treatment.
  • Change and replace wood products or furniture that have high impact and presence of termites, beyond any limit of reparation.

Precautionary measures
when you
treat for termite perform these simple steps to ensure that your area kept free from these pest .

  1. Keep drains and gutters clean to avoid leakage.Make sure that there are no blockage, filtration nor broken pipes with excess of moisture around them.
  1. Eliminate sources of moisture.Do not leave unattended areas where there is a high concentration level of humidity. Clean those areas constantly to assure that it wont face the same problem again.
  1. Destroy termites.Apply chemicals as soon as you detect areas where termites are being reunited to avoid the spreading of it.
  1. Remove Wood Products.Remove wood products that have had the presence of moisture or have been in contact with water for a long period of time.
  1. Eliminate the wood contact with the ground.Do not bury direct pieces of wood in the ground for any use to avoid the moisture from getting in it.
  1. Fill junctions or voids.If you notice some voids of open space between the building and the ground, act quickly and fill those areas to avoid termites getting in the house.

The Chemicals Used for the Treatment:
There are currently several general kinds of termite chemicals registered for soil treatment. All termite chemicals are effective for their intended purpose but the choice often boils down to toxicity and odour versus longevity and resistance to leaching.
The water based termite chemicals do not contain solvents and are odorless. Some of the water based termite chemicals include Premis, Biflex Aqua and Termadore. The Premis is a chloro-nicotinyl type termite chemical and has a toxicity rating of S5. Premis termite chemical remains effective for at least two years.
The Biflex Aqua is a synthetic pyrethroid water based termite chemical with a toxicity rating of S6. Where its recommended to do a re-treatment of termite treatment with Biflex Aqua after five years for maximum effectiveness. The Biflex Aqua gets blinded very quickly and strongly to the soil particles and provides a best option where moisture movement in the soil is a factor.

Contact our Architects  at the website for further advise.

Prepared by: http://www.sda-architect.com/

What is Architecture ?

The question -What is Architecture ? is often discussed among students of Architecture endlessly. Students of Architecture spend a no of years trying to get the grips of the meaning of Architecture. In the early years the students of Architecture are confused trying to get a grips of it. In this article I wish to reduce this gap of bewildering students.

Architecture  is designing the building space in which we live in. Some define it too broadly as “Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music “. While there is  truth in this definitions, the space we live in and work in , are our Architectural spaces and as such, it is every thing about us- the Environment.

Net Zero Energy buildings

Traditional Malay House,

Architectural design is putting and making a composition of  the space in a logical meaningful way that makes sense. Thereby there is a indirect correlation ship with how music notes are composed. whereas in building the notes are features and elements borrowed from the past or created anew fulfilling a functional need. You can design spaces that are awful and it is poor taste. Good designs have the following intrinsic attributes:

  • Comfortable and Functional
  • Durable with time
  • Sustainable design with eco biodiversity green ecoconsiderations
  • High energy efficient buildings- read-NZEB
  • Creates an ambiance of the space that it was meant to be
  • A space that creates an emotional experience that leaves traces of memorable experience otherwise it is a shell.
  • Reasonable Costed and not flagrant, buildings of exorbitant cost can achieve anything that you want. A insensibly costly building is a sin.
  • Beautiful with the visually, makes the hears hears sound that are pleasing, allow light to flow and thereby making the space an memorable experience.
  • Defect Free, buildings may look wonderful in the beginning but may result in leakage, cracks and uninhabitable conditions is not good architecture, the right material not the right construction is not used.

    small log mountain house

    small log mountain house

If any of those above is not found in your Architectural designs, it may be due to a deliberate omission. As to achieve all may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building with great interiors has terrible structural design and high unreasonable cost. So good Architectural design -is all about making compromises along the way with cost, comforts, durability and other contending elements.

History of Architecture

Architecture is as old as History .When we talk of history of the past civilization, we talk of the architecture of the buildings. And buildings are the only remnants of the past. most record, evidences of the cultural activity is studied by the functional spaces of the buildings.the spaces such as baptismal fonts, altars of worship, temples of ancients, places of sacrifice, inscriptions of words on temple walls. Buildings of the past are mostly temples or buildings of worships. the remnants of homes are generally destroyed except for the remnants of the foundations such as in the Indus Civilizations. The civilizations of the past are :

  • Egyptian, Indian, Chinese
  •  Assyrian Period (before Babylon)*1
  • Mesopotamia (Babylon and Before), Ancient Americas (Mayan       …etc)
  • Persian Period
  • Greek Period
  • Roman Period*1
  • French(Gothic )*1
  • Georgian Architecture-The George Whyte’s House *2
  • England(Georgian, Tudor, Victorian)
  • Industrial
  • Modern
    Today buildings are high influenced by one another. For instance:
  1. the White House was patterned after the grandeur of the Roman Capitol
  2. The high rise buildings, in our cities are influenced by the new material manufactured during these periods after.
  3. The Gothic building followed after the Roman, whereas the Gothic (French) improvised from the Roman Arches and post & beam system to heavy arches(flying buttress) which supported higher and magnificent cathedrals.
  4. Chinese, Japanese Architecture while were developed independently but were not influence by the others neither influenced the world as we know of today. Except the Indian influenced spread to Angkor Watt, Malaysia, and Bali Indonesia, which is now the Bali architecture.
  • Post Modern Era
  • Green Sustainability and Net Zero Energy Buildings Movement
  • Zero Carbon emission designs, Carbon neutrality,ZeroCarbon
Carbon Trading

Green architect






Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


*1 pg 538-566, volume A, World Book Encyclopedia

*2.pg 13 Houses of the Founding Fathers by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus 111

*3 pg 30 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*4 pg 73 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*5 pg.47 “The Swimming Pool” by Marta Baker

Why do I have to paint my Architectural house!

Painting has 2 functional reasons  , which is to :

  • Protection, to protect the material painted on
  • Aesthetics, to make material painted to look beautiful

A) Protection

  • You generally protect iron, aluminum, wood, brick, block, cement rendered and plastered surfaces. If you don’t iron will rust, wood will decay, bricks & blocks will collect fungi and cemented surfaces will discolor and will have a look of decadence.
  • Another good reason for painting is protect against the harsh conditions such as -salt spray from the sea-coast or such as a polluted air that causes the materials to corrode rapidly.
  • Other protections are such as-application of preservatives on timber surfaces to prevent insect attacks on timber.
  • A good painting scheme can last for 10 years or more.

B) Aesthetics

  • Generally the look of material after a good treatment of protection has a distasteful appearance and lacking any appeal. As such the material is further treated to look good and the appeal you trying to create.
  • These additional coatings of paint for aesthetics will give additional weather protection as a good cover as well.

Ok, now have I  convinced about why the need to painting and its necessities, if so let us  , continue on to the next topic:-How do I choose what paint to use!

Of course, by now you should have chosen your theme of colors you want to use for your house, if you have not you may want to read for guide lines on how I choose colors for my articles of how to choose the color:

step 1.0 Choose colors.

Decide the colors schemes for the house floor plans or building layout

step 2.0 Select the Brand of paint.

Selecting the paint brand may be difficult as there are many brands. Choose the brand that gives 5-10 years warranty. There may be conditions to this, please read the warranty carefully, and ensure the preconditions for the enforcement of the  warranties are full filled.Some times it is difficult to choose the exact color but in recent time the suppliers  can create the colors you but of course with a cost to it.

step 3.0 Select the Coats

Look through their manufacturer’s recommendation of what painting coats they recommend and the number of coats required for a 5 year warranty or a 10 year warranty. Check the type of coating recommended for the material.

Surface Preparation
Before painting the most important thing any painter need to do is surface preparations. If the surface is well done most of your painting scheme will give less problem and last long. I am not going to go through all the types of preparation as it is a discourse on it own.

B.1) Iron Metal

– is painted with a metallic oxide, with 1 undercoat of Oil paint, with 2 coats of finishing paint. The metallic surfaces may warrant a surface preparation of wire brushing or grit blasting to remove all the rust that may have incurred on its surface.

If is metal surfaces has been treated by galvanizing , than the surface needs no more wire brushing, grit blasting to remove rust as this was done prior to the galvanizing process. The metallic oxide should be zinc chromate, followed with 1 undercoat of Oil paint, with 2 coats of finishing paint.

  • Wood
    – before painting the surfaces are prepared smooth with sand paper knotted and primed with a suitable primer. If it is to be painted with glossy, you paint using aluminum oxide as primer with 1 undercoat of Oil paint, with 2 coats of finishing paint.And if, it is treated with stains to give a natural look, follow the instructions from the manufacturer.
  •  Cemented surfaces( or surfaces that are alkali based as a cement boards)
    The walls are sanded down, smooth and painted with an alkali resisting primer, finished with 1 undercoat of water paint, with 2 coats of finishing paint coats.

If you are not sure of the above on how to go about how to work on  your architectural house design , contact  our architects at http://www.sda-architect.com/



The Pit Falls in Log House timber treatment

Log houses although marvelous to look at the early stages could end up being a night mare of maintenance problems that could bear heavy cost to you. Here I would like to cover the pit fall that you can avoid eventually Log House timber treatment.

  • Selection of good Logs -Quality and Type for Log House
    For your house to be solid and lasting you need to ensure that the logs are uniform, regular and 12 inch in diameter .For house design with long well the logs need to be long for the span. Unless the floor plan for new house has taken this into account at the very outset. Long spans cost you more and smaller log spans will cost you less. Good house design has this consideration in mind.Uniform logs will fit well and reduce the chances of water leaks and lost of heat during winter.The resistant wood-to decay are the best last long but may not be suitable for log house but the less resistant wood more prone to decay but suitable for workability as for log house.Ensure the barks are peeled off when constructing the logs as it will peel off and be messy inside the house and outside. As the barks are not long lasting it is prone to insect’s attacks and fungi prone.Design of the floor plan for new house should ensure the log is always dry and water shall never stagnate to help preserve the logs.
  • Preservatives could be used to help prolong the life span of this wood. Preservatives are used externally and internally. In the interior use a good non-yellowing alkyd varnish of penetrating oil sealer. If you are buying the logs, ensure the logs are preserved to good acceptable safety standard which is actually hazardous to people, animal, plant and the environment.

Externally the preservatives need to contain fungicide which stops the growth of fungus and mildew. You need to use pigmented preservative that don’t affect the beauty of the timber.. Once this is done stack the wood over each other for good ventilation-that is it is criss – crossed over the layers and this will help to preserve the logs.

  •  Termite Treatment for Log House
    As the ground excavated for foundation, it should be treated with anti-termite treatment. These chemical could be purchase from the stores, but as a general rule use chemical that are safe though all of them are hazardous to health but take necessary precautions. Some chemicals have been banned from use. A good treatment will guarantee 10 years of protection .These protection although weans away with time but could be treated externally after the guarantee period for an extended period of time.
    Nothing is better than, to protect the excavated pits for foundations and slabs before the concrete is cast, this is a far better protection than to protect them as a after thought once the building is up.
  • Good foundation will ensure steady building(not covered here)
  • Correct setting out of foundation will ensure good quality finishes in interior finishes(not covered here)
  • Selection of good materials-roof tile, slates, ceiling, painting, lock-set, sanitary fittings, pipes, plastering, stones, brick and blocks(not covered here)
  • Choose an architect to help you do up the specifications to ensure compliance to local health standards.call and check the website at http://www.sda-arcbhitect.com/

How to work on stones for my new architectural floor plans?

Stonework might seem easy because of its robustness but there are some pitfalls to look out for. There are sand stone, marble, limestone and granite stones. Generally all stones absorb moisture and when placed on the ground for finishing it has to be specially treated for water

Use of stone in a Traditional house

Use of stone in a Traditional house in Tibet

mark stains.Features such as sills, copings, cornices which has a catchments for water may be a source of water moisture problem.Where penetration of moisture in stones such as granite is not so, cavities for discharge of water should be provided.Compatibility of stones such as granite and limestone, hard stone and soft stones may cause cracking at joints. Stones of different acidity and alkalinity may causes problems at joints.

Rainwater with its acid may cause limestone to loose it shine and may cause it to fall down if not fixed correctly externally.

Limestone is one less durable stones. It offers the least durability to weather. Moisture is absorbed in to the stone, sometime to 20% and this can cause staining.

It is less durable than limestone but a good source of floor finishes that is elegant for the interiors of the house. It gives the domesticity and grandeur of richness.

Granite weathers very well and durable, used for external wall as of its weathering properties. It is extremely heavy and hard as such work ability is limited and carving of stone is done on softer stones.

Some sandstone has appreciable movement of moisture and therefore precautions are necessary as explain before for moisture movement

Flag stone
Flag stones are not a term used for type of rock but the manner by which are rock spliced off the is slices. They can be of many types’ flagstones such as granite, blue stone, slate, limestone. Their irregular shapes and surfaces make the stone attractive.

stone house

stone house

How do I use stone on my new architectural floor plans?
Stones works can be elegant or made a great rustic look. For elegance you need to crafts it well with skill. For rustic look you can use it as naturally as it exists for great looks.If you are new to this choose an architect
Use stones in its natural form as much as possible. Nature is beautiful don’t recreate its beauty.

Rule 2
Use contrasting color of the stones to accentuate them pg 126 –“Stonescaping Ideas” by Andrew Wormer

Rule 3
Use different textures to accentuate the other

Rule 4
Use the stones for its real purpose- for instance the stones on floor if it is soft but with possesses great beauty but will collect moisture and eventual discolor and loose it beautify and even wears off & erodes easily.

Rule 5
What architectural style are you thinking off, if you are thinking of Mediterranean style, or Spanish styles, don’t use stone that are glossy, shiny etc. Give it a natural white, natural stones, but a rustic look.A modern house, will have the clean, sharp edges, smooth walls and straight features, with modern tiles, marble, granite with its appropriate elegant finish. As a said before modern building can be designed with stone work and have a great look. check out my stone  designs at http://www.sda-architect.com/

Prepared by http://www.house-floorplan.com/

How to design kitchen

Here are the steps on How to design kitchen, wonderfully without hassle, but do contact  our architect should you stumble into difficulty.

typical kitchen layout

types of kitchen layouts

Step 1: Firstly you have to make decision on aspects of kitchen before designing a kitchen, which one of these you would like to have in your kitchen: if it was a:

  • Modern or old traditional kitchens.
  • If you choose traditional- do you want a Rustic or ethnic kitchen
  • Visible kitchen for show or Functional kitchen for cooking
  • List of cooking Equipment you want in the kitchen
  • Materials you would like in kitchen
  • Color theme you would like-white shades, brown shades or a dash of brilliant colors
kitchen interiors

nice kitchen designed for views

Step 2: Have a plan of your kitchen, overlay over a grid paper for easy references.

Step 3: Make a template of your kitchen equipment that you decided on step 1

Step 3: Place all the templates of the kitchen on the plan.

Step 4: Are you lost with ideas of the layout? Move on to step 5

Step 5: The 3 main kitchen fitting and equipment are: Sink(S), Fridge (F) and Stove (St), most of the architectural floor plans will have the abbreviations for these 3 equipment s as I have shown you. These are suggestions by the Architect or designer.They are usually place in a linear way or in a triangle relations ship. See diagram below

Step 6: Have you got that done, choose either on e of the layouts, if you have extra fridges than you may want to locate them as you wish.

Step 7: Now you have the basic kitchen layout. You need to ask, about:

  • what about the window, and views from the kitchen, are you getting the picture
  • what about the mud room relationship with the Fridge.
  • What about preparation area for food for prior to cooking.
  • Top cabinets and bottom cabinets
  • Do I need a pantry for storage of spices? Is a separate pantry room or can I make do with the cabinets in the kitchen.
  • Other kitchen equipment s such as microwave, bread maker, rice cooker, toaster,
  • Is there any special kitchen fittings that you may need.
  • A great cook needs a lot of space for storage of grinder, juice squeezers, etc Plan for these in your new floor plan before it is too late.Do I need a breakfast corner for morning rushes or for a good chatting moment at the kitchen?
  • Asian cooking-use of oil in the kitchen needs a little extractor to extract the oil in the air. Otherwise you may have a thick layer o wax in your kitchen and dinning area.

Step 8.What materials do I want to use on my kitchen.( this will be done in other articles, for great house floor plans check at http://www.sda-architect.com/


*1, pg 51…”Country Living easy Transformations Kitchen” by Cynthia D’Aprix Sweeney

*2pg 51”Great American Kitchen collection “ by Meredith Corporation

How to design a fireplace in my house floor plan layout.

The question of How to design a fireplace is s tricky one as the technology has made the fire place redundant, but modern home continue to use the fireplace as a symbol for Living room, and in most older designs it will serve the original purpose to keep the house warm.These are the steps, for which ever the intent of the fireplace is:

Firstly lets discuss why a fireplace? It adds value to your house, it is the center of the house during winter, it adds decoration to the house- It adds beauty and a warmth environment to the home.In a good house floor plan layout, you need to consider the following in your house design:

  • Where locate
  • Styles and Function of fireplace
  • Material used for fireplace

Where to locate Fire Places?
Traditionally, Fire Places were always located in the dinning room, where the roof ridge line meets. For this reason the summer rain and snow melting will not flow into the house. But there is no rules where to place them.

Styles and Function of fireplace
There are 4 basic styles

1) Masonry structure with firebrick internal lining

2) Masonry structure with internal metal lining

3) Ready to install metal fire place with metal chimney

4) Modern electrical fireplaces which has the look of fireplace but run by electricity.

The function of a fire place is to generate heat, and the 90% of heat is lost into the chimney in the traditional fireplaces. And if fireplaces are not built properly it will smoke.|A log home does not look natural if there is not fire place. A fire place gives the ambiance of warmth and coziness of a home. Lastly it is the place of beauty.

Material used for fireplace
The fires place is made of masonry or concrete through out till the chimney above .In case of concrete fireplaces you could line it externally with bricks, or stone work finishes. In the interior the fire places could be a place decorated with timber joinery for display of family photo, seat of decorative items, etc. It is a place of beauty.

Prepared by http://www.sda-architect.com/