How to Build Log Houses

In building a Log House, you need the a strong foundation,following that you need to build the Sill Logs and lastly ensure the Logs are anti-termite treated.

A)Foundation

On hard ground where bedrock is close to the surface, buildings usually require only a minimum foundation.Good rock base is a foundation by itself and poor ground conditions such as muddy ares make poor ground conditions and the foudnation need to increased. There are many types of foundations such as Per Foundation ,Slab Foundation,Perimeter Foundation,Basement Foundation,Perimter Foundations,Footing Foundations etc.

The  Types of foundation used in a Log house:

1– Pier foundation:

Its the simplest and least expensive, where concrete or flat stones are mortared or laid dry.

2– Slab Foundation:

The Slab Foundation for a home plan is a simple kinds of foundation where a concrete slab is used as the foundation.Slab foundations are like a raft that floats in the water. It is also called Raft foundation. The rafts foundation keep the house float in a soft ground.

3- Perimeter Foundation for a house floor :

It is made from concrete, concrete blocks, or sometimes stones. Follow the architectural Floor Plan very closely with respects to the dimensions as this will cause the finishes to look tardy, if it is not correctly followed. The ceiling lines, the tiles finishes and the wall straightness will appear tardy if the dimensions of the Log House floor plans are not strictly followed.

4- Full Basement Foundation:

This is the most complicated type of foundation, Its made of poured reinforced concrete or concrete blocks.
 Note: Regardless what type of foundation is chosen a proper footing is needed to be placed slightly below the frost levels.

How to make the foundation for a log house?

Step One: Establish the Boundaries.

1-Establish the exact outside boundaries of your home using a 2”x2” stakes, nails & a rope.

2- Make one end of each stick sharp to be able to drive it into the ground easily.

3-After placing the sticks hammer a nail into the upper center of each stake

4-Once the stakes are placed in position use a rope and connect it to the nails on top of each stake

5-Once three stakes are connected you will able to outline an approximate 90 degree between two walls.

6-Make sure that the angle between the two walls is a perfect 90 degree angle using a triangle with proportions of 3:4:5

Step Two: Erect Batter Boards:

1- The batter board is made by driving 2″x4″ stakes into the ground in an L shape around the corners

2- Nail, a 1”x4’ or 1”x6” batter board, to the stakes to create a right angle and it have to be set back at least 4 feet from the outline stakes and the height is minimum 18″

3- Make sure all batter boards have been installed on all corners at the correct height.

4- Tie weight to builder’s string and drop them over the tops of the batter boards and drop a plumb bob where the two strings cross.

5-Make sure the plumb bob falls exactly on the nail head in the corner stakes this locates the outside boundary of your foundation.

6- Use the same method to locate the inside boundary but by deducting the width of the proposed foundation.

B)How to Build Log Houses– Perimeter Foundation & Full Basement Foundation

Perimeter Foundation:

  • It can be made of concrete, concrete blocks or concrete faced with stones.
  • If made of concrete it can be Single pour and Double Pour (footing and foundation).

Single Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • It’s not used as much as the separately poured footing and foundation.
  • However it simplifies the task and cut down on time.
  • Lay out the outside dimensions of the footings, the wall thickness and outside boundary of the wall on the batter boards using the house floor plan.
  • Then position the builder’s string to show the dimensions.
  • Excavate the footing and construct the forms.
  • Bring All Service pipes in below the footing and frost line before pouring the footing.
  • Make sure any low spots under the edge of the footing are filled with stones

Double Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • The footing is usually poured separately from the foundation.
  • If the soil is stable, the footing is poured directly in a trench dug without forms.
  • If the soil is less stable, forms must be constructed to hold the concrete in place.
  • The forms must be leveled by using the carpenter’s level and stones are used to fill up the holes around the form to keep the concrete from running out
  • If pouring without forms drive small wooden stakes into the soil at the bottom of the trench where their tops should be level with the height of the footing.
  • Pour the concrete and smooth more or less to the height of the stakes then pull the stakes out and fill the holes with concrete and smooth over.
  • Form a key in the footing to help hold the concrete foundation in place and it can be done by using a beveled 2”x4”. However in the tropical countries water stop is need to be added to prevent water seepage.
  • Reinforce the footing with two to three reinforcing bars spaced about 3”-4” off the bottom of the trench.
  • Make an inspection after the form for the footings are completed.

Pouring the Foundation for the House Plan:

  • After the footing has cured for 5-6 days the foundation can be formed.
  • Remove the footings forms and construct the form for the foundation.
  • Individual sections of forms should be nailed together from the outside.
  • Set up the outside forms first and level it by using the carpenter level and then do the same on the inside forms.
  • Higher and larger foundation walls should be poured slowly to allow the concrete enough time to set up.

Basement Foundation:

  • Basement foundation has the same fundamentals of the perimeter foundation however its has additional features such as:
    • Foundation drains.
    • Insulating the basement.
    • Basement floor.

Foundation Drain & Basement Insulation:

  • A drain should be placed around the foundation to help carry off excess water that collects at its base.
  • Put a 2” layer of gravel around the outside of the bottom edge of the footing.
  • Then put clay drainage tile or perforated plastic on top of this around the outside of the footing.
  • Throw from 2”-6” of gravel over the clay drainage to extend it up over the top edge of the footing by at least 2”.
  • If you need insulation for the basement, install 4” thick batts of rigid foam with moisture barrier below the concrete floor and on the gravel. It can be installed on the outside of the foundation wall as well.

Basement Foundation Floor:

  • Usually poured after the foundation forms are removed.
  • Before pouring the floor first position the drain as needed.
  • The floor drain should be ½” below the surface of the finished concrete floor.
  • Pouring basement floor should be done with a fast pace to prevent the concrete from setting up before you can get it all finished.

C.)How to Build Log Houses –Construction Lesson 1 (Sill Logs, Floor and Joints)

What are the Sill Logs?

Sill logs are the logs that rest directly on top of the foundation and its connected to it by the anchor bolts.

How to Choose Your Logs?

  • Just about any type of log can be used, as long as it’s relatively straight and it is around 8”-10” diameter.
  • It has only minor tapering no more than 2”. And the length for it is around 16 ft.
  • Conifers such as pine, fir, spruce and tamarack are preferred because these softwoods are workable, durable and relatively lightweight.
  • Hardwoods, particularly oak can also be used, though their sapwood is highly susceptible to infestation by borers and fungus.

Sill Logs:

  • After completing the foundation based on the house plan the work on the upper part of the house begins.
  • The first step in the house structure is to install the sill log on the floor plan
  • Note: this is an important part of the job because if the sills are not laid as mentioned in the house floor plan and if its not laid squarely and securely that might effect the whole structure.

Steps of Constructing the log house Sill Log.

  • If you don’t want a full basement, you must excavate the house plan dimension at least below the frost line, install footings and construct a wall up to 20 in. above grade level.
  • You must also install piers within the foundation walls as mentioned in the architecture plan to support the floor girder. Also, install anchor bolts along the top of the walls to attach the sill.
  • Begin floor construction by hewing or cutting flat the bottom of the sill logs.
  • Then make holes in the sill logs to fit in the anchor bolts and install sill sealer or a termite shield according to the local building code.
  • The corner joints are made by bottom notching the logs based on the house design.
  • Hew flat the top of the girder and install it over the support piers.
  • Join it to the sill with a mortise and tenon joint. Drive nails through the top of the tenon and into the mortise to complete the joint.

Steps of constructing the log house sill log and floor:

  • In a similar manner, hew or cut flat the top of the joists and install them between the girder and sill logs so they are flush with the top of the girder.
  • Install the sub flooring perpendicular to the direction of the joists. Now you’re ready to start on the walls as designed in the architecture plan.

Steps of constructing the log house wall joints:

  • Many different types of notches can be used to join the logs, but a good choice for the beginning log builder is the scribe, fit, round-notch method.
  • It features semicircular notches cut in the bottom of the logs to fit over adjacent logs. Also, a V-shaped groove is cut down the length of each log bottom so the entire length can sit flush on the log below.
  • Although this method is slower than others, the corner joints are self-draining-water running down the outside of the house hits the log tops and runs off, instead of being trapped in the notch.
  • The V-grooves also eliminate air drafts between the logs.
  • The joints between courses do not need chinking, so you can avoid one of the most chronic maintenance problems of log homes: repairing cracked chinking.

D.How to do Termite Treatment

Hello there this article will be discussing about the termites treatment which is one of the important aspects in construction. Termites are small, pale soft-bodied insects that lives in large colonies with several different castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth. Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly destructive to trees and timber While each termite species thrives in different climates and eats different types of food, all termites require four things to survive: food, moisture, shelter and optimal temperature. Unfortunately, all homes, regardless of their construction type, can provide these ideal conditions for termite infestation.

Before Construction

Treating termite before construction can help you defend against possible claims in the future. Where construction specification for several projects requires the protection for termite in their finishing’s. To help you in dealing with this problem this article will provide you with some tips that you must incorporate in your construction activities. Food and moisture resources around and inside home should be eliminated because termites are attracted towards moisture.

Where Are The Termites?

Termites are frequently living where there is a high concentration of moisture and dampness. In old houses these are frequent problems because they tend to live in obstructed or block water supply and sewerage pipes. Also there is evidence that inside wood products or decaying wood surfaces are high probability areas for a termite to live in where they end up actually eating wood and wooden products inside your house.

Pre Construction Chemical Treatment

Termite treatment in pre-construction stages includes few steps that must be done to ensure an area of termite-free construction.

Treating the soil before any slab placement with insecticides is the most common method of termite treatment. This will form a chemical barrier between ground slab and masonry that will prevent the insects to approach the building. The chemical treatment can be done as follow:

  • Before making the foundation the bottom and sides of excavation must be treated with chemical products.
  • make holes in the earth where slabs on grade will be built and fill them with chemical products.
  • Be sure to use chemicals where walls and floors intersect.
  • Treat the perimeter of the construction by making holes filled with chemicals all around the structure.
  • In pipe beddings fill an area with chemical products to secure the future of the piping.
  • Use specific anti-termite chemical to treat the portion of the buildings were wooden products such as cabinets, doors, among others, will be placed.

Post-construction termite treatment

We can’t be acting in the pre-construction chemical treatment all the time. Sometime termites are found after construction, so what can we do?

Start with an assessment of the entire area before starting any kind of treatment. A deep investigation will determine the extent of the damage, if any damage is found then determine the location of the termite, the access points to the structure and their spread in the area. The following tips should be kept in mind during chemical treatment.

  • As in the pre-construction process, make holes and filled them with chemicals, to create a barrier around the house.
  • Treat the floors and walls by drilling holes and filling them with chemicals. All walls or the vast majority of the walls have to be treated to ensure that no more spreading will continue.
  • Apply chemicals on all points of contacts of wood with the ground or with any part of the building.
  • The voids in masonry can be used with anti-termite treatment.
  • Change and replace wood products or furniture that have high impact and presence of termites, beyond any limit of reparation.

Precautionary measures

When all measurement are taken, perform these simple steps to ensure that your area keeps free of termites.

  1. Keep drains and gutters clean to avoid leakage Make sure that there are no blockage, filtration nor broken pipes with excess of moisture around them.
  1. Eliminate sources of moisture Do not leave unattended areas where there is a high concentration level of humidity. Clean those areas constantly to asure that it wont face the same problem again.
  1. Destroy termites Apply chemicals as soon as you detect areas where termites are being reunited to avoid the spreading of it.
  1. Remove Wood Products.Remove wood products that have had the presence of moisture or have been in contact with water for a long period of time.
  1. Eliminate the wood contact with the ground.Do not bury direct pieces of wood in the ground for any use to avoid the moisture from getting in it.
  1. Fill junctions or voids.If you notice some voids of open space between the building and the ground, act quickly and fill those areas to avoid termites getting in the house.

The Chemicals Used for the Treatment:

There are currently several general kinds of termite chemicals registered for soil treatment. All termite chemicals are effective for their intended purpose but the choice often boils down to toxicity and odour versus longevity and resistance to leaching. The water based termite chemicals do not contain solvents and are odourless. Some of the water based termite chemicals include Premis, Biflex Aqua and Termadore. The Premis is a chloro-nicotinyl type termite chemical and has a toxicity rating of S5. Premis termite chemical remains effective for atleast two years. The Biflex Aqua is a synthetic pyrethroid water based termite chemical with a toxicity rating of S6. Where its recomennded to do a re-treatment of termite treatment with Biflex Aqua after five years for maximum effectiveness. The Biflex Aqua gets binded very quickly and strongly to the soil particles and provides a best option where moisture movement in the soil is a factor.

Prepared and desinged  by: Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Check out our log house designs :

Check out for some great and handsome architectural floor plan for Log house at:

http://www.sda-architect.com

Energy Saving for your Dream Home by 75%-100%

Key words: Energy Saving, Dream Home, ZeroCarbon, Insulation, Insulate the roof, Smart Landscaping, Energy saving Lights, Energy Saving Air conditioning ,BAS Controls, Photo Voltaic Panels, Air conditioning Units, Microwave, Refrigerator, Oven, Home Entertainment, Water Heater

If you are living in a double story terrace house your average bill should be RM170-200 per month
If you are living in a Bungalow your bill should be RM450-500 per month
The kitchen consumes 45% of the energy in the house

Net Zero Energy House

1.) Orientation
If your orientation is along the East West Direction you should easily save electric bill by 15%

solar path, NZEB design

Energy efficient design

  • Insulation

-If your Building is insulated well you will save your electric bill by 15%
-How do you insulate your building, you need to protect the setting sun from heating the building. The sun heats up your walls,
roofs and the heat is transferred to the inside and the home is warm.

-Insulation of Roof

Roof insulation ,Zero Energy Homes

Fiber glass insulation of roof at ceiling,Zero Energy Homes

Fiber glass insulation,Zero Energy Homes

Insulate the walls with fibre-galss insulation,Zero Energy Homes

2b) Insulate the walls

-ensure the walls are designed for Thermal Zones and walls of the setting sun does not affect the walls.
Heat will be transferred to the floors

2d) Insulate with Smart Landscaping

– use green walls to shade the walls as they will keep temperatures down by
5 degrees. Smart landscaping will keep temperatures down

smart landscaping saves energy,Zero Energy Homes

duplex BRICK House,Zero Energy Homes

zero enegy homes, graph-showing-temperature-range-for-summer

 

2e.) Aprons shall be landscaped to avoid Thermal Bridging

Heat Loss by Thermal Bridging,Zero Energy Homes

Minimize the heat transfer form the outside,Zero Energy Homes

  • Use Energy saving Lights

    -Using high performance LED lights , you save electric bill by 15%

LED lights are energy saving,Zero Energy Homes

LED lights are energy saving,Zero Energy Homes

  • Use Energy Saving Air conditioning and Fridges

    -Using Energy saving Equipment, you save electric bill by 20%. will be discussed below:

  • Use BAS Controls

    -Using BAS controls systems with motion sensor etc you will save your electric bill by 15%

,Zero Energy Homes

BAS, Building Automation system

  • Use Solar Hot water system

    -Using Solar Hot water system, you will save by 5% of your electric bills

Renewable energy for water heating,Zero Energy Homes

Hot water systems from using clean energy save the global warming,Zero Energy Homes

  • Use Photo Voltaic Panels

    -Using PV Panels,you will bring the electric bill to Zero

Photo Voltaic Solar Panel,Zero Energy Homes

Photo Voltaic Solar Panel,Zero Energy Homes

Energy Saving EQUIPMENT S for Zero Energy Homes

Some guide lines for your equipment’s used at home to save energy and energy efficient homes.
These are some ways you can reduce higher energy consumption
a) Faulty appliances will
-Refrigerator with faulty thermostat
-broken and defective caskets
– shortage of refrigerant
b) Longer duration of usage of appliances will cause higher energy consumption
c) Old appliances will cause power will cause higher energy consumption
d) small units with an over load will cause will cause higher energy consumption

The energy consumption can be reduced by tweaking the House Hold equipment  by:

  • Refrigerator

    -it should not be located in a warm place eg near the sun or cooker stove
    -there should be adequate space behind the and around the equipment.
    -Check the freeze temperature should be at -18deg C
    -The temperature of the freezer should be at 5deg C
    -Frost build up shall not exceed 6mm(1/4 inch) thickness
    -Food arrangement in a way to have adequate space between the food
    -When you are going on a holiday clean the refrigerator
    -Avoid open the fridge frequently
    _Plenty of space between and the sides for energy savings

  • Microwave

-ensure the gasket for wear and tear, replace it if defective
-defective hinges
-Microwaves saves about 10-25% of heat compared to electric oven for heating and reheating
-it save 75% energy for cooking compared to electric ovens

  • Air conditioning Units

-AC units are installed away from the direct sun
-the size shall be the correct size
-the temperature setting for the air conditioning is to be 24-25 deg C for comfort
– the air filter is cleansed
-the outside coil is cleansed at least twice a year
-the blower unit is cleansed once a year
-heck the refrigerant once a year.

  • Oven

-Preheating is a waste of energy and 10 minutes before the cooking time, switch off the oven saves about 25% energy
-Thaw frozen food before cooking
-cook several dishes at one time
-keep the door closed if inspection is needed peek through the window

  • Home Entertainment

-equipment’s are switched off at the plug, standby mode consume power
-ensure the power saver function if the computer is activated when left idle in between activities

  • Lighting

-Lights use are EE(energy efficient typ) eg Fluorescent type should be Energy
-Saving Lamp or Compact Fluorescent lamp, CFLs instead of incandescent type
-switch off when not in use

  • Water Heater

-Use the instant water heater compared the central water heater as it stores heated water and most times they are wasted. If you are choosing a storage type, get the correct size. A capacity of 25 liter is enough for a family of 4-5 members.

Energy Labels

When buying the appliances check for Energy Labels

-Air conditioning -EER(Energy Efficiency Ratio) the higher the ratio the more efficient is the air con. A minimum of 8 is good.

Zero Energy Homes

 Energy Labels for Zero Energy Homes

Lastly ensure when the Energy Labels are shown in your House Hold Products your purchase. Products  from the US, Thailand, UK and  Australian  have Energy Star Labels

Zero Energy Homes

Energy-Star Label. Energy efficiency, Zero Energy Homes

If you need further information with regards to converting your home to  Zero Energy Homes contact us for more information, If you need design a Net Zero Energy Home, kindly  contact us for further advise. Visit our website for products which will decrease your electric bill at http://www.sda-architect.com/

Prepared by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam

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So you want to be an Architect

Architect

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

 Duties of Architects

An Architect is a professional who designs building plans. These plans are called schematic or conceptual drawings
 He will further go to seek the approval from the local authorities. By doing this, he will seek to comply with the Local By-laws
or the Building Codes. He will then produce tender drawings for the building.

Production of Drawing by Architects

The tender drawings are drawing which the tenderer  (contractors) are called in to bid for the project. The successful
bidder is awarded the construction of the building. The successful bidders or tenderer is called the contractor.

Architects produce the construction drawings. which may differ from the tender drawing. The construction
drawings are used by the contractor to construct the buildings.

Supervision of Construction by Architects

The Architects (architecht) supervises the construction of the building by the Contractor.He ensures the building
is built to the standard Codes of Practices in the country, In the US the AS(American Standards) are used. In the UK the
BS( British Standards) are used. In Japan , JAS(Japanese Standards) are used. These standards establish the quality
and workmanship standards the contractor is to abide in. These standards are specified by the Architect(archetec)
in the Tender document. The tender documents during the construction are called contract documents. He administers
the contract document during the construction. On completion of the construction. he issues certificates for completion of the
building. The accounts are settled called final accounts. The Final certificate and many other certificates are issued by the
Architect during the construction to the contractor.

During the construction. the Architect (architecs) instructs the Contractor to construct the building and administers
the contract.On completion. he seeks the consent of the Local authorities for issue of the Certificate of Fitness or
Certificate of Completion and compliance
.
The  Architect (archite) is bound by the jurisdictions of the contract.

Responsibility of Construction

The Architect’s responsibility for the building is until his death. If the building collapses or fails, he will be called upon,
is answerable for the collapse or failures.He uses consultants such as a Structural engineer, civil engineer, mechanical
engineer, electrical engineer, Quantity Surveyor, landscape architect,town planner or any specialist consultants to
help him complete the design and construction of the building. Other specialist consultants may be anEcologist
for biodiversity design, an Energy consultant for Net Zero Advice, an Acoustic consultant, a Geotechnical specialist,
Environmental Engineer, Traffic engineer,Surveyor, External lighting consultant, a Facade consultant , Interior designer etc.

Origin of the word “Architect”

 The word architect derives from the Latin architectus, a Greek  derivative for (arkhi-, chief +tekton, builder),
which means chief builder.
The builder and the designer were one and all which were some times referred to the Master
Builder or Master Architect.

Use of the word” Architect” by other professions

The terms architect  are used in other disciplines such as Landscape Architects, Naval architects and in
IT network architects  or software architects.The uses of the terms “architect”[3] and “landscape architect” are
legally protected for building purposes and  not for IT. However the concept of one who organizes the spaces
within the “IT world of spaces” is a derivative from Building Architect
.

Challenges of  Architects

When Architects says that he is practicing, he is providing the above services in a professional
capacity. He does not mean he is employed by another but rather that he is running his own company which is an
Architectural entity.Architecture or Architect has to be specially trained in many areas that he is usually more
useful only with time and not when he is out from the academic training from his university. A fresh engineer is
rather useful when he graduates, a medical doctor is able to prescribe medication to a patient when he is a fresh
graduate, but  not for an Architect. He is in his prime at a late age of his career.

Recent Trends of Architecture

The above duties are rather the rudiments of an Architect but a good architect is one who provides not merely
the design of buildings, but goes one step further to encompass the needs of the building owner and creates
an ambiance which is felt. The ambiance may be a feeling of emotions of the spaces. The feelings and emotions
are created by being in the space. Sounds of running water or falling water created. The natural lighting may be
reflected within the spaces to create a spiritual feeling of reverence. Textures of materials are used to denote
character of the spaces, or cultures. Eg the Rustic Balinese architecture uses materials in it most natural forms,
which is characteristic of the Balinese architecture. In recent years the Efficient use of Energy is a call for
the global weather changes to reduce the CO2 emission in the air. The loss of many hot spots biodiversity is called
for biodiversity in designs to save the heating planet.

  • Origin of Architects

Much have not been recorded in history about the original use of the word.It is Greek/Roman word for a builder.
But the design concept of building evolved with time.Initially building were built and often copied relentlessly
without much consideration to the environment or locality. But in more recent year much of the repetitive nature of
doing thing have been vigorously questioned . This was in line with the changes that took place in the West. In the
East, building was expensive and the construction was built for a purpose.Passive designs were incorporated in
Forts , water was used to cool and mitigate the  hot summers.The first Architects built the Pyramids, the temples
of India,the Great walls of China, ancient cities were planned in Grid lines in Mohen-Daro & Harrapa of the Indus
valley, the sunken Krishna City of India and the Incas of ancients Americas. Someone put together these buildings,
cities and structures .It would be inconceivable that it arose without some plans and designs.

  • Architecture

An Architect creates the Architecture,. The character of Architecture of the Roman, Indians,Chinese,Japanese,
Egyptian are different but they all use block work.This was the common materials that were used to create structures
for the purposes of its times. Most building were built as monuments to the deities of worship.The Chinese had during
the Sung Dynasty, volumes written about timber constructions and specifications.The Indus civilization came to an
abrupt end with remains tells the story of a great civilization that perished.
The Roman  world of Architecture derived from the Sumerian Architecture,which evolved from the Babylonian
architectures. The Babylonian Architecture influenced the Persian Architectures which influenced the Greek Architectures .
The Greeks civilization  influenced the Roman Architectures and Roman cultures.The Roman Architecture was called
the Classical Period.Roman architectural principles are adopted even in today’s world of Architecture. Read about the
Famous Architects Alive.

1)The Roman Classical Period

The first Architect of the Roman emperor was Vitruvius– he contribution was the design principles which influenced
the architectural principles we used today.The Romans discovered concrete and it was the technology of the times,
Much of the Roman building’s pillars and columns  were made of concrete.The re-bar was discovered by the American
merely 200 years ago. Therefore the limitation of concrete reduced the majesty of building built as of today.
Read History of Architectures,note the time line with a  comparison to other civilizations.

2)The Romanesque Period

3) Gothic Period

The Gothic Architecture bloomed soon after the Roman Classical Periods. The Father of the Gothic Architecture
was Abbot Suger was a principal person to lead the Architectural building of the times.The Gothic  structures were
used for church with aspired to the sky resembling worship to the God.

In a nutshell, the following were the Architectural movements that brought us, the Architecture today

4)  Baroque Period
5)  Classical Revival
6)  Gothic Revival
7)  Beaux-Arts
8)  Art Nouveau
9)  Modern Architecture
10)Art Deco
11) International Architecture
12)Deconstructionist Architecture

  • Practice of Architect

The Architect role is to design, provide estimates of the cost to construct the building, He may provide a Feasibility study,
showing the profitability of the building project. He may employ a QS to provide such information.He works with a team
of consultants to establish his design or specialism teams to complete the building.The client ( building owner)employs
the Architect to complete the task.His office is called the Architectural Patrice. Or he is said to be practicing architecture.

  • Design Role of Architect

The Architect designs the building from the Inception stage, to the Conceptual stage. These are the design stages that
proceed form here to the following Phases of Design:
1) Schematic Design Phase
2) Design Development Phase
3) Contract Documentation Phase
4) Contract Implementation and Management Phase 
At the Schematic Phase, the design and cost is produced and if the client is content with the design and the cost, he would
proceed to the Design Development Phase. Here he may submit the design to the local authorities for approval. On approval
he will week to the Contract Documentation Phases .During the Documentation Phase. all drawing are somewhat finalized
for the tender bidding. Lastly. the Contract Implementation Phase is when the contractor builds the design initially designed
by the Architect.

Architect may provide Supplementary Services in addition to the Basic Design Role. Such services may to in helping
the Client to select a suitable site.For instance. an Airport is large ndertaking and involves much cost. In this instance. the

options of selecting a suitable location shall be done by a team of Airport architects, Airport planners, Airport  engineers etc
to complete which location is the best option.

  • Means of Design

The means of design traditionally were to make a produce drawing in sketches or perspectives and sometimes a scaled model was
made, to produced to illustrate the concepts. The manual approach is replaced by computer-aided tools.The  Softwares used  to
design are Google Sketch up,Archicad, Revit,Rhinoceros,3-D Max, lumion etc.
The drafting boards, with T squares,Set squares and pens are have replaced with the drafting Softwares such as Autocad etc

  • Environmental role

Building are emit about 40% of the CO2 in the atmosphere . Architects now play an important role to reduce the CO2 emission in the air.
Building, cities and countries are called upon to reduce CO2 in the air by the UN. This will help to reduce the rapid deterioration of Global
warming.Green and Sustainable design or energy efficient buildings are now the call for Architects in this Environmental role. The
following are the environmental concerns for architects: Loss of Biodiversity,Zero Carbon Emissions,Green and Sustainability designs.

  • Construction Role

The Architect ensure the building he designed is built as per his plans.He is responsible until the building is built and handed over and
his responsibility remains with him until he dies.

  • Alternative Practice and Specializations

An architect has many options to work as a Project Manger for the client or contractor, He has options to be an Arbitrator ,adviser for buildings to a council, editor for magazines, write articles for newspaper on architectural matters, be a lecturer as an Architect.He may be employed by banks, City councils,Contractors, Developers or PWD ( Public Works Departments).

He may specialize in areas such as Architect Planner, Architect with Legal experience,Net Zero Energy Architect, Green Architect and  Architect cum Interior Designer.

  • Professional Requirements

An Architect professional requirement varying from country to country. Generally. a degree in Architecture may not be sufficient,
He may have to complete a post graduate studies till he is proficient in the business of Architecture.The accepted universities are listed by the Board of Architects in the country. He registers as a graduate Architect with the Board and he would be required to sit for an examination after 2-3 years as a graduate architect. On passing the examinations he then would be eligible to practice architecture in that country.With the TPPA is in place soon, a profession architect from one country is allowed to practice in the TPPA nations without inhibitions. For now most nations protect the architect from practicing in another nation.In the US, the architects register with AIA,American Institute of Architects to practice . In Australia they register with the AIA, Australian Institute of Architects and in Malaysia architects register with LAM, Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia to practice as Architects.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

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Green Architecture,Green city,Low carbon economy,net zero cities, net zero country,,Green Architect,Architect, Net Zero building, net  zero, Zero Net, Net Zero Energy Buildings,NZEB

Green vertical walls

Green Architecture

Green Architecture-a misunderstood word

Green Architecture is probably misunderstood and misrepresented ie the Green certification program make a building Green.Neither is it that  merely planting of green plants in building does not represent Green Architecture. Existing Green Certification programs exists but the focus is skirting the topic and issues at large.

But rather ,the planting of Green plants must have a purpose, which ought to be, to provide benefits of eco biodiversity, reap the benefits of health as  type of home affects your health and improves the Biodiversity of the surrounding environment.
And it ought to saves the eco system and our future depends on it. Our future and sustainability depends on it on how we teat the Climate system, which we all share..Global temperatures are rising and it is said that the most conservative calculation indicates a temperature increase by 2-6 degrees C by the year 2100. The climate systems are being aquandered.Our Eco Biodiversity is being lost rapidly. The Loss of biodiversity ought to be the primary reason for Green Architecture. Buildings and Infrastructures are to design the strcutures with a restoration of biodiversity –Restorative Biodiversity design Biodiversity design,otherwise our future sustainability will be affected to the brink of disaster of out civilisation.

Vertical green architecture

green vertical wall

Loss of biodiversity

What is biodiversity? Read on biodiversity.
The design of the  The loss of biodiversity is to be the primary focus  in designing our buildings and it comes with many names-some call it:
1.Hyper Green designs
2.Green Architectural design
3.State of Art Green design
4.Ecological green
 design
5.Eco green design
6.Restorative environmental designs
7.Bio-diversity designs

Green Architecture Designs
It is planting of a vierty of plants( fauna) to encourage the viriety of animals( fauna) and the ground should be rich( habitats) for these growth.The planting of trees should be a combined effort of Landscape Architect and a Ecologist to produce diversity of plants , animals and habitats for its survival. Biodiversity should be further enhanced by incorporating EM-Effective Microbes. Effective Microbes which kills the bad bacteria and help the flaura and fauna to live in a healthier environment.

Benefits of Loss of well being factor etc

Improving the biodiversity of the environment helps to improves healthier people, cleaner water,cleaner air and well being of people. It reduces energy consumption, reduces water footprint, energy footprint and ecological footprint.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Preview on the Book “Managing the Transition
to Low Carbon Economy”

The book has a good review of the policies that promotes and motivates the development of a Low Carbon society.
It covers the failures of Carbon Trading and how it could be restored.It has much good to offer in Policies and problems in the world of Carbon. It delves in the intrigues of Carbon trading and its failings.It also deals with matters relating to UN’s Financing Loans they provides to help developing nations to be Low Carbon nation. Overall it serves the purpose to introduce the subject.

This book forewarn clearly the issues at hand and delves in areas of Macro economy and down right to help and engaging the poor. that they may be in the receiving end . That the poor are not marginalized and receive nothing in the transition to Low Carbon Economy.

Managing Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

Managing Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

Policies for Low Carbon Economy

It deals with the aspects of macro economies and policies that motives the public, private and semi
private sector and the structural reforms to enhance the development of Low Carbon Economy.
It draws examples from Indonesia and Japan as model nations to follow. But Japan’s economy
is some what in a stagnant situation and Indonesia is still in a poverty stricken nation. But the
correlation ship between Indonesia’s growth and Low Carbon Economy is connected.
Japanese Government has  placed emphasis on the Low Carbon policies as a basis of growth for
the economy ,but in a real sense the logic of Japan economy developing because of the Low Carbon
emphasis does not hold water, as it has not proven to have produced substantial growth.
Perhaps authors contributing to the book, should have been from a building background
such as Architects,Planners or Landscape to give a balanced view point. As buildings contributes
to a massive 45% of the carbon emission. Architect, Urban Planner or even ecologist would
have done much justice to the idea of transition to a Low Carbon Economy. The reason are
simply 50% of the world population will live in the Urban areas by 2016, And building create
more than 50% of the carbon emission.

Policies on Carbon trading, Green Bonds, Green Financing, global cooperation with regards to
financing of Carbon Trading and how the Carbon Trading can be revived.

Fore warnings a high Carbon Global Economy

The dangers of failure to address the problem by the global communities would result in weather changes
–flooding, droughts, rising sea-water levels, melting of glaciers, increase of global temperatures.

Municipal and Industrial wastage for Low Carbon Economy

It deals with global wastage that are creating water pollution, GHG emissions etc.The reduction of wastage
will help in the reduction of carbon emission. But what are the solution for wastage reduction. It does not deal
with issues such as How do we address the wastage reduction. Richer nation have higher wastage not eh poorer
nations and does not deal with Wastage from the municipal wastage can be converted to energy and industrial
wastage can be recycled.

 Bhutan’s- the first Carbon negative country

He fails of draw example from Bhutan’s- the first Carbon negative country in the world. Using green alone in Bhutan and
using the green Hydro electric power to generate power and this power is given free to citizens so that they would not burn wood for cooking etc. He fails to see the simple solution in the Net Zero Energy by planting trees which sequesters the Carbon. Carbon sinks are created in the forest covers.Realistic approaches to Net Zero Carbon has not been addressed but great discussion are held on polices, funding, trading etc to motivate the economy.

Biodiversity for a Low Carbon Economy

It deals with loss of global biodiversity which in turn will affect the sustainability of human beings in the future.
Bhutan’s experience was to use Green Biodiversity such as creating a massive interconnected jungle for Tigers to
roam from one end to the other end by 4000 km of forest.This is to preserve the biodiversity. Using Biodiversity is
cheapest ways to transit to a Low Carbon Economy and even so the Best. Therefore the ideas from Town Planner,
Archtitect,Ecologist and Engineers were nopt engaged.

Japanese Carbon Policies on Low Carbon Economy

It make an example of Japan’s successful policies as a reference model. But is Japan a good show case model.It economy has relegated to below India after the Tsunami disaster . Perhaps the policies are eccentric and not bent on surviving  a disaster. In fact Bali has a better model to follow with regards to surviving a disaster and sustainability.

Helping the “Poor Centrist”

However the center of focus seems to be helping the poor centrist. The authors missed the point that Low Carbon needs is to be implanted for the poor and the rich. The attempt is often diverted to aid the poor through the transition seems to Low Carbon Society.a Low carbon will support the poor and support the rich.Finally no real solution are proposed on how to help the poor, but this theme is  replete throughout the book.

Readability of Book

The readability of content is not made for the ordinary; most people will be exhausted by reading a chapter or two, as it
requires much energy to get through the chapter.The readability need improvement to help the excellent ideas presented
for the masses and the busy executives and the policy makers who we are trying the reach.

Not an Introduction but a Mid Level Book

It is nevertheless a great book but not at a introductory level. Its does not define Low Carbon or terms that are generally
uses such as GHG emission, ecological footprints etc. it should have made  a great introductory to the subject for the simple and completed it with a depth articles on the subjects to reach all the sector to the general masses, the e poor, the educated, the busy and the man with little time.

Some Interesting Graphs for Low Carbon Economy

Many graphs have been used and this is useful to explain a point.Some of which has been illustrated here.
these graphs show the dangerous circumstances we are in and show the great urgency to thwart the
calamities, we heading towards too.

asian-c asian carbon-dependency-of-gobal-and-region

Carbon-emissions data of Asian Countries

Carbon-emissions-of-Asian-countries

carbon-emssion-by-major-emitters carbon-trading changes-in-carbon-emissions-of-asian-countries-2 energy-related-emission-in-aseanindia-and-china energy-useemissions-and-economic-growth global-municpal-waste japanese-experience-with-carbon-reduction-and-growth life-cycle-energy-use-in-buildings summary-of-indicators-for-emission-and-energy

Some Very Interesting Points discussed in the Book are:

  1. Even the most conservative prediction of future climate change foresees that the average global temperature
    at the end of this century will rise by 1.8o C– 6.0o C from the average at the end of the 20th century (IPCC 2007).
    The climate system is a shared resource and its stability is affected by emissions of carbon dioxide and other
    greenhouse gases. The average temperature of the earth’s surface has risen by 0.74 degrees Celsius (C)since
    the late 1800s and is expected to increase by another 1.8°C to 4°C by the year 2100 with massive environmental
    and socioeconomic implications for all of humanity (Solomon et al. 2007).
  2. The year 2007 marked the first time in history that over one-half of the world’s population lived in urban
    places
    . By 2030, 60% of the world’s population—almost 5 billion people—will live in cities. By mid-century
    the forecast is for two of every three people to be living in urban places. In Asia alone, 1 billion more people will
    live in cities in 2030 than in 2005. By 2015, there will be 22 mega-cities with populations of 10 million or more;
    12 of these will be in Asia.
  3. Ecosystems supporting current urban areas are already under stress.Infrastructure is one of the defining
    features of urban life and landscapes, and plays a critical role in shaping social resilience as well as the economic
    dynamism of cities. Infrastructure reflects the choices that governments make, both economically and socially,
    and provides insight into issues of equity, governance, and the strength of local institutions. Fast paced growth,
    both in terms of spatial area and resource demands, will outstrip the capacity of existing infrastructure to provide
    water,sanitation, and transportation, and will strain the carrying capacity of ecosystem services.
  4. The lack of climate-smart infrastructure is not just a problem in the global South—it is endemic in the
    industrialized countries as well. New York, for example, is struggling to adapt current infrastructure to the
    future effects of floods and storms, and to better plan future infrastructure projects. The transit, water supply,
    and sanitation infrastructure, among others, are all extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change and

    the city is ill-equipped to handle even today’s severe weather events, let alone increased severity and frequency
    of storms and sea level rise in the future.
  5. Effects of Global warming:An increase in temperature has the potential to disrupt rainfall patterns,cause
    sea levels to rise, and produce significant changes 12 Managing the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy in
    agricultural production.Other expected impacts include changes in crop yields,modifications to shipping lines,
    glacier melt,biodiversity loss, and an increase in diseases because of vector mutations.These events have the
    capacity to destroy lives, force vulnerable people to migrate, and contribute to food and water shortages.
  6. About 40 million people are exposed to coastal flooding events and by the 2050s the population exposed could
    rise to 150 million (Nicholls et al. 2007).
  7. Collectively, these climate challenges will severely constrain the ability of developing Asia to sustain its recent
    economic prosperity.
  8. Today Japan is a leader in energy conservation and has developed an industrial system that continuously
    improves its energy efficiency. They imposed taxes and encouraged energy efficient systems in buildings.
    A energy conservation law enacted in 1979. This energy conservation law stipulates the need to
    (i) identify energy intensive sectors;
    (ii) appoint licensed energy managers for energy-intensive industries; and
    (iii) buy and use products that meet mandatory energy performance standards
  9. The carbon intensity of developing Asia remains 1.4–4 times greater than that of the G7 industrialized
    countries.Asian economies aiming to reach a target of 20% of total supply from clean energy sources by 2020
    would require an investment of almost $1 trillion by 2030 (IPCC 2007).
  10. The IEA has estimated that $20 trillion worldwide is required by 2030. Of this, more than 60% will have to
    be invested in developing Asia.
  11. Most developing countries in Asia—with the exception of the PRC and India—spend little on research and
    development (R&D) on low-carbon technologies and have a chronic shortage of competent scientists,
    engineers, and managers with the skills needed to develop and apply low-carbon technologies. Toward a
    Low-Carbon Asia: Challenges of Economic Development 23 Instead, these countries rely on imported
    technologies and skills originating in developed countries.
    • instigating fiscal incentives to harness market forces;
    • creating safety nets for socially vulnerable people;
    • improving energy efficiency for high impact sectors;
    • avoiding carbon leakages; and
    • using public funding for low-carbon technologies.Realizing a low-carbon society hinges on the
      following key policy choices:
  12. Coal remains the major source of energy for the PRC (70%) and India (37%).
  13. Extensive deployment of technology-based policies in developing Asia reflects a range of factors.
    First and foremost, governments have acted on the more immediate motivations discussed in Section
    4.2 (i.e., energy security, local environmental problems, and technological advantage) by setting the targets
    shown in Table 4.4. As discussed further below, carbon pricing remains largely a prospective activity in
    developing Asia; therefore technology instruments are the only real means to pursue these targets at present.

    • Feed-in tariffs
    • Renewable energy certificates
    • Subsidies, Tax Incentives, and Lending for Deployment and Creating Market Demand
    • Public Finance for Research, Development, and Deployment (RD&D)
    • Technology Transfer
    • Carbon Pricing

    15.)Challenges in Policy
    a)If patent protection limits the ability of domestic manufacturers in 128 Managing the Transition to a Low-
    Carbon Economy Asia to adapt externally developed technologies, then, of course, their dissemination is
    ikely to be more limited. In order to mitigate this obstacle, Mathur (2011) proposes that developing countries
    be involved in international collaborative partnerships from the research and development stage
    b)Carbon Pricing-to ensure that carbon pricing is a realistic policy option as soon as possible.
    c) Energy Policy
    -Rapid rate of energy growth
    -Presence of energy subsidies
    – Politicization of energy pricing
    – Presence of energy rationing
    – Reliance on captive power
    – Constraints on flexibility in dispatch

    – Reliance on central planning in the electricity sector

    – Divergence from commercial orientation
    – Political difficulty of reform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check out with us on how to design a Low Carbon home or Low Carbon Building or village, or factory.
We are Net Zero Carbon Architect.

Preview of Book Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam.
Key words: Managing the Transition to Low Carbon Economy, Helping the Poor Centric, Bhutan’s-
the first Carbon negative country, first Carbon negative country,Carbon negative country,Carbon negative
Zero Carbon Emission country, Carbon Emission economy,Net Zero Carbon Emission country,
Net Zero Architect, Net Zero Emsiion,Architect,Green Architect, Biodiversity, Japanese Carbon Policies

 

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Bhutan’s Carbon Negative Strategy

Ecological Biodiversity

Biodiversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bhutan’s Problem-they have 2000 glaciers to contend with. One glacier melting will cause flooding. Blobal warming and climate change has affected them as floods destroys the  people property  and livelihood etc.72% of the country is forest covers; the constitution requires a minimum of 60% of Bhutan to be forest cover. Free college, health care is free, limited resources are used carefully. 600K people with GDP of USD 2Billion . The GDH( Gross Development Happiness) has a higher importance  than the GDP.

Bhutan’s Carbon Negative Strategy

The following are Bhutan’s Carbon Negative Strategy
i)Planting trees in the forest
ii)Trending towards a Paperless nation
iii)Protect the parks and pristine country
iv)Protect the biodiversity
v)Transition fund and full funding from donors.
vi)World life Fund works with Bhutan
vii)Global Biodiversity Hot-spots in the world to be Carbon Neutral ,It is carbon negative
ix) Rural Framers give free electricity so that they don’t need to use fire wood to cook food
x)  Subsiding the energy lighting
xi) Transport is using electric cars
xii) Clean up Bhutan all over
xii) Protected Area are carbon sink, Natural Parks, Reserves are connected, animals are free to roam through put the country, manage the forest Tigers travel 4000 miles from one place to another from one country to another.

Co2 Accounting of Bhutan’s Carbon Negative Strategy

i) Bhutan produces 2.2m ton of Co2,
ii) Forest sequesters 6 million Co2, net carbon sink is 4m tones each year
ii) Renewable Hydro Electric Power produces 17m tones,Co2 is offset, 6m tone per year

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Homes affects your Health

Green and Sustainable House Floor Plan

The type of Homes affects your Health

Green and sustainable home are a Homes with much landscaping within your home and
outside your homes helps you in so many ways. The type of home you live in affects
your well-being, your physical health, and your psychological well-being.

1)More Oxygen-Homes affects your Health

Firstly homes with Green plants tend to have more Oxygen inside your home.
The oxygen helps you with better health; Oxygen improves your immunity system, speedy recovery from illness, growth of cells.etc. Lack  of Oxygen, creates an incresed tendency to commit suicdes.

2)Faster Recovery from illness

Green homes  with good views of plants, helps you to recover from illness faster by 30%.Recent Research shows that you are better off faster. Therefore your medication is also reduced by 30%

3)Ionized the air-Homes affects your Health

Green homes ionized the air in your homes. There is less dust and your lungs
are healthier. UN reported that air pollution is the No 1 killer of the human being.
1 in 8 of dying human is due to polluted air.

4)Kills the bacteria

Green homes ionized the air. Ions kill the bacteria and viruses. Air is  free  of bad
bacteria and bad viruses keeps you healthier.Homes affects your Health. It noted that good bacteria shall
also be cultivated such as EM. Microbes helps to increase biodiversity, nutrients in the ground, removes odor,
cleans the grey waters, etc.It helps the good bacteria to fight the bad ones.

5)Productivity 

Research shows that Green homes make you more Productive and Productivity is improved.Architects are the best in
designing homes with green layout and efficient layouts.

6)Presenteeism

Research shows that Green homes make you more Presenteeism, more aware of happenings.
It makes one more attentive and improves cognitive responses.

7)Reduce the stressful

Green homes help to reduce the stressful and calms the nerves. Help speedy recovery from stresses.Homes or buildings designs using
straight edges and straight lines produces stresses people. Organic forms reduces the stress on th eyes.

8)Keeps you homes cool

Green homes keep your homes cool on a hot day and warm on a cold day.
The changes of temperatures of your homes are lesser. Temperature Diurnal
is 50 degrees C.

9)Lower your monthly electric bill

Green and sustainable homes lower your monthly electric bill, you pay
lesser and you feel better because it is cooler etc.It saves the heating and cooling bills.

10)Increases the property value

Green and sustainable homes increase the property value of your home.
Research shows that property values increased by 10 to 30% by Greening your homes.
Check out our Green and Sustainable house floor plans. BOOK a seat for Seminar on Net Zero Energy and Emission Building designs
Call us at +60172246801 ,on how we can help you in your homes.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Benefits of Biodiversity in Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans

Green ecohouse floor plans

Benefits of Biodiversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is a moral duty to protect life, nature and take good care of our environment. There is no value to life and value to nature . Once we lose the biodiversity, we lose nature  and  life itself. Therefore the stewardship of nature and vegetation  is necessary  and  it accrues these  benefits. The benefits listed here ranges from:

-energy savings,
-improved carbon footprint,
-improved water footprint,
-better health,
-speedy recovery,
-less stressed mind,
-improved productivity,
-cleaner air and cleaner water,
-better control of pest such as mosquitoes,rodents & lowers maintenance.

These are the 20 Benefits of Biodiversity  that an Architect can incorporate in home designs elaborated here below:

1.Energy Saving Benefits

According to recent research,the Living Roof’s diurnal temperature is about 3 deg C. It was found the conventional roof diurnal temperature is 50 deg C for Green roof ( Living Roof). Furthermore if the facades is shaded with landscape the temperature fluctuation can be reduced by 50%.

 2. Reduce Carbon Emission Benefits

In a Green Development rich with Biodiversity, the  portable water consumption is reduced .Less consumption of portable water directly reduces the carbon footprint. In the UK,the carbon footprint for production of portable water is 2 million tons .Interestingly, 60% of water consumption is from the commercial development. The Green house Gasses are sequestered by the natural vegetation. The Pine forest and the tropical forest and every plants and trees sequesters the CO2. Green vegetation helps to reduce Carbon footprint. The world carbon budget is 500-1000 billion tons of CO2. Every year we are consuming and we are in a deficit .We are emitting too much of CO2. If we exceed the budget limit, the average temperature will be 2 deg more that the pre-industrial period.Until our ecological footprint is decreased, the budget will be busted. It is time to increase and manage the ecological forestation. It is time to increase of biodiversity of flora and fauna and habitats. This will help to save the planet earth.

3.Resilience to Drought

The environment in Biodiversity is more adaptive and more tolerance to drought conditions. In an adverse drought the diverse field are less affected as they support one another in adversity.They reserve water for resilience to harsh weather conditions.

4. Resilience to Diseases

The environment in Biodiversity increases the Resilience to Diseases. The vegetation,fauna and habitats are more tolerant, resistant to pest and virus attacks.Stronger protection against Pest Attacks  then as in a Mono-cultures such as in plantations. vegetable gardens, animal farms. The forest and nature does not need pesticides nor insecticides to fend itself against the persistent attacks by insects and pest. The Pest maintenance cost is reduced.

5.Increase Sustainability

 Fertilizers consumption in bio-diverse environment is less. Infact it may not be used at all. There is an increase in its Sustainability in compared to mono culture. In nature they are not watered, they are not treated with  pesticides or insecticides. They are self-sustaining and are more towards self-reliance.

6.Reduce Urban Heat

In a Bio diverse urban space, the overall temperature of the space is lesser. This phenomenon is obvious as one visit Singapore which is planned as green city and then visiting Malaysia. Although Singapore is closer to the equator than Malaysia. It will have a direct impact on the Energy consumption when the temperatures are lower. This is attributed to the heat island effect.

7.Psychological well being

 One of the definition of well being in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is  by increase of connectivity to nature. Connectivity with nature such as cats, dogs, animals and nature calms the minds, reduces stress and helps the psychological well being. A Fishes in the aquarium help the calm the stressed mind .Likewise birds, dogs and butterflies does something to the human psychological well being.

8.Physical well being

Physical well being is improved as the air is cleaner with lesser dust and dirty gases such as SO2,CO,NO2 etc. Biodiversity reduce the air particles and bring about cleaner air, which according to UN report- the air Pollution is a no 1 killer. Air pollution kills   1 in 8 of the deaths globally . Our lungs are choked with dust and pollutants which is a major cost to human lives.

9.Reduce the water footprint

In a bio-diverse environment the blue infrastructure is introduced and the water footprint is reduces. Grey water is converted to Green water by bio diverse SUDs.

 10.Recovery from illness

Faster Recovery from illness – Hospital Patients in rooms which had views to nature. Green infrastructure and Blue infrastructure helps in Patient’s recovery by 30% faster .Patients uses 30% lesser of medication. Therefore bio phallic designs in homes, offices and workplaces will have a like recuperative effect. The stresses, pressures of works and good health is associated with biodiversity.

11.Reduce incidence of illness

12.Reduction of Stress

Plants, natural forms, fishes in the home of a heart patients has a faster recovery when in a bio diverse environment. The natural movement of Fishes in bowl or a dog in the house brings a certain calmness and in connection with nature. It helps the nerves to calm down tremendously. And so does it does the same for butterflies, birds, sound of the bees in our gardens to enhance our stress reduction.Organic forms in nature is less stressful than squares , rectangles and cubes.

13 Suicidal Tendencies

The healthy air will have a direct effect of our health. Vegetation removes CO2 and introduces Oxygen. The lack of oxygen in the air has a higher tendency to commit suicide, This is the same for those living in high mountains. Vegetation will help to decrease this tendencies.Vegetation increases the oxygen in the air. Oxygen helps our body function well with regard to improved memory and speedier recovery.

14.Tolerance to pain

Greater tolerance to pain. those living in environment with diversity of environment has a greater tolerance to pain.

15. Reduced medicine

Reduced medicine intake is reduced.

16.Productivity

People sitting next to window views of vegetation has a greater enthusiasm to work, productivity. In an bio-philic approach to design of a new office, the exercise proof that the occupants increase in productivity by 20%.

17.Cognitive Tranquility

Potted plant placed in office spaces, view of beautiful scenes and siting by the windows helps are likely to  improves their  Cognitive Tranquility.-20% increased Reaction time to a task and reduction of blood pressures.Those sitting with views to plants or landscape scene , response faster to a situation.

18.Reduce Urban Heat

 In the Singaporean experience, Mr. Lee Kuan Yee stated that Singapore had an edge over it neighbors and competitors as the Green city Model. It was a more attractive proposition.The property has an Increase edge  over it competitors.

19.Corporate Image

Furthermore it may be noteworthy that corporate image is at stake if Green and sustainability issues are not addressed in their developments as they may be under the scrutiny of the public eye, which may surmount to boycotts and anti-campaigns, fines by Governments and may cause their license to be revoked, which disrupts the chain supply and damage to brand image. The Benefits of Biodiversity cannot be numerated economically in numbers but the well being of humanity is our responsibility.

20. Increase in Value of Property

It was noted that property which was Green Bio-diverse had more greater value than those that were not green bio-diverse.

Benefits of BiodiversityRichness in Eco-Biodiversity, the benefits are simply abundant

 Green and Sustainable House  Plans can reap these benefits of Biodiversity if design of Green are contrived well into the design.

Check out our Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans , Click here which has been designed for benefits of Biodiversity

Check out our Green Architect, House Floor Plan, http://www.sda-architect.com/contact-us/
Abridged and enhanced by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam from the  Notes Designing for biodiversity: Productivity and Profit  by the British Council

Carbon Trading

The Kyoto Protocol,1992 in the UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change but adopted in 1997 established the basis of Carbon Trading, Carbon offsets.
192 nation agreed to reduce Carbon emissions, which Identifies the 6 GHG gasses as 1) CO2 2) methane, 3) N2O 4) hydrofluorocarbon  5) perfluorocarbon and 6) sulphur hex-fluorocarbon. All these gases are referred to as Carbon emission, Carbon dioxide is the weaker global warming effect but the amount of it is the largest amount. Before the Kyoto Convention 2 Convention were held to establish the basis of Carbon emission, what is was considered as Carbon emission etc.

Carbon Trading Price Fluctuations

carbon-trading graph

carbon-trading in Asia

Protocols

The Carbon Trading has been defined in 3 conventions as follows:
a) Earth Summit-Conference on Environment and Development –UNCED, Rio 1992
b) United Nation Framework Conference on Climate Change UNFCCC( not binding due to no time limit was set by the UN
c) Kyoto Protocol, 1997
Carbon Trading is under the purview of the UN, Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 and therefore the Kyoto Protocol is a treaty
In Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Trade is in charge of CDM. In Malaysia, 100 tonnes were traded in 2008, at RM4.8 Billion. I ton of carbon was  sold at RM48. The price of carbon rallied from US 25 – US 12 over these years.

Ways to earn Carbon Credits for Carbon Trading

There are a few established legitimate ways of Carbon trading , which are:
a) using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets are made
b) using wind turbines as Carbon Offsets are made
c) designing Net Zero Carbon Emission buildings or Net Zero Energy Buildings
d) Managing a forest ( Tropical) or wetlands, as the soil and tree sequesters CO2 by using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets is made
e) Investing in a Carbon reducing projects such as Renewable energy projects, Geo-Thermal, Biomass, PV solar panels, micro turbine and wind turbines.
How much can you gain by Carbon Trading?
A typical building as in a 100,000 sq ft of gross built commercial space up area can offset carbon 390 tons of carbon per year.
The financial amount you can trade is 390 ton per year xRM48/ton=RM18,720
Carbon Emission for Combustion Fuels
Coal…………………0,37kgCO2/kWh
Gasoline…………. 0.27kg CO2/kWh
Diesel………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Light Oil…………. 0.26kgCO2/kWh
Natural Gas………0.23kgCO2/kWh
LPG…………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Malaysian CO2 Emission Coefficient Rate is 0.631 kgCO2/kWh

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Carbon Trading

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Prepared by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam
Net Zero Emission Building Architect

Certifying Bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings

The certifying bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the US A are :
A) Department of Energy
, DOE, an equivalent to the Malaysian Ministry of Energy
B) Zero Energy Commercial Building consortium
C) New Building Institute. NBI
A nonprofit organization that provides research and improved energy performance in commercial buildings
D)International Living Future Institute

The Programs surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings are :
1)2030 Challenge
The top 80% of 10 Architectural firms and 70% of the top 20 Architectural firms use The Challenge 2030.whereby all developments, new buildings and major renovation shall be carbon neutral by 2030 in the US and thereby reducing the temperature by 2 degree below the pre-industrial times.Net Zero Energy Buildings are also refereed too as Zero Energy Buildings.

2)Ashrae Vision 2020
Ashrae is a strong supporter of NZEB, and where Ashrae Vision 2020 was developed to promote energy Efficiency. NZE is defined as uses as much energy as it produces as measured at the site.

The Industry Codes and Regulations  surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the world are: 
1)Security Act of 2007
2)Energy Independence and Security Act( Malaysian Renewable Energy Act)
3)California Public Utilities Commission
4)Massachusetts Zero Energy Building Task Force

5)European Union
The parliament passed a directive to achieve NZE by 2019 but focused on residential buildings and not commercial buildings: UK-Zero Carbon Hub to be carbon neutral by 2016, Germany-Passivhaus, Netherlands-energy neutral by 2020, France to be Energy positive by 2020.

The Building Codes surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:  
1)IgCC– International Green Construction Code
This code is developed in conjunction with AIA,USGBC (MGBC-a Malaysian equivalent body –Malaysian Green Building Council) , 2)ASHRAE,ASTM,IES
3)CalGreen, California Green Building
4)Standard 189.1

The Building rating and Energy Labelling Systems surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:

1) Energy Star
Is an energy labelling program of EPA( Environmental Protection Agency) and DOE( Department of Energy) It labels energy efficient products, homes, and commercial buildings. It scores on a table of 1 to 100.100 is a top performer. Energy Star does not recognize NZEBs. But the NZEB would score 90 in this program.
2) Leed/Green Building Index
The energy efficiency is the first and primary focus of the certification, one cannot obtain a platinum certification without designing for a high performance building. Incidentally the Net Zero building would easily obtain the Platinum with a marginal additional cost
3) Living Building Challenge by International Living Future Institute
Defines Imperatives for Net Zero Energy:

  • Net Zero Energy-if this imperative is not achieved it will not be qualified for the Living Building Challenge. The definition of NZEB are on: renewable energy, photo voltaic, wind turbines, water powered micro turbines, direct geo thermal. Biomass or combustion of any kind is not allowed. Hydrogen cell is allowed if energy is fueled by Hydrogen. Off grid connection is a must.
  • Site Imperatives-Site is restricted for gray fields and brownfields
  • Equity Imperatives-fresh air, sunlight and natural waterways
  • Beauty Imperatives-Beauty, spirit, inspiration and education

 

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Green architect Net Zero Energy Buildings Architect

 

 

 

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heck out our Architect, Green Architect, House Plan

 

Prepared by Ar. Perumal Nagapushnam

Net Zero Carbon Seminar and Net Zero Energy Seminar

Book NOW click here- Net Zero Carbon Seminar

Net Zero Energy Seminar

Net Zero Energy and Carbon Seminar

This is a  synopsis of the all the 14 talks In our  Net Zero Carbon Seminar .

Book NOW click here- Net Zero Carbon Seminar

 

We have organized this Net Zero Carbon Seminar with the intention to promote the idea in simplicity for all to understand. This will spear head the designs of buildings as Energy Efficient . Design of building will be a response to the call of global weather changes. This seminar is also some time refereed to as Architect Seminar,Architect training,Architect workshop,Engineering workshop,Engineering seminar, Engineering Training,Architect Conference, Engineering Conference, International Architect Conference or International Engineering Conference.

Talk 1. Targeting for  Net Zero Carbon Emission in Process and Product Design …Net Zero Energy Buildings
Synopsis of the Talk  Dr YewAi Tan

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At the UN Climate Summit in New York on 23 September 2014, the Prime Minister of Malaysia reiterated Malaysia's commitment towards reducing its carbon emissions, in terms of emissions intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by 40% by 2020. This will be implemented by reducing carbon emissions through new policies on climate change and green technology. Under the 11 th Malaysian Plan, RM 2.3 billion has been set aside for green technology based projects. This pledge, originally made at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCC) 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was conditional to receiving technological and financial assistance from developed countries. This year, Malaysia looks on track to hit the targeted carbon reduction emissions having achieved 33% reduction carbon intensity of its GDP. As GDP is the monetary value of finished goods and services, Malaysia will therefore have to grow its GDP without a parallel increase in emissions in order to achieve the 40% reduction.

The Climate Change problem will never go away on its own and ignorance on its seriousness is no longer an excuse for inaction. For effective mitigation

Net Zero Carbon and Net Zero Energy Cost

Net Zero Energy Cost Seminar

against climate change, there must first be acknowledgement that the burden must be borne by all. The next step will be how each and every one of us, the residents of planet earth, can help in reducing carbon emissions with a target towards achieving zero net carbon emissions. Before embarking on efforts to achieve zero carbon emission in process and product design, it is essential to be clear and familiar with the many terms and terminologies commonly associated with carbon emissions such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon footprint (CFP) , carbon capture, carbon sink, carbon neutral and energy neutral, etc. For example, CFP is defined as a measure of GHG emissions over the full life cycle of a process or product including the design stage, if applicable. It is the overall amount of not only carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions but also emissions of other GHG such as methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O),chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro fluorocatbons (HCFs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) that are directly and indirectly associated with a product along its supply chain. GHG emission is an integral part of all systems of production and consumption, In the case of a process or product design, each activity within a supply chain process step which is involved in the production or design of the product must be analyzed to determine CFP measured in mass units (kg, t) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq) emitted. Through a carbon audit, any sector of an industry (e.g. palm oil or building industry) can systematically address environment-sensitive practices along the whole chain in the design and process of a product. One of the most important move that can be taken is to ensure that all products and services made and provided involve minimal carbon emissions. To arrive at net zero carbon emissions, emissions must be offset or subtracted and ways to achieve carbon neutrality will be highlighted in the paper. Suggestions on the formulation of possible mitigation strategies to curb GHG emissions and ways to target for zero net carbon emission by balancing emissions with simple negative emissions solutions such as tree- planting and the use of other more advanced technologies including the use of renewable energy generated from waste products, the sun or wind will also be discussed. The goal is to provide required information on the importance of our shared responsibility to reduce carbon emissions in the hope of ending the high emitting and energy-hungry practices of the modern world.

Talk 2. ACMV system design for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the tropics in the  Net Zero Carbon Seminar

by Dr Stellios Plainiotis

Net-zero energy buildings (Net-ZEBs) are a quantifiable design concept and an absolute solution to minimize the operational environmental impact of buildings. However designing such advanced buildings presents a challenge because there is no established design strategy to methodically reach the goal and many of the available calculation tools have limited applicability for Net-ZEBs. Appropriate modelling of building-integrated energy systems (passive and active) is essential for the design of ACMV systems and the study of optimal control strategies. These systems will play a major role in achieving the net-zero energy goal and need to be carefully selected, modelled, and sized for an optimum design. This talk focuses on optimizing active ACMV systems with emphasis on building simulation and parametric analysis. This presentation will review current design practice and tools for designing ACMV systems and presents methods employed by NEAPOLI to design ACMV systems in the tropics. It also discusses modelling issues and outlines the procedure used in several optimization case studies by NEAPOLI.

Talk 3: Achieving Net Zero Energy Status: the case of the Hospitality Sector in SE Asia

Synopsis of the Talk  in the  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by Dr Stellios Plainiotis
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Although the hospitality industry is responsible for only 2% of the world’s CO2 emissions, it makes an excellent sector for achieving Net-Zero Energy status  because energy  consumption  is  higher  than  in typical residential and non-residential buildings, so  there  is  a  larger potential for energy saving measures. Hospitality projects in Asia can benefit from reaching net-zero status through:

  • Energy savings and reduction of operational costs
  • Unique positioning in a highly competitive market
  • Improved image and service for guests
  • Access to a new “sustainability” market segment, both individuals and companies
  • Increased comfort as an added-value for hotels’ guests
  • Corporate Social Responsibility targets met; Environmental, social and economic sustainability.

There are however great challenges related to financing the additional initial capital expenditure and to  business model that includes a number of energy intensive operations associated to their customers’ comfort and expectations, therefore closely linked with their competitiveness and viability.  After presenting the fundamental concepts, design strategies, and technologies required to achieve net-zero energy in hospitality buildings, this presentation will discuss a case study of a Net-ZEB Hotel in Malaysia by NEAPOLI.

Talk 4: Generative and parametric design optimization techniques towards Net Zero Energy Buildings, Synopsis of the Talk  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by Mr Theodre G

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Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net-ZEBs) represent a new paradigm that radically changes the way we view and construct buildings. Our current practices, tools, and culture involved in the design and development of contemporary buildings are not entirely compatible with this new perspective. We are in dire need of new design paradigms that will allow the re-conception of the design process itself. NEAPOLI’s Research & Development efforts are focusing on two of the most important innovative design methodologies available today: generative and parametric design.

Generative design can be defined as an evolutionary process that charts the development of an original idea, searching quickly through all its possible permutations, testing different design configurations, learning and improving at each step. New design tools employed at NEAPOLI now allow cycling through thousands of design alternatives in small amounts of time, making generative design a very powerful approach especially for the early stage of design.

Parametric design can be defined as the varying of one (or more) building parameter(s) and performing a simulation to quantify that parameter’s impact. NEAPOLI employs parametric analyses to provide at least three valuable pieces of information:

  1. The optimal/near-optimal value of a design parameter, always in relation to other often competing parameters. If the performance metric for a particular parameter indicates that there is an optimum value, the design team may wish to use this value in the design, assuming it is practical, economical, and compatible with other design aspects.
  2. The relative sensitivity of a parameter. This is particularly useful when multiple parameters are compared.
  3.  The relative importance of accurately modelling a building system. The most care in accurate modelling should be given to the aspects that are most sensitive. Sensitivity analysis is a very important confidence building tool for NEAPOLI consultants.

This presentation will provide an exploration of these innovative design approaches, it will show how they can provide competitive advantages over contemporary processes, and finally share ideas and examples of their implementation in the design of Net-ZEBs.

 Talk 5: Net Zero Energy Design in practice: design optimization methodologies and tools Synopsis of the Talk  in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar  by Mr Theodre G

Traditional construction practice created buildings to meet current needs, without addressing how well they fit with the natural environment. Because they were lacking adaptive capabilities, they would usually require remodeling or replacement when use-patterns or external conditions changed, an approach that is costly both financially and environmentally. Net-ZEB buildings can provide solutions to this because not only are designed and built to produce all of their own energy, capture and treat all water, but they can also designed and operated to have a net-positive impact on the environment, including repairing surrounding ecosystems.

However new and innovative tools are required to achieve and realise that vision. While generative and parametric methodologies are gaining ground in both architecture and design practices, their practical use remains limited due to the lack of design tools equipped with generative and parametric capabilities.

This presentation will describe the current status of generative and parametric tools for the building design industry and how these are being used to improve building design. In a workshop-like manner, the audience will be taken, step-by-step, through real-life design examples showcasing NEAPOLI’s ‘box of tools’ paradigm which allows the development of highly complex and integrated models able to assess in parallel a wide variety of building performance and design issues.

Talk 6 : Net Zero Energy Design in Building Passive Design, Design Overall Integrated Design Approach in Net Zero Energy Design –Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam

  1. What is Net Zero Energy?
  2. Definitions of Net Zero Energy as per NREL

Net Zero Energy-The NREL has defined four ways of measuring the Net Zero Energy in buildings: –Net Zero Site Energy, Net Zero Source Energy, Net Zero Energy Emissions  , Net Zero Energy Cost

  • Principles of Net Zero Energy in establishing Net Zero Energy buildings
  • The overall integrated design approach with the Energy affecting considerations from the outset to create High Energy Performance building or Energy Efficient buildings.
  • Building Design Principles are:
    1) Optimum Orientation,
    2) Super Insulation of buildings by good thermal resistance materials,
    3) Shading, smart landscaping, living roof etc
    4) Good BAS system to manage energy consumption
    5) LED high performance systems
    6) Good active Mechanical and Electrical system
    7) Renewable Energy ( 4 Net Zero Energy categories)
    8) Energy Management in place-Sub metering, energy audit and Maintenance team crew
  • Calculations for NZEBs.
  • Conclusion with some real life project case studies of buildings designed in Malaysia
  • Terms used in NZEB
    NREL ,National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the USA, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Energy Neutral Zero Carbon Hub Renewable Energy, Low Energy Building, High Performance Building ,ENERGY STAR ,Energy Protection Agency ,Building Code

Talk 7: Net Zero Emission Definitions and terms Calculations

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar By Ar Perumal
Oder a seat for the seminar now, by clicking here  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
  1. What is Net Zero Carbon Emission?
  2. Terms used in of Net Zero Emission such as Carbon Neutral, Carbon footprint, ecological footprint, Water footprint, Biofuel- Primary energy Global warming, Acidification, Eutrophication, Carbon footprint, Ecological footprint, Accounting ,Carbon credit, Carbon offset , Carbon Emission, Transportation Carbon ,Operational Carbon-,Embodied Carbon emissions, Carbon neutrality, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) , Life Cycle Cost (LCC),Water footprint, Water neutrality, ‘Water neutral’ ,Bluewater ,Green water, Grey waterEnergy audit, Fossil fuel,Green energy
  3. Accounting Principles of Net Zero Emission
  4. Comparison of Net Zero Emission as defined by Challenge 2030, NREL and Zero Carbon Hub.
  5. Benefits of Net Zero Emission in design with Biodiversity in designs.
  6. Conclusions with the importance of Net Zero Emission

Talk 8:Renewable Energy – and the case for Zero Carbon

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
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Net Zero Carbon Seminar

By: Gregers Reimann

In a Low Carbon World, we will have to deploy on the dual strategy of energy efficiency and renewable energy. In this presentation, the focus will be on renewable energy and its stronger and stronger case as opposed to fossil fuels. Interestingly, renewable energy costs are starting to achieve grid parity. Moreover, once the true cost of fossil fuels is factored in, namely the external costs like (carbon) pollution, the business case for renewable energy becomes even better.

For Malaysia, biomass and solar energy are the most applicable conventional renewable energy sources, but once implemented on a big scale, they both take up significant land area. Therefore, apart from re-stating the importance of energy efficiency, this presentation will also examine how renewable energy can be integrated in our built environment without taking up ‘extra space’.
Highlights of this presentation include:

Referencing the recent IMF study on the true cost of fossil fuels and its astounding conclusions. For Malaysia, for example, if we were to pay the real cost of fossil fuels, the petrol should cost RM4.50 per liter, which is more than double of the current cost.

Calculations example of how much solar photo-voltaic panels are needed to cover the entire Malaysian annual electric consumption. The result may surprise you in a positive way.

Examples of BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) and other innovative to integrate renewable energy in the built environment

Talk 9 : “Zero Energy / Carbon and Innovative Tropical Building Case Studies

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar By: Gregers Reimann
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The biggest and cheapest carbon emission savings are found in the building sector. Therefore, the building sector will play a key role in achieving the low carbon sustainable society that experts are urgently calling for. This presentation will focus on Malaysian case studies of low energy buildings both for commercial and residential sector. The focus will be on the design strategies employed in the case studies, both with respect to innovative passive building design by working with the climate and with respect to innovative active design solutions for ventilation, cooling, lighting and controls.  The low carbon aspect of the presentation will focus on the operational energy, which constitutes the bulk of the life-time carbon emissions for most buildings. The case studies presented have achieved measured energy savings of 50% or more and often with an attractive short payback time from reduced monthly energy bills.
The presentation will also re-examine how to approach thermal comfort for people in an energy efficient way and with the added benefit of providing improved air quality.

Some of the case study highlights include:

Case study no. 1: Zero energy bungalow (2016) in Kuala Lumpur with innovative natural cooling system that lowers the indoor temperature by 2-3°C, hence, eliminating the need to use air-conditioning. In fact, the bungalow does not have any air-conditioning installed.

Case study no. 2: Innovative high rise day-lighting system (2015) in Kuala Lumpur. Even though the occupants engage the manual facade window blinds, the daylight system maintains 7-meter perimeter zone of the office fully day-light.

Case study no. 3: Energy efficient building retrofit project (ongoing) saving 50% of the energy consumption in part by a new approach to providing thermal comfort to the building occupants

Case study no. 4: Innovative energy efficient and low energy slab cooling as exemplified in two Malaysian offices buildings, the GEO Building (2007) and the ST Diamond building (2010).

Talk 10: Targeting for Zero Net Carbon Emission in Process and Product Design

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
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  by YewAi Tan

At the UN Climate Summit in New York on 23 September 2014, the Prime Minister of Malaysia reiterated Malaysia’s commitment towards reducing its carbon emissions, in terms of emissions intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by 40% by 2020. This will be implemented by reducing carbon emissions through new policies on climate change and green technology. Under the 11th Malaysian Plan, RM 2.3 billion has been set aside for green technology based projects.  This pledge, originally made at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCC) 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was conditional to receiving technological and financial assistance from developed countries. This year, Malaysia looks on track to hit the targeted carbon reduction emissions having achieved 33% reduction carbon intensity of its GDP.  As GDP is the monetary value of finished goods and services, Malaysia will therefore have to grow its GDP without a parallel increase in emissions in order to achieve the 40% reduction.

The Climate Change problem will never go away on its own and ignorance on its seriousness is no longer an excuse for inaction.   For effective mitigations against climate change, there must first be acknowledgement that the burden must be borne by all.  The next step will be how each and every one of us, the residents of planet earth, can help in reducing carbon emissions with a target towards achieving zero net carbon emissions.

Before embarking on efforts to achieve zero carbon emission in process and product design, it is essential to be clear and familiar with the many terms and terminologies commonly associated with carbon emissions such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon footprint (CFP) , carbon capture, carbon sink, carbon neutral and energy neutral, etc. For example, CFP is defined as a measure of GHG emissions over the full life cycle of a process or product including the design stage, if applicable. It is the overall amount of not only carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions but also emissions of other GHG  such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorcatbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocatbons (HCFs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) that are directly and indirectly associated with a product along its supply chain.

GHG emission is an integral part of all systems of production and consumption, In the case of a process or product design, each activity within a supply chain process step which is involved in the production or design of the product must be analysed to determine CFP measured in mass units (kg, t) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) emitted. Through a carbon audit, any sector of an industry (e.g. palm oil or building industry) can systematically address environment-sensitive practices along the whole chain in the design and process of a product.   One of the most important move that can be taken is to ensure that all products and services made and provided involve minimal carbon emissions.  To arrive at net zero carbon emissions, emissions must be offset or subtracted and ways to achieve carbon neutrality will be highlighted in the paper.  Suggestions on the formulation of possible mitigation strategies to curb GHG emissions and ways to  target for zero net carbon emission by balancing emissions with simple negative emissions solutions such as tree-planting and the use of other more  advanced technologies including the use of renewable energy generated from waste products, the sun or wind will also be discussed. The goal is to provide required information on the importance of our shared responsibility to reduce carbon emissions in the hope of ending the high emitting and energy-hungry practices of the modern world.

Talk 11: LCA and LEED for Enhancing Energy and Environmental Performance of Buildings

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by YewAi Tan
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The orthodox goal of increasing housing for growing population needs is now slowly being replaced by a shift in focus to buildings that promote variety, access to healthy and clean air, and a healthy and ecological sustainability environment. This is driven by risks that climate change poses for human and natural systems.  Global warming, sea level rises and associated extreme weather events are now adversely affecting population health and will continue for centuries to come.

With over half the world’s population now living in urban areas, resilient urban housing plans will need to incorporate more extensive approaches to meet the challenges of a world imperiled by severe weather conditions resulting in floods and droughts.  Attention will be on enhancement of ecosystem health as well as the health and support of thriving urban environments.  The building and construction industry is known to be the one of largest contributors of environmental pollution.  According to the United Nations Environment Program Report, buildings account for a third of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 25% of global water consumption and 40% of global energy consumption and resources.   The fact that this energy consumption in buildings can be reduced by 30% to 80% using proven and commercially available technologies accentuates the importance of greening buildings as one of the most effective ways to reduce the carbon footprint (CFP) of the building and construction industry.

The main objective of Green buildings is to reduce negative impacts and increase occupants’ health. Green buildings address issues concerning sustainable site planning, water and energy efficiency, conservation of resources and improved health, and the impact of buildings on health and indoor environmental quality.  The Malaysia Green Building Index (GBI), initiated in 2009, is based partly on USA’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) but adapted to fit the Malaysian climatic conditions.

The LEED rating system is a voluntary U.S. based  green building programme which aims to “evaluate environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building’s life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building’’. In essence, the LEED method rates the energy and environmental performance of buildings and is clearly an environmental assessment tool.

CFP is a computed number which an industry can use as a baseline reference for improvement.  At the same time, the methodological tracing through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the various sources of GHG emission in sustainable buildings will give a clearer indication on where mitigation steps can be implemented for GHG reduction.  LCA is also an essential component of building assessment as it is a step-by-step process for evaluating the environmental burdens associated with an activity, product or process.  The method, based on the life cycle of the activity, product or process identifies and quantifies energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, thereby assesses the impact of those energy and material use and wastes to the environment. LCA is applicable to all system levels in the building sector. Each system has its own set of assumptions and limitations and each is designed to address certain aspects of environmental impacts.  An inventory of all inputs (e.g. energy, material, water used) into and outputs (final product, emissions, wastes)  out of the system will allow for calculation of impacts based on energy consumption, waste generation or other impact categories such as global warming or land use.   The approach can be used for the selection of building materials or for assessing the environmental impact associated with the physical building.  Therefore, in order to obtain useful information from environmental assessment of buildings, the rigor of an LCA approach can be used to support and complement the evaluation of LEED compliance.

Malaysia’s Green Diamond Building headquarters of the Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga) of Malaysia in Putrajaya won Southeast Asia Energy Prize in 2012. The building, completed in 2009, earned Platinum ratings under Malaysia’s Green Building Index (GBI) and Singapore’s Green Mark program.

Book NOW click here- Net Zero Carbon Seminar

 

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

 

Organized by System Design Architect
Ar Perumal Nagapushnam.

Net Zero Energy Resort

Bentong Cultural Village, Malaysia designed as Net Zero Carbon Emission in a Cultural Village with a 680 bed room Hotels, chalets &Indian Villages

Terminologies for Net Zero Carbon Emission in Net zero Energy buildings design

A Seminar on Net Zero Energy and Net Zero Carbon Emission , is being held and in the Seminar, we will elucidate the terms clearly, please visit our website page for booking a seat for the seminar.

The common words and terms and terminologies often used in Carbon Emission are :

Biofuelbiofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

Primary energy – Primary energy consumption is strictly speaking not an environmental impact category, but part of the inventory analysis. The primary energy is usually expressed as MJ per functional unit and includes feed stock energy, process energy, and production and delivery energy.

Global warming – Increasing amounts of greenhouse gases- GHG, which is CO2 or methane, increases the natural greenhouse effect and lead to an increase in global temperature. In the 20th century, global temperature increased by 0.6°C as a result of GHG

AcidificationAcidification refers to acid being deposited in the atmosphere, land or the sea , by the excessive emissions of SO2 and NO2.This can result in strong and damaging acid rains in the air and land which destroys the agricultural yields. The acidification of the sea, affect the weld being of sea life.

Eutrophication Eutrophication happens when an increase of nutrients in water bodies or ground as a result of human activity. Either in the synthetic fertilizers from agricultural land, or discharges from sewage or animal waste. It causes a reduction in species bio- diversity. It is often accompanied by massive growth of dominant species and an the increase production of dead biomass. This lead to depletion of oxygen in the water or soil since its degradation consumes oxygen. This contributes to changes in species composition and death of organisms.

Carbon foot printIt is the amount of CO2 produced in tones for human activity. The time frame of foot print may have to be defined, either the time frame of the construction, annually or the lifetime carbon emission of the building. The accounting principles should be established, such as emissions activates and the sequestering activity for offsetting. The boundary of the site may be used but in reality it extends beyond the site boundaries .for instance the carbon emission of material brought into the site during the construction.

Ecological footprintthe amount of land needed to produce what human, the world’s population what they consume. This concept was developed by Rees and Wackernagel (1994). The human activity is agricultural land for food and pasture, forestation for wood and for travel and comfort.

The land needed to transform the carbon dioxide into organic matter. It has been said that the total ecological footprint of inhabitants goes beyond the availability of space, which is considered ‘unsustainable’. Humanity has moved from using, in net terms, about half the planet’s bio capacity in 1961 to 1.25 times the bio capacity of the Earth in 2003 (Hails et al., 2006). The global ecological deficit of 0.25 Earths is equal to the globe’s ecological overshoot.

Accounting Principles are in 3 stages (as per the Greenhouse Gas Protocol):
stage 1- Required as a result of direct emission of gas.
Stage 2-Required as a result of indirect emission of gas.
Stage 3-Optional, the boundary of the base line for emission of gas can be self defined.

Carbon credit is also referred to as Carbon offset in Carbon Emission

A carbon credit is a tradable certificate or permit to emit one ton of carbon dioxide or the mass of greenhouse gas of equivalent to one ton of carbon dioxide.

Transportation Carbon is the amount of CO2 used by the occupants to get to work .It is measured as lbs .Co2/per occupant/ year. If the Transportation Carbon is included in the Net Zero Emission, the site location is important and to offset the Carbon, a fleet of cars could be used to transport them to work.

Operational Carbon
-is the amount of carbon emitted by the building’s operation and including the transportation Carbon of the occupants .

Embodied Carbon emissions
can be achieved in many ways such as:
a) purchasing REC (Renewable Energy Certificates) from reliable sources. The reliable sources are characterized by Additionality, which is funding another energy reduction project.
b) Generation of surplus of renewable energy

Carbon neutrality
carbon consideration includes the carbon emission from the production, embodied Carbon neutrality is easily achieved by considering stage 1 and 2 and this is as per the definition of Net Zero Carbon Emission. Total Carbon neutrality is far more difficult to achieve when considering embodied, transport emissions and operational emission.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an objective method to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material uses and releases to the environment, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to influence environmental improvements. The method assesses the entire life cycle of the product, process or activities, encompassing extracting and processing material; manufacturing, transporting and distribution; use, reuse and maintenance; recycling and final disposal (The Society of Environmental, Toxicology and Chemistry, 1993). It is a method for analyzing and assessing the environmental impact of a material, product or service throughout its entire life cycle, usually from the acquisition of raw materials to final disposal.

Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
Like any other investments, attempts to minimize environmental impact of building developments should take into account the associated costs. Life cycle cost (LCC) yields the present value of the current and future expenditures for the procurement of the building and the operation and maintenance throughout its useful life. This allows the financial implications of future savings due to additional investments made at present for enhancing performance (e.g. energy efficiency or durability of materials) which should be assessed for decision making

Water foot print
The water footprint is an indicator of water use that looks at both direct and indirect water use. The water footprint of a product (good or service) is the volume of fresh water used to produce the product, summed over the various steps of the production chain. The water footprint of a consumer is the sum of its direct water use, i.e. the water used at home or in the garden, and its indirect water use, i.e. the water used in the production and supply chains of the goods and services consumed. The water footprint of a business consists of its direct water use, for producing, manufacturing and supporting activities, plus its indirect water use, i.e. the water used in the business’s supply chain. ‘Water use’ is measured in terms of water volumes consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted. The ‘water footprint’ includes three components: consumptive use of rainwater (green water), consumptive use of water withdrawn from groundwater or surface water (blue water) and pollution of water (grey water). A water footprint can be calculated for any product or activity as well as for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g. an individual or family, or the inhabitants of a village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g. a public organization, private enterprise or a whole economic sector). A water footprint is more than a figure for the total water volume used; it refers specifically to the type of water use and where and when the water was used.

Water neutrality
Water neutral’ means that one reduces the water footprint of an activity as much as reasonably possible and offsets the negative externalities of the remaining water footprint. In some particular cases, when interference with the water cycle can be completely avoided – e.g. by full water recycling and zero waste – ‘water neutral’ means that the water footprint is nullified; in many other cases, like in the case of crop growth, water use cannot be nullified. Therefore ‘water neutral’ generally does not mean that water use is brought down to zero, but that the negative economic, social and environmental externalities are reduced as much as possible and that the remaining impacts are fully compensated. Compensation can be done by contributing to (investing in) a more sustainable and equitable use of water in the hydrological units in which the impacts of the remaining water footprint are located.

Blue water water withdrawn from groundwater or surface water
Green water-rain water

Grey water– pollution of water

Energy audit-It assesses the efficiency of the building, an audit of the energy consumption in a building. It will break down the consumption as per the lighting fittings. Air-conditioning, the plug load, equipment load etc. The energy audit will help to evaluate the ways to reduce the electric bill.

Fossil fuel-Fuel that are derived from petroleum or diesel. Coal or natural gas. It is derived from organic matter buried in the ground which has been converted to fuel by anaerobic process naturally.

Green energy– energy that are derived from renewable sources.

 

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

Call us for more information on Carbon Emission for Net zero Energy buildings design , at +60172246801
Book your seat in our seminar for Net Zero Carbon Emission at: http://www.sda-architect.com/net-zero-energy-and-carbon-seminar/

check out our Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans, click here

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

7 Tools for Net Zero Energy by Green Architect

Net Zero Energy Resort

Bentong Cultural Village, Malaysia designed as Net Zero Energy Village with a 680 bed room Hotels, chalets &Indian Villages

7 Tools for Net Zero Energy

We have discussed in other articles about definitions, terms and the broad and misconceptions of Net Zero Energy, in this article I am focusing on the Tool often used in designing the parametric for Net Zero Energy buildings or communities. The 7 Tools for Net Zero Energy are soft-wares, such as Dynamic Energy Modeling, Air Flow Analysis, Wind Driven Rain, Day lighting, Finite Element Modelling, Sun and Shadow Studies. Solar Thermal Systems Design, Photo voltaic System Design, Rainwater Harvesting System Design, Ecotect, Vasari Design Studio and  Therm

Soft-wares-7 Tools for Net Zero Energy Dynamic Energy Modelling

DesignBuilder, a software developed recently. It is a state of the art software tool for checking building energy, building carbon foot print, lighting and comfort levels. The software simulates real time situation and compares performance levels of each parametric. It interfaces with by EnergyPlus a software developed by  DOE, Department of Energy, USA.

DesignBuilder gives environmental performance data during all stages of the design process. It is a great contribution to the 7 Tools for Net Zero Energy.

TOOL 1) Air Flow Analysis

CFD, Computerized Fluid Dynamics is a tool to analyze the flow of air flow and heat transfer within the building and in the external sides of the building. This studies can be used for Mechanical Engineers for air conditioning studies, for ventilation purposes for architects and the wind load on external cladding and external microclimate where heat island are detected and it can be eliminated by designing the layouts. These are some of issues CFD will address:
a) temperature distribution along the atrium, b)the adequacy of the diffusers for air distribution, c) adequacy of air conditioning diffusers and outlets for comfort, d)the adequacy of natural ventilation, e)the effect of wind speed in the locality affected by the shape of the building f) stale air islands are discovered.

TOOL 2) Wind Driven Rain, WDR

The negative effect of humidity and hygrothermal situation are predicted early, that which affects the durability of buildings. The covered area for the pedestrians, protection during a storm is studied. by studying the intensity and spiral distribution of driving rain.

Tool 3) Finite Element Modelling

Soft-wares such as Therm 6.3 and Window 5 are state of the art computer soft-wares that analyses details of building, windows, walls, sills etc to discover sources of  losses of heat (during winters) or sources of heat is gain(during summers)

This software was developed by Lawerence Berkely National Laboratory

Tool 4) Sun and Shadow Studies

The soft-wares are google sketch up,Ecotect,Rhino/Grasshoper, and Honeybee/Ladybug

Understanding the building sun and shadow will help to discover sides of the building that needs to insulated from heat gain or heat loss.The shadow analysis will help to evaluate the effect of window and shading devices that keep the building comfortable.

Tool 5) Solar Thermal Systems Design

Softwares used are T*SOL, PRO.It is a program that simulates accurately the  heat gained over the year and calculates the amount of energy that is needed to maintain comfort

Tool 6) Day lighting Soft-wares

Daylight factors, dynamic  and climate based indices(Spatial daylight automation, useful daylight illumination, daylight availability) are studied . Standard report detailing eligibility for Energy and Environmental performance in Leed. are provided. And Photo realistic situation and daylight simulation are studied.

Tool 7) Photo-voltaic System Design

PV*SOL is a software that is used to study the optimum amount of solar panels that are needed .

Call us at +60172246901 or contact us via our email peru@sda-architect.com for further queries with respect to designing for Net Zero Energy Designing or pertaining to queries on the  above software 7 Tools for Net Zero Energy

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Green architect

 

 

Book our seminar for Net Zero Energy and Zero carbon Seminar here,click here

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Why pay for Eco Biodiversity in building design and city planning? controlling Zika  and air pollution control

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
website: http://www.sda-architect.com/

The loss of Eco Biodiversity at an alarming rate all over the world ,was of a major concern in the Convention on Biodiversity, held in  Nagoya, Japan 2010.Most countries have signed an agreement to comply with the Nagoya biodiversity agreement , which was intended to help reduce the global weather changes that are rapidly occurring. But less that 10% of the countries that have signed to protect the flora and fauna has kept the promises.

Free Disaster house

Eco Biodiversity in our environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is Eco Biodiversity? It is the diversity of flora, fauna and its habitats in the vegetation of our forest, rural and urban environment, in which we live  constitutes Eco Biodiversity. This diversity in the green spaces or soft landscape  is often found missing in the urban development, all that we see is the Mountain Cliff  type of buildings and the green in the urban  parks are in the likes of the green of the Savannah of Africa. The homogenous type of trees and grass is affecting the well-being of our environment and in this article, we are addressing the benefits for Eco Biodiversity of these greens in the urban area:

  • Psychological well-being- the overall well-being of occupants are tremendously improved in an environment that has biodiversity in design consideration.
  • Property values .There is an increase in the Property values as shown in studies  conducted in the UK , that water features, well-landscaped areas , ponds or view of landscaped areas, contributed to an increase of property values from 5%-34%. (CABE Space 2005).In Singaporean case where the city planners decide to go for Greening, the city experienced a notable hike in property values. At a building level apartments such as the Kampung Warisan Condominium, Jalan Jeletek was landscaped in a vernacular traditional village style noted an increase of rentable apartments.
  • Air Purification  .The air bore pollution is filtered and neutralized. Air is scrubbed off the pollutants such as Nitrogen dioxides, sulfur dioxide , Carbon mono dioxide by the trees, shrubs where the air is freshened. The dirt dozens -air pollutants are sequestered, referred to a gaseous sequestration. The dust is removed from the air is by ionizing the air with clean air. The air bore particles are ionized and are brought down to the ground, thereby cleaning the air. The UN reports that the air pollution is a leading killer.one in 8 persons in the world will die of premature death. The air pollution cost US250billion due to premature deaths in the world. Trees scrub the air clean. Bio diversity is a solution to keeping the environment clean.
  • More oxygen .More oxygen is introduced into the air , which is suitable for growth, speedy recovery of the stressed mind and helps the resilience of the injured mind and body. It was found in research that the lack of oxygen in the air increases the tendency to commit suicide. Certain shrubs such as bamboo are said to produce more oxygen into the air that other plants are considered very healthy and good for the environment.
  • Water Purification. The rainwater runoffs are purified. Rainwater is run off into bios-vales, Bio SUDS or eco cells and eco-stairs where rainwater is purified before discharging into the water streams, ponds or below the ground water tables.Water that gets to the underground water tables is cleansed by vegetation grown in the bio swales and eco cells before emitting them into the grounds.
  • Heat island effect .The elimination of Heat island effect, which affect the microclimate amelioration through direct shading and evaporative cooling. The air is warmer by the lack of vegetation by the removal of trees or turned grounds. The objects such as concrete, road pavements absorb heat and radiate heat it at night. This effect alone to an increase of temperatures by 4 degrees C according to research done in some areas. The emitters of waste heat to the environment are: Humans metabolism contributes to 8% of the waste heat, buildings contribute to 60% and the motor vehicles contribute to 32% of the waste heat to the environment.(Smith et al 2009)
  • Controlling the Zika Pest .Control of Pest species, such as bats feed on the mosquitoes, owls eating the rats. The ecological cycle of animals should be maintained. The removal of birds and bats as they may seem to be a pest for urban areas will cause the increase of mosquitoes and rat infestation. The presence of owls helps to stop the proliferation of rats, but in the first place owls need an ecological environment to live in, in some countries owls were let out to the trees but they soon died out as the habitat for owls were not suitable. In Singapore the attempt to green the city was somewhat a good attempt to save the city but the fruits and flower that draws birds were limited to discourage the presence of birds because of  their droppings and nesting of birds in the urban areas. But this led to an increase of mosquitos and pests which then has to be countered by spraying chemicals which affects the waterways and quality of water.Singapore in recent years has been Singaporeans again inflicted with dangerous Zika virus carried by Mosquitoes. The spread of Zika in Singapore was exceptionally fast and caused fear and discouragement among Singaporeans. The control of Zika would have been a lot easier if the Bats, birds did the job of controlling the Zika Pest. Again Singapore once again proves to the world the need for biodiversity against the fight of Zika.Pu
  • Air quality- As the air quality is improved, as a direct consequence of improved health. As most illness related to respiratory illness are reduced and have an increase health conditions of occupants as vegetation scrubs the air of the dirty dozens and air particles. Air particulates causes health issues such as lung problems and its related health problems.
  • Productivity and reduced Absenteeism- According to findings in a research such as (Elzeyadi, 2011). This increases and improves productivity by the decrease sick leaves when potted plants were located with the workspace and it had a direct relationship to improved productivity and reduced absenteeism (Elzeyadi, 2011).
  • Stress Resilience- It has been found in research that beds in hospitals that had the good view of scenic view had patients recovered by 30% faster and thereby decreasing 30% intake of medication. Well landscaped view have an effect of our general health conditions with respect to stress recovery that we are subjected too, in the modern workplace.
  • Education -The education of the local species to the local communities by demonstrating the planting of local species in the local areas. The awareness of plants and benefits are preserved with bio diversity.
  • Energy BILL LOW-A green living roof, will insulates the building by reducing the diurnal temperatures from a typically non green roof from 50deg C to 3 deg C during winters. And during summers the roof will insulate the heat into the building. By smart landscaping the temperatures will be reduce the temperatures  by a great range of 50%. Read smart landscaping.
  • Carbon Negative– As we plant more trees and vegetation increasing the( increasing the diversity of the flaura , fauna and habitat) biodiversity, we help to improve the carbon footprint and tends to carbon negative as in the case of Bhutan. The vegetation help to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and gasses{methane} that destroy the environment by sequestering them within the vegetation. And thereby helping to reduce the carbon emitted to the atmosphere and thereby improving the Carbon Footprint. As tree are grown the carbon is sequestered by the trees and the soil, for instance an acre of forest sequesters about 110metric tonnes of CO2 per year. The Wetlands sequesters 300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The world emits  a 2.6  Giga tonnes of CO2 every year which is causing the unabated flooding , global warming and weather change that is affecting lives all over the world. The carbon footprint can be offset by eco biodiversity and neutrality in the world can be obtained by planting diverse trees. the world can be restored to its natural state. The world average temperature is to be brought down to 2 degrees C- to restored to the temperatures of the pre-industrial days. Visit our seminar on Net Zero Carbon Emission which delves more on this aspect with respect to designing building for Net Zero Emissions. Building are one of the major contributors to Carbon emission in the air.

This is where we there is an application for biodiversity and green designs in buildings and cities by using ecological considerations in design, the biometrics of nature are to be incorporated into our environments, such as in nature there is no waste. Unlike nature, we Humans are wasteful ,we dispose of domestic waste by tons every day, into nature destroying the water. The spider eats its own web as a way to minimize waste, the humans dispose of much of construction waste into the environment that in some countries there are no more spaces left to dispose of the domestic waste in the landfills.

We as Architects are designers for the safe environment using ecological design consideration, biometrics, bio grids,ecological cycles. Call us a discussion into how we may be of help to you to save the environment in your site plans or building designs.

Attend our seminar of Net Zero Carbon Emission, see how eco bio-diversity helps the environment by sequestering the Carbon and scrubs the air of pollution and Green house gases from the air. It helps achieve Net Zero Emission status for development.

CLICK HERE TO Book online for seminar of Net Zero Carbon Emission, See you there in KL.

Green ecohouse floor plans

Green and Sustainable House floor Plan

 

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Carbon Trading

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 Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Eco Biodiversity, ecological considerations . eco-diversity in city planning, ecological imperatives, Green architect, Green Sustainability Architect, Hyper Green, urban planning

What is Net Zero Energy Building design?

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
website:
http://www.sda-architect.com
System Design Architect

The Malaysian  Cultural City , Bentong in Malaysia  is the first of its kind in the world for Net Zero Energy Resort pioneering  in Net Zero Energy Building design for large scale projects. The challenges to achieve (NZEB) designs are real, as Resorts are energy guzzlers and achieving Zero Energy is difficult endeavor. This resort will be used a one stop destination for tourist all over the world. It is estimated that about 3000 tourist will visit the Cultural City per day. The Malaysian Cultural City shall been slated as an Iconic tourist destination as it show cases to the world the cultural diversity, that has successfully  prevailed  in Malaysia among 3 majors racial enclaves. The resort has a 680beded Hotel,33 chalets and a traditional Indian Village, traditional Chinese Village and a traditional Malay Village (kampung)which shall show case the diversity of Malaysian cultures.
Among other reasons for the project to be slated as a top Iconic tourist destination site due to  the Net Zero Energy Building design and  Hyper Green considerations.

Net Zero Energy Resort

Bentong Cultural Village, Malaysia designed as Net Zero Energy Village with a 680 bed room Hotels, chalets &Indian Villages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are NZEB,Net Zero Energy Building designs?

Net Zero Energy Building design also called Net Zero Carbon building is an attempt to reduce the electrical bill to zero cost every year.  In this article we attempt to describe what constitutes a Net Zero Energy Building designs. There are about 4 definitions of Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB): by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA.

  1. Net Zero Source Energy Building-A building that purchases or produces as much energy for a year by accounting the energy produced at the source
  2. Net Zero Energy Cost Building-The electric bill is covered every year by virtue of design, and production of energy at the site.
  3. Net Zero Energy Emission Building-The Carbon neutrality is achieved by optimizing the energy consumption and neutrality is obtained by offsetting using renewable energy.
  4. Net Zero Site Energy Building-A building site that produces at least as much renewable energy as it uses the energy, over the course of a year.

When we speak of (Net Zero Energy Building design), there is a general misconception that solar panels are used to produce all the energy required or others preconceive that there is a major reduction on the consumption of energy. In fact this misnomer, to depend entirely on Photo voltaic panels entirely, is not true as the cost of photo voltaic panels are so cost exorbitant that the cost of Photo voltaic may cost more than the building cost. And neither is the amount of consumption reduced. The above definitions by NREL, clearly speaks defies these misnomers as flawed.

There are much fears that Net Zero Energy is exclusively for small buildings and System Design Architect ( see http://www.sda-architect.com ) is committed to pioneer this latest technology in the frontiers of Energy Efficient buildings. The need to save energy is an application of a want to improve the reduction of energy. The world that is groping, floundering and flirting with the Green movement as a way to save the world without substantial scientific basis, Net Zero Energy movement has a direct saving impact to the environment by reducing energy, carbon emission etc. The Green movement reduces a nominal energy consumption but in NZEB, the energy savings are drastically reduced by 100%.

How does  Net Zero Energy Building design (NZEB) works

3R Doctrine .The methodology to produce Net Zero Energy Building design, is basically strategies centered around the 3R doctrine ie reduce, reuse and recycle. The wastage is systematically reduced either passively or actively .Recycling of energy is done by placing equipment such as recycling wheel where energy is reused and not wasted. In nature there is no wastage and we should learn from the Bio-metrics of nature. In nature wastage from one is a food source to another in the ecological food chain, unlike the case with human beings. Much of our energy is rather wasted and we are flaunting our resources away.

Soft-wares. We employ the latest computer energy simulations, in System Design Architect , using the software we will be able to identify the sources of energy consuming elements and eliminate it at the preliminary stages. Using a shoe box model with soft-wares as Ecotect, Vasari, Design studio, Therm and other personally developed software that instantly reveals the weakness of areas where energy guzzling is identified and eliminated. Each of these soft wares will serve a purpose and I will discuss them in detail in the forthcoming article.

Passive Design. By using passive design consideration techniques, the total heat gain (tropical heat /summer) or loss (winters) heat gain or loss reduced. The orientation of the building will realize heat savings by 15%. Other passive strategies are such as window shading, type of glass to be used in curtain walls, shading of building from the sun using smart landscaping will improve the energy savings tremendously. This includes insulation of the buildings where heat is gain into the building for summers or heat loss, in summers, are reduced. Using soft-ware that calculates the material to be used for insulation, whereby we minimize the loss of energy via conduction, convention, and radiation. This will be systematically be analyzed and energy saved. Please read more about Net Zero Energy Building design in the System Design’s  Website at http://www.sda-architect.com/

Active Design. This is where the high performance mechanical system is used to reduce the power usages. Equipment certified star rated as energy savings, are  to be selected based on actual performances and guarantees and not by virtues of these certifications. There is much fraudulent certification that has been exposed even in the US.

There are numerous other strategies such as LED, high performances air conditioning units, refrigerant types, heat recycle wheels and reduction of the electrical cyclical spikes. This will be dealt with in details in the future articles  as article on its own.

BAS, Building Automation System, There are much need for BAS systems to be designed in Buildings, as they reduce the consumption of energy and wastage. This is especially so in large projects where equipment such as air con  chillers, lift controls, lighting fitting sensors, motion sensors in escalators and light fittings cannot be monitored manually.

active designs

active designs

Renewable Energy. Each site has its prevailing characteristic for generating renewable energy, such as wind , solar, geo thermal and mini hydro. The type of renewable energy used to generate energy will depend on the availability of energy at the site.

renewable energy

wind turbine

Photo voltaic has it advantages of cost but in the tropics, the no of hours of cloud free hours per day, may not make photo voltaic as viable option. The viability of a wind turbine is not determined by no of hours there are sufficient wind to generate power, but the availability is day and night. Whereas, mini turbines and geo thermal systems may be produce energy for the whole day continuously and are not affected by the availability of the sun or wind. Each of the sources has their own weakness and strengths. The site is analyses for which option is the best option.

Why design for Net Zero Energy Building design?

There is much weakness in the present Green movement certified by Green bodies( Marks -Singapore, Leeds-US, GBI Malaysia) results in costlier building cost where the end users do not see the benefits of the Green buildings. For instance tenants of office space may not see the need to pay additional rentals, typically charged in Green Buildings. The tangible benefits are not realized by the tenants.Net Zero Energy is a Gold standard for Green and Sustainable movement.However, in NZEB, the tenants enjoy free electric bill and the Land Lords enjoy lower maintenance cost.

The Landlord may even generate revenue if he is able to surplus supply energy to the Grid and receive financial returns.

The benefits are marginal and more of a social contribution to the environment a response to the call to save the environment which case has not been scientifically founded. Read  http://www.sda-architect.com/75960-2/ for 8 reasons for why to go for Green and sustainability and the weakness in the present Green movement.

In NZEB, places such as Bali, Indonesia the live-hood of people has been disconnected with the Government public utility. In situations of a disaster, their resilience is greater in the event of a disastrous tragedy, as they are self-reliant and independent of on external environment. And their ability to survive a disaster is greater. Unlike in the case of 2011,Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan, that hit the national grid brought the country’s economic to its knees. The economy was dependent on the national grid and the economy was brought o a halt because of power shortage. If Japan’s Buildings  were Net Zero Energy Building design unlike Bali, their ability to recover would have been easier. In fact, places remote from the disaster could have had power and resume a normal lifer.

In fact, my call in this article is for building to have Net Zero Energy Building design, NZEB to be self-reliant and be organically dependent on nature and not dependent on the public utility companies. I underscore the need to tend towards organic architecture as being self-reliant and independence from the utility companies, generating power, water supply, water disposal, waste disposal (domestic and sewerage and industrial) and communication and living with nature within the site.

Net Zero Energy Building design is to the path to quick recovery and reconciliation and resilience from calamities that threatens to strike our nations to desolation and destitution.

waterfall H25

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Prepared by Architect Perumal 
Nagapushnam
System Design Architect











 

Whoever Pay for their Monthly Electric Bills, this days!-Net Zero Energy Resort

Net Zero Energy Building Designs Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

With the advent of technologies and special designs, the days when the electric bill stresses you up are of the far past. Whoever even pays for their Monthly Electric Bills this day! Not with Net Zero Energy Building Designs at your door steps. In this article, we will show that even large scaled projects such as Net Zero Energy Resort in Bentong have been designed for the Zero Net Energy.We will discuss the principles we used to achieve a Net Zero Energy Building for our resort.This Net Zero Energy Resort is the first of its kind in the world.

Net Zero Energy Building Technologies have made it possible to minimize paying the monthly bills. Yes! minimize electric bills to zero electrical bill. Yes, but what’s  the catch!It  is the averages sum of what you pay over the time of 1 year, is zero. There are months where you pay a small electric bill and there are months you produce more electricity that what you consume and you receive cash which brings your yearly average bill to zero.

A building owner pays an electric bill of USD200, 000 per month for one of his many outlets. If he was wise he could pay zero .Many like this building owner, feel that this is misnomer and a myth. Others think sure! all you have to do is to have spent a bomb on Photo voltaic panels and you are getting the zero bills. No!!!! That is not, what we mean…by Net Zero Energy Building Design. The principle is elucidated here, keep reading.

When you order for a cold chocolate drink in a food outlet. In most cases the chocolate, hot water, milk, sugar is mixed well enough and solid ice is added to chill up the drink. There is a sheer waste of energy  and in Net Zero Strategies in preparing for a cold drink with avoid using hot water see the diagram below. The wastage can amount to 75% in most cases.

Net Zero Energy Strategies

Net Zero Energy Design reduces the waste in our electric bill.

Net Zero Energy StrategiesNet Zero Energy Resort

The Net Energy Design strategy is making your building more energy efficient. Less wasteful and recycle the waste whenever possible.

  • Firstly by keeping the heat out of your building by orientating the building, minimizing the surface expose to direct heat and provide sufficient shading for the building. These wills reduce the electric cooling bill by 20%.
  • Smart landscaping will help reduce consumption, read https://www.firstenergycorp.com/content/customer/help/saving_energy/trees.html
  • Secondly by using energy saving systems, monitoring sensors and other systems the energy is reduced by 20% savings.of energy.
  • Thirdly the daylight harvesting we can reduce the energy bill by 15% of the bills, Imagine the amount of lighting levels needed for comfortable reading is 400lux, and in broad mid-day light, the amount light available is about 140,000lux . All we need to harvest a small light for consumption.Modern light fittings enable the light transfer from the external spaces to deep interiors to light up spaces
  • enabling control systems such as motions sensors, light sensors etc will further reduce energy bill.
  • Controls in the air conditions systems will help to reduce the energy bill bu 15% of the total bills
  • Electrical light fitting layouts will also reduce the energy consumption
  • High-performance systems and equipment will help reduce the consumption, such as pumps,
  • Sub-metering helps to review the energy consumption patterns and energy consumption is managed
  • Many other strategies on minimizing heat flow into the building and by effectively insulating the building from gaining heat are studied using software such as Ecotect, Vasari, Design studio, one is able to elevate the materials to be used to effective reduce the heat gain or heat loss and thereby reducing energy consumption.

Renewable Energy

Wind turbine

Wind turbine renewable energy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renewable energy that may be available in varied forms in the locality. The types will depend on the region:
1.)Where there is a waterfall ,
using a mini-hydro Hydro electricity may be tapped ,
2.)The wind energy may be tapped if the winds are strong in this region,
3.)The solar energy may be tapped if the sky is clear often by using PV panels.
4.)Biomass energy may be obtained if there were biomass waste in the region, such as sewerage waste, domestic waste,oil palm waste. these waste can be converted into renewable energy.
5.)Geothermal energy may be harvested, if the heat from the ground beneath, may be close to the surface of the site.
These renewable energies which are characteristic of the area will be created at the site  making the building energy efficient, This is how a building will finally become net zero in cost or consumption. The data of renewable energy for the most parts of the would are available from many climatic sources in the world wide web or sold by Climate and Weather Governmental Departments.These data will be imputed into computer software to calculate the amount of energy that is available from these renewable sources.

 

 

mono and poly PV Panels

All this sounds very simple but in the context of large buildings, one has to simulate the building in the computer(energy model) to evaluate the energy consumption for confirmation of the energy consumption before proceeding to the construction.

Net Zero Energy Resort

It is now becoming viable for projects of large scale to be designed for Net Zero Energy , such as Pertamina Tower , 99 levels building in Indonesia and Royal Bentong Cultural Resorts in Malaysia( of which we are the Net Zero Energy Architects). Previously it was envisaged that it is was viable only small scaled projects and this has been proven wrong with the advent of sophisticated software and technologies.

This also refereed to Zero Net Energy by the New York Times. Read and see how the future of Zero Net Energy is viable in the close  distant future even by the year 2020 in the cities of US.

Check our our Green and Sustainable House floor plans, click here.

Be in contact with us via our website for any clarification

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

Website address: http://www.sda-architect.com

French County House Plan

Generally the types of French homes 

The types of French homes styles are generally of the following types:

o   French country style,

o   French country –Chateaus style

o   French Provincial House Style

o   French Eclectic House Styles

o   French Normandy House Styles

French Provincial House Style

French Provisional house

French Provisional house

French Provincial house styles are simple, laid in square plans or cube shaped. The symmetrical forms often resemble the small homes with large hipped roofs and timber window shutters typical of French homes. Another distinguishing feature is the high windows at the upper levels often break through the external cornices. The French Provincial homes, do not have towers like those of the French Normandy styles. These are home generally built after the war when returning American soldiers learned of the French style sand modified them to suit their needs in the US

French Eclectic House Styles

French Electic Homes

French Electic House Plans

The feature that identifies with the of French Eclectic is its steep pitched roofs, It is hip, and the eave is often bent as is it to flare at the edges

French Normandy House Styles

French Normandy Home

French Normandy House

French Normandy house plans are identified and characterized by the round stone tower topped by a conical (cone-shaped) roof which is placed near the center or by the sides which either serves as the main entrance to the French house plans or serves as a feature of the as additional design feature within the French architectural designs .This is the Normandy French homes a small castles-like feature created by the stone arched walls and stone doorways .

CHARACTERISTIC of FRENCH Houses

~ high roof lines.

~  Stucco, brick or stone.

~ Large chimneys

~  arches are curved

~  stone work

~  multi-paned windows

~  dormers

~  round towers

~  hipped roof

~  flared eaves

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect
http://www.sda-architect.com/

 

 

french house plans styles

french house

WHAT IS FRENCH HOUSE?

French house plans may possess asymmetrical exteriors with a combination of typical ornamental that attributes to French designs such as French hip roof, flared eaves, dormer roof .In addition to these common characteristics of design are the finishes such as Stucco cement rendering and face brick exteriors. Step Hip roof pitches are typically French and the attic spaces of the roof are punctured with Dormer window to create living spaces. These homes are usually two stories in height with high roof lines. The chimneys are typically large, angled and sloped at the base of the chimneys.

Other elements prevalent are the tall, windows with slat-board shutters, steep roofs, multiple gabled roofs, and curved .windows painted timbers, windows boxes, traditional wrought iron railings and faced brick wall around windows and doors with the traditional outlook.

Symmetrical plans with steep hipped roofs are sometimes made great French homes. Symmetrical homes are great for homes relating to official functions that typify formality, grandeur, and authority.
French style houses usually have steep roofs, subtly flared curves at the eaves and are faced with stucco and stone. Typically, the roof comes down to the windows. The second floor often is on the roof.

The French country style includes both simple, modest cottage like farmhouse designs and as well as for the rich look called chateaus. These styles create an ambiance of a rustic warmth with the comfort of the country in design. Again the typical design elements are the arch curved and stone-work. In the interiors you may find the beams constructed of wood, cement plastered walls and floors finished with a stone in a rustic manner. This is the common theme and feature of a French country style. It reflects a diversity of formal wealthy styles of architecture. While there are Formal and Informal elements of designs, the houses types ranging from the humble French cottages styles to the farmhouses styles to the Grand chateaus as romantically portrayed in stories.

Night view of French House Night view of French House

Night view of Dream French House layout styles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check out our French house designs

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Prepared by Jimmy Yong Yuan JIe of Saito college and Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/

 

Views of the  interior of Log house

living room of Log house

living room of Log house

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the interior of Log house with a old country style. it is a great setting, ambient and in keeping with the traditional interiors.The furnitures, the curtains and the carpet are rich with pattern much in keeping with the ornaments of the past interior of Log house.

 

Hall ways of Log house

Hall ways of Log house

This interior of Log house is a great setting,God is in the details.The interior of Log house has been modified with a recent trend to accentuate the details and create an rich ambiance with simplicity.

arctic of Log house

arctic of Log house

The interior of Log house is interesting and a great setting.It has the traditional setting of the interior but infused with it the rich views of the exterior.Large triangular windows with scenic views and the timber ceiling are rich embodiment of the recent thoughts of architecture.

bed room of Log house

bed room of Log house

The interior is an attempt o maintain the old outlook with rugged stone wall as a feature in the interior of Log house.It is again infused with large glass views to the exteriors which is a recent trend in interior of Log house.It is simple but much can be said of the interior as simply wonderful comfortable cottage.

bed room of Log house

bed room of Log house

deck of Log house

deck of Log house

dining

dining log house

fire place

fire place of Log house

garage

garage of Log house

kitchen

kitchen of Log house

porch

porch of Log house

store

store of Log house

study room

study of Log house

toilets of Log House

utility room

utility room of Log House

veranda

veranda of Log house

visitors room

visitors room for Log house

This article is about the  images of Views of the  interior of Log house,and my view of the interiors.I trust this the general opinion of other architects.As in architecture there are no fast and easy rules to dictates the aesthetic of interiors.

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

 

modern house plans

modern beach house

Interior Of Modern House

Prepared by Tan Li See of Saito College and Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

What is Modern Interior Design Style?

Modern house interiors are simply a sleek and a simple design that is focused on the functional spaces and an omission of redundancy and is more organized. Modern design uses basic shapes of geometry emphasizing the simple edges, curves, angles and sharp and clean lines in all the fit outs and design of interiors.  This style grew from the idea to build for functional elements and, to do away with the traditional deco’s and intricacies, embracing new materials which new material technology made available helps to embrace new outlooks, new ambiances, spaces with out-of-this-world feelings.

The motto that drove the modern design is primary “Less is more”, “God is in the details” , “function before forms” and new material technology.

The Modern interior design is liberated to the use of material, new shapes and forms, new details which are wide and not confined to a single defining style.It is also a minimalist approach to keep the space simple and allow the space to tell the story.

What Makes Modern Furniture Modern?

Modern furniture is streamlined with polished, smooth and sleek surfaces.  Pieces are simple, uncluttered, built for the economy of form, and to serve a purpose.  Furniture pieces are kept to a bare minimum.  The driving design concept is honesty: keeping structure and building material in plain view.

The concept of Green and Sustainability is gaining relative importance worldwide and corporates are keen to embrace this idea as a responsible corporate, Clients tend to move towards this trends and hence more designers are using recycled materials for use in modern design, Interiors designers also need to use energy efficient material and system to [produce a high energy performance designs using renewable energy sources such as light harvesting, wind turbines, Pv solar panels, geothermal energy etc Read more about Green and Net zero energy design at our website.

What about Accessories in Modern Design?

Modern Art and sculptures are used rather than little trinkets, ornamented walls or ornamented elements (skirting, architraves, and dados). Art pieces are carefully chosen for their unique appeal which may serve as a focal point in a space or convey the theme of the space as to create a mood and the right ambiance.

Geometric and simple patterns rugs , simple light fittings, simple furniture with accented colors , materials with a shin and a shine such as chrome, glass and transparent materials that accentuates the new look of modern interiors, which is a fascination.

What about Color?

With the advent of modern colors and discovery of new color combinations, these new colors align with the modern designs and detached with the conventional traditional colors.

For instance, yellow& blue and navy blue& gold are old color combinations that naturally are a reflection of the past ages.

To days designers embraced pure color such as black, white, and gray with vibrant primary colors as a way to celebrate modernity in designs.

Colors can create a certain feeling of calmness, distressing moments, anxiety, and alertness or a romantic mood or a commercial ambiance. Colors for the office and colors for the home are different. Domesticated colors tend to be floral, patterned etc.

Bold contrast using reds, greens, or black, for example, can provide a visual accenting backdrop on a wall, for large pieces; bold color can bring emphasis and focus on the furniture. Read on how to use color for the homes

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Prepared by Tan Li See of Saito College and Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
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ttp://www.sda-architect.com/
Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

What is Victorian Houses?

Victorian house generally refers to all the styles developed during the rule of Queen Victoria, which is about the time of 1837 to 1901. It is befitting the image of a doll house m which is highly ornamented with elaborate trims and brightly colored. The industrialization during this time brought about many innovations, which affected the house architecture. The architectural styles of Victorian house architecture are:.

Victorian styles include:

  • Gothic Revival,
  • Italianate,
  • Second Empire,
  • Queen Anne,
  • Stick, Shingle, and
  • Richardson-ian Romanesque.
potrait of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria

History of development of Victorian House Architecture Character

a.)Material
With the advent of the railways and industrial manufacturing innovations, the locally produced building materials became readily available all over the country, such as bricks. Brick were produced in mass and they were cheaper. Brick required less preparation and maintenance when used in buildings. New houses, new chapels, cute English cottages, new barns and sprawling factories were being built using the new technology- bricks, irrespective of region. Before this period, all houses in the local area being built using the same building materials which were available locally.

b) Garage
Victorian house built without garage as it was a time when people did not have cars. The fire place was the only way to keep warm. Chimneys were built in often in every room. In comparison to today houses, are kept warm using a central heating system to do the same.

c)Bay windows
Typical Characteristics of Victorian houses are bay windows (they stick out), iron railings, Flemish brick bonding, patterns in the brickwork made from colored bricks, stained glass in doorways and windows, roofs made of slate, no garage and sash windows (they open by sliding the window up). Victorian house plans featured elaborate detail inside and out, with asymmetrical, free-form and rambling floor plans.

In Victorian times, population growth, and the Industrial Revolution which saw a migration of workers from the countryside to the cities caused in successive housing booms in the 1850s and 1870s that saw the creation of millions of houses. These cater not only for the rich and the new “middling-classes”, also for the poor. Many people in Victorian times lived in homes without any of the modern comforts we take for granted today. People had to manage without central heating, hot water from the tap, vacuum cleaners or washing machines, looking after the home was very hard work.

For poor house in Victorian times, poor people were living in terrible overcrowding run-down houses, often with the whole family in one room. Many people during the Victorian years moved into the cities and towns to find work in the factories. People crowded into already crowded houses. Rooms were rented to a whole family or perhaps several families.

The middle classes and the upper classes were much better. For rich classes, they built larger houses that which had flushing toilets, gas lighting, and inside bathrooms. Wealthy Victorians decorated their homes in the latest styles. There would be heavy curtains, flowery wallpaper, carpets and rugs, ornaments, well-made furniture, paintings and plants. The rooms were heated by open coal fires and lighting was provided by candles and oil or gas lamps. Later in the Victorian period, electricity became more widespread and so electric lights were used. Most rich people had servants and they would live in the same house. They slept on the top floor of the house or in the attic.

Features of the Victorian Houses:

  • Victorian homes are usually large and imposing and are constructed of Two to three stories.
  • The majority of Victorian styles use wood siding, but the Second Empire and Romanesque styles almost always have outer walls made of stone .
  • Unlike the boxy Greek revival style, Victorian homes have wings and bays in many directions with Complicated, asymmetrical shape of the homes/
  • They are conventionally called “gingerbread,” because the Victorian homes are usually decorated with elaborate wood or metal trim.
  • Scalloped shingles, patterned masonry or half-timbering are commonly used to dress up Victorian siding, which were Textured wall surfaces.
  • Steep, multi-faceted roof or Mansard roof. Victorian homes often have steep, imposing roof lines with many gables facing in different directions. The Second Empire Victorian style has a flat-topped Mansard roof with windows in the side to allow for maximum space inside the house.
  • One-story porch. A large, wraparound porch with ornamental spindles and brackets is common, especially in the Queen Anne style.
  • Some high-end Victorian homes are embellished with a round or octagonal tower with a steep, pointed roof.
  • Vibrant colors. Before the Victorian era, most houses were painted all one color, usually white or beige. By 1887, bright earth tones like burnt sienna and mustard yellow were in vogue.
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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

cladding pvdf coating

discoloration and chalking of pvdf coating

Painting and defects of painting

Prepared by Architect Perunal Nagaushnam

Paints contain three components: 1.)pigment (colour),2.) a binder (holds the paint together),3.) carrier (disperses the binder).

Why is it necessary to paint a building? The objective of painting is a dual purpose, that is:

  • General Protection
    to protect the painted parts of the building, making it more durable.For a maximum protection, the painting coating schemes  may differ pending on the a length of time of protection to harshest weather conditions.
  • Special protections
    such as protection against the harsh weather, air pollutions, salt spray environments such as the sea-shores. Steel frames, portal frames or shipping ports structures may require protection against the tendency to rust
  •  Decorative
    the final objective is aesthetics, which is to make the object to be painted to look attractive and presentable.
  • Green and sustainable effects
    Green paints are materials that do not use toxic chemicals in the paint.The harmful toxic chemicals found in modern paints are harmful to the environment and humans, containing  metals such as Cadmium, lead and chromium are found in pigments.
    Petrochemicals, solvents, benzene, formaldehyde and VOCs-volatile organic compounds  are also used in binders and carriers. Toxic, environmentally harmful, chemicals are used as preservatives, stabilisers and thickener.
  • Special functions
    Special purposed paints such antifungal, fire retardant, odourless, quick drying

read on painting why and how to choose the type of paint… the way to select the painting schemes are found in…6 things you need to know How to choose paint for your home.

There many types of paint:
a.)Emulsion water based paint
b.)Gloss paint
c.)Spray paint
d.)Acrylic paint

Gloss Paint

Gloss paints are oil-based which consist of  resins to giving them a hard wearing quality. Gloss paints are oil (solvent) based paints and also water based gloss paints . traditionally gloss paint was only oil solvent paints, which is to say that after painting the brushes are washed away using solvent( such as turpentine or oil) or the paint can be diluted only by using a solvent such as turpentine. Water base paints can be diluted with water or washed away with water when it is still wet.

  • Liquid gloss needs an undercoat but gives the more traditional high gloss finish and is extremely hard wearing and resistant to dirt.
  • Satinwood is a durable gloss paint that gives a more subtle sheen than the conventional shiny gloss effect, however, it is not usually as hard wearing.
  • Eggshell is a paint is with flatter matte finish, used for smaller pieces of decoration in timber architraves and skirting.
  • Polyurethane glosses an oil-based paint with a polyurethane resin, causing it be tough making it with a hard wearing surface and a greater abrasion than the usual paint.
  • Silane is a mix of silicone and polyurethane paints which make the paint with a stronger surface than polyurethane as the silicone, hence giving an extra protection.

Coating systems

As a rule, all painting schemes should be painted with a primer coat, an undercoat, and a finish coat. There is some exemption to this rule, such as weather shield or pu paint polyurethane paints which do not need a primer or sealer coat. The following are the coating system for the different base materials:

Cement base surfaces
Emulsion paints  coating system, for the internal wall, are the acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat. The Emulsion paints  coating system, for external walls, are an acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat or 2 coats of weather-resisting painting coat system.
Wood surfaces
All surfaces external or internal is primer coat(aluminum oxide ) with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.
Metal surfaces (steel)-gloss paint
All surfaces external or internal is red oxide primer coat with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.The surface preparation should be mechanical wire brushing, or sand grit blasting to SA standards of 1 to 2.5, as this process would eliminate all rust which will reappear at a later stage. In some standards after sand or grit blasting the surfaces are washed clean of salt and within a minute of preparation the painting coat is applied.
Metal surfaces (steel)-PU paint(polyurethane)
The surface preparation stated above is repeated with 2 coats of Pu paint, which referred to as 2 pack PU paint, which is mixed prior to application as they harden within minutes of application and thus giving excellent protection.
Metal surfaces (GI, aluminum, stainless steel, brass)-gloss paint
The surface preparation as stated above for steel, for the above metals are not necessary as these metals do not rust, but there a small amount of oxidation in aluminum. Nevertheless, the surface needs some treatment such as acid etching to cleans the surfaces of the metal.
1.Zinc chromate primer is necessary on surfaces such as galvanized iron as red oxide as primer will chemically react with the galvanized surface, whereas zinc chromate is a neutral material that stops the reactions.
2.under coat and finish coat of gloss paint

Surface Preparation
The importance of surface preparation can not be underestimated as the quality of painting durability and aesthetic depends primarily on the quality of surface preparation, as you could see from the above materials the surface preparation vary from material to material.

Defects of Painting

  1. Painting schemes
    The first defect of paint is the lack of provision of painting schemes such as undercoat or the primer coat, sometimes as a way to cut cost the painter applies the finish coat without the  undercoat  and  the primer.
  2.  see images of  Blistering
    this is a defect where water ingress from the rear background of the material causing the paint to explode with moister inside in blister forms. This may also due to the lack of waiting for the base to dry sufficiently prior to painting, the moisture in the base may result in water escaping eventually which causes the blistering formation.
  3. see images of  crazing 
  4.  defective cycle- the waiting time for drying of the surface is not sufficient and this causes the paint to be defective as the moisture attempt to surface.
  5. see images of Run/sagging
  6. see images of wrinkling
  7. Bloom– cloudy and patches on gloss surfaces
  8. The bleeding-background material is dissolving and causes discoloration.
  9. Cissing-smooth surfaces repelling the coating of paints
  10. see images of chalking
  11. see images of Flashing
  12. Fading as a result of color pigments fading due to the UV rays
  13. Flaking-as a result of poor adhesion of painting coats
  14. Grinning-as a result of background paint showing due to lack of opacity
  15. Saponification-results of chemical reaction such as alkali surfaces

Reasons for poor quality painting

Some of the reasons for poor quality may be:
a.)poor choice of painting coating schemes,
b.)application on a damp background,
c.)poor preparation works,
d.)poor quality paints types,
e.)poor workmanships
f) poor selection of the type of paint for the wrong purpose

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Prepared by System Design Architect, Architect Eco Green Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

What is ECO Green House?

What is ECO?
ECO derives the word from the word Ecological , which is the scientific study of interactions of flora and fauna with one another and with the physical and surrounding environment.

What is Green? Green is reference to the saving of the environment. The Green movement first started as saving the green infrastructure which was first thought as the cause of the environmental issues and that explains the use of going Green idea,

What is an Eco Green house
It is a house which feels environmentally, friendly  while also focusing on the efficient use of “energywater, and  use of recycled building materials or material that has attributes to energy savings and inclusive of an ecologically designed house.

Eco green house is the concept come from Nature, Organic, Mountain and Forest and also the concept of reduce, recycle and reuse has used in sustainability designs by Eco Green Architect , Eco Green architects continue to push the agenda of sustainability in Air quality, Water quality, Energy Efficiency ,Sustainability Planning and Maintenance of building world wide. The eco green architects review the green infrastructure and blue infrastructure and how they are affected for healthy living of the inhabitants.

History of the ECO Green House

The history of the eco-green movement, commenced as a major turn to the  green building movement during 1970s, as the price of oil to increase sharply and made building owners and designers reviewed buildings for more energy efficient buildings.This trend has led to the present cry for Net Zero Energy Buildings.

The researchers and designers were looking into more energy efficient processes, products and designs, following the wake of the energy crises. Many organizations and groups arose up in the 1990s to promote green buildings and dedicated to improving the knowledge of consumers so that they could have more green homes. Groups such as The International Code Council and the National Association of Home Builders started works in 2006 in order to create the “voluntary green home building standard”.

The Energy Policy Act was gazetted in 2005, allowing tax reductions for homeowners that use energy efficient system in their homes, such as Photo Voltaic solar panels and other energy-efficient products.

Features of the Eco Green homes plans or Green and Sustainable House floor plans

  • Solar Panels
  • Energy Star Appliances
  • High Efficiency, Water Conserving Appliances
  • Dual Pane, Low-Emittance Windows
  • Energy Efficient Air Conditioning
  • Energy Efficient Lighting
  • Certified Wood from Sustainable Forests
  • Blown-in Cellulose Wall Insulation
  • Fresh Air Ventilation System
  • Satellite Controlled Sprinkler Systems

Eco Green homes plans idea for exterior concrete

Eco greenhouse idea for house floor plans or Architectural layouts:

First and foremost is building your home with concrete walls. Concrete walls have 4 different systems which is:
a.) cast-in-place concrete walls (where the forms are removed once the concrete hardens),
b.) pre-cast panels,
c.) Concrete blocks, and
d.) Insulating concrete forms (ICFs).

Secondly, cover your roof with concrete tiles and insulated with polyurethane foam, Concrete tiles with the insulation can also reduce your home heating and cooling costs and maintain more constant indoor air temperatures. Also, Living Roof is a good strategy to keep the building building cool during summers and warm during winter. The temperature diurnal are brought down to 50 degree F to 3 degree F during winters..

Thirdly use Grass Crete instead of concrete for all your exterior hard surfaces has 4 of type’s situations such as pavements or sidewalks, aprons, driveways, and backyard patios. This will keep the heat on the building both the heat island and reduces the thermal transfer during hot summers.

Fourthly use a cement-based exterior finish and paint finishes has an appreciation for its many sustainable qualities, including fire resistance, excellent weathering characteristics, good low maintenance, and resistance to rot, mold, and termite attacks.

Fifth install a previous grass-Crete concrete driveway, it enhances the comfort level, reduces the thermal heat island effect and the may be a way to collect the rainwater underground as Bioswale where water is reserved for future use as portable water.

Sixth use an eco-friendly concrete mix. it helps by using recycle waste by substituting a portion of the cement with fly ash, slag cement, or silica fume, all byproducts from power plants, steel mills .Caution should be called for with regards to fly ash as some fly ash may, in fact, contains poisonous matter that may affect the well-being of a person, it should be used only for building components such as footings and ground beans which are concealed and not expose to human movements

Seventh use recycled materials in your landscape designs or building such as bricks, blocks, concrete, etc. All sorts of inexpensive recycled materials can be used in concretes to create unusual artistic effects, including broken or crushed glass, recycled aggregates, broken bricks, stones crushed seashells for hardcore or pavement sub beds.

Lastly where there is waste material from the site reuse your old concrete or waste within the site. Waste is major problems all over the world, read on…

Green Materials to build Eco Green homes plans

The materials to build an eco green house.

1.) Concrete.
Concrete is a material to creating thermal mass in a passive solar designed home. In temperate and cool climates thermal mass to keep regulate a home’s temperature and keep it warm in winter and cool in summer.

2.) ICF Blocks.
It is a systems consist of a range of wall blocks and corner blocks that are assembled onto a solid building and saves time and labor and improved quality of work

3.) Timber.
Timber is a strong, flexible, and readily available and providing it is sourced properly, is a renewable resource but care should be taken to minimise the waste such as formwork should not be timber bit of steel as there will be huge waste after construction, generally timber is a green material as it cost less energy to manufacture as in comparison to aluminum,

4.) Mud-brick.
Mud-brick is made from natural materials , which is a sustainable, recyclable, non-toxic , healthy form and the amount of energy required to manufacture mud brick are minimum.

5.) Straw-bale.
Straw-bale is rectangular bales, which are stacked up to create walls and are fixed in place with metallic or wooden pins which are trimmed and shaped before being rendered with mud or cement based renders.

6.) Timber-Crete
Timber-Crete is a mixture of timber waste (such as sawdust) and concrete to create a special material that is porous and lighter than solid concrete and of greater strength and good insulating properties.

7,) Rapid-wall
Rapid-wall is a prefabricated panel constructed of Fiberglas reinforced water-resistant gypsum plaster, which can come moldy to the form.

8.) Brick.
Brick have the advantage of high thermal insulation be used to store or absorb heat to help reduce the heat gain inside the house compared to cement brick wall, however, if a cavity wall is constructed, the cavity should be filled with an insulation material such as polyurethane foam.

9) Rammed earth
Rammed earth is a precisely controlled mixture of gravel, clay, sand, cement, and sometimes lime or waterproofing additives.

 

Green ecohouse floor plans

Green and Sustainable House floor Plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check out our Green and Sustainable House floor plans- Click here

Carbon Trading

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Written by: Khor Zhe Keem and Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

System Design Architect
http://www.sda-architect.com/

 

 

What is Modern House Plan?

The Modern House Plan  is clean-lined , sharp and crisp-edged using shapes that are sophisticated looking homes.and ,functionally focusing first and foremost and primarily using a modern material and exposing the structures or using the structures in a cunning way .

The modern house has a smooth and shiny surface ,everything ,maybe even white and balanced.

Modern homes are very elegant,neat ,sleek, precise and are constructed to the finest of a quality of workmanship which is a beauty by virtue of this attribute.Taking the cue from the motto,” God is in the detail”. It uses the most up-to-date techniques of construction and using new ideas of materials and inspiration from ;modern art and graphic and using equipment for constructability of modern forms.

Modern homes are greatly simplified taking the cue from the motto “Less is more”, giving way to a clean aesthetic where materials meet in simple, well-executed joints. Modern house was most typically using the concrete structures using a flat or broad low-pitched gable or shed roof.

Exposed structure, an expressive using modern materials such as single panel glass cladding, silicone and , and the incorporation of landscaped areas into the house and on the top of the house, Living roof concepts where landscaping are placed on the rooftop where it is extensively waterproofing to keep the roots from uprooting the waterproofing.

Modern Architects ?

In an architectural sense, Modern architects were Louis Sullivan & Frank Lloyd Wright( US), Otto Wagner (Vienna), Victor Horta ( Brussels), Le Corbusier (France) and Antoni Gaudi (Barcelona). The German Architects -Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe and Walter Gropius organized the Bauhaus School that was a great influence on the modern Architectural movement.

However, for the purpose of this article, we would like to refer to all homes that are presently being used as a Modern house .

modern house floor plans

Green and Sustainable House floor Plan

The features of Modern House Plan are:
1) cantilevered structure

A cantilevered structure is a feature that is typified in modern homes, It may be used as a counter balance. A concrete cantilevered structure slab extended from the house, without any support from a pillar or beam, is useful to provide effective shading. The modern house is a flat or broad low-pitched gable or shed roof and this roof may also be cantilevered.

2) Shape and Forms of Modern House Plan

Shapes and the forms of houses are based boxes shaped, or interlinked boxes and the vertical forms are juxtaposed against horizontal elements for dramatic effect and illusions effects.

3) Materials of Modern House Plan

Materials are often used in well-defined planes, Modern house exterior wood is also stained so that the texture and character of the wood can be expressed. some modern home uses of synthetic sidings added steel structural support.

Modern homes use traditional materials in an interesting way, where materials such wood, brick, and stone are simplified lacking the traditional ornaments, in ways where architecture reflects a modern aesthetic. Traditional horizontal clapboard siding is used as vertical board cladding used in large planes. Stonework and brickwork are simple, fascinating ornaments removed, and used in rectilinear shapes and extruded planes.

4) Symmetry of Modern House Plan

Modern home has Asymmetrical exteriors with curved walls or unusual angles and shapes.Forms may tend to be organic breaking away from the rigid, regular,symmetrical as there are studies that shows much benefits accrue from organic forms, read here.

5) Exposed structure forModern House Plan

Exposed structure and an expressive use of modern materials and columns exposed to draw aesthetic in the exposed structures.
Exposed concrete block, bricks, exposed wall are left bare finish to reveal the true character of the structure in lieu of a finished material.Concrete floors, plastered wall are stained and exposed, long-span steel trusses permit open column-free spaces, and service pipes such as also exposed.

Modern home adopt the new “skin-and-bones” architecture for their emphasis on steel structure and glass enclosure and vice versa.

6.)Net Zero energy Homes with Green and sustainability House plans

Comfort  with minimal use of energy such as Radiant heating systems enhances human comfort,   orientation with respect to the solar path, super insulation of the building, sensors to save energy, BAS to manage the building for maintenance and PV solar panel. Wind turbines ,geothermal energy and biomass energy to enhance the sustainability of the environment,

Modern home uses of large sheets of glass in effect bring exteriors of building’s site into interiors of the building, with dramatic views and introducing and harvesting natural daylight deep into the interior of homes

Modern home has natural and smart landscaping. The best modern homes are energy efficient. They are oriented to take advantage of natural forces to generate renewable for passive solar heating in the winter.

The cost of twitching you home to Net Zero Energy with Green and Sustainable house plans is minimal, check out with us today, call us

Check out our modern house floor plans as they are the best on the world wide web.

Prepared by Lydia of Saito college,  edited by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

So ! What is a Beach House really?

Beach Houses are the serene homes often located near the beach and shorelines. Typically they are also houses are located in the mountain areas with view of near the waters of the sea shores.

It is also like cottage houses, which are places to spend the holidays and enjoy the vacations.

The typical features of beach house plans describe the houses with large verandas with a wooden structure. Spacious beach house plans also include houses built with a magnificent view of the beaches. The rooms such as breakfast room, master bedroom, the living room and the guest room have a circulation access to the decks. The rooms may be given a spacious areas.

What are the distinguishing features of beach house? 

Beach house interior design tends towards simpler and exclusivity of spaces is removed in comparison to the conventional and traditional concepts of home.

The ocean is a great source of inspiration for many different beach house design ideas. The shape and forms of the ocean may affect the form of the beach houses. The design style of beach house is a real favorite among the people alike is the Contemporary Coastal style. It’s a style that essentially reminds us of the beach itself.

It really creates an atmosphere that is cheery, airy and relaxing atmosphere

Beach House Interiors
The one of the most exciting parts of a beach house is all of hardy and robust types of furniture pieces that go all throughout the interior of it , generally made from organic materials and natural fibers, that reflects the beach life as much as possible. Rattan furniture,( wicker ) beds made of natural oak frames, finished bamboo blinds and dotted with canvas chairs., along the deck and umbrellas fixed to sun bathing seats.

Interior decor for beach house never has to be expensive and should be more fun.

As a means of interior decoration, sea shells tropical trees that evoke the ambiance of warm as palm trees, sea shells, sea fishes, star fishes, the boat scenes, ships. tropical fruits juices etc may be ideal to create the ideal interior setting of a beach house.

Curtains or drapery that is rather reflective of the nature, seas or clouds and sunny beach-like in nature, can help to diffuse natural setting and mood of beach outdoors.

The large single paneled window, granting the views of the seas and the outdoors may help to create the out doors feeling in doors in a graceful manner,

Utilize the Mermaids Indoors as a decor of beach house and even in the outdoors as this has an immediate sense of outdoors.

Net Zero Energy concepts

Bring In More Natural Light as to create the beach ambiance but it is sensible to utilize net Zero energy concepts as a green sustainable feature to reduce the energy from the grid. And sources of energy may be a hybrid of wind turbine and a solar panel that pays for the finance of the second beach . energy may be a source of earning some finance as the house may be left unattended too during the off holiday season, when renewable energy may help to finance the second home.

It make sense to harvest the sun where the lux level is about 140,000 lux at mid day and whereas the light for task level is only 350 lux.

This home was built with lots of glass walls around it but carefully to reduce the heat inside the beach house,

What are the types of beach house?

There are 3 types of beach houses, namely:

  • Urban Beach House
  • Sophisticated Beach House
  • Modern beach house

check our our Beach house plans, they arr simply the best on the world wide website.

Prepared by Jeevitha of Saito College, Edited by Net Zero Energy Perumal Nagapushnam

What is a Cottage house,house floor plan!

Writing by Hee Guang Zhen of Saito College

 

Autosave_H33.1 River Point Cottage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It’s mean a simple a house with a kind of comfortable feeling. Cottage style homes are often evokes legends in storybooks and fairy tales, set deep in the country woods and surrounded with a fairy tales semblance filled by birds, domesticated animals, and beautiful flower garden, which are often thought of as small homes in idyllic surroundings where nothing goes wrong, as in a fairy tale. Can happen laying between a river and backdrop of hills, the air is filled with sound of flowing water, people living in the small courtyard, that’s the surrounding feeling of cottage house…

Cottage homes may be a vacation house plan or a beach house plan , fitting for a lake or in a mountain panoramic views as a setting.

It is wrong to refer to them as bungalows as bungalow mean a single storey house with a compound of surrounding land. Modern Cottage houses a re generally more spacious in different settings, but there is a distinct style and charm that reflects the rural lifestyle.

Cottage House floor Plan

Cottage House floor Plan

Historical Backgrounds to Cottage House

Cottage House ambiance takes you to the surrounding around the 18th century onward, when the rural area was influenced with the development of industry leading to the development of weavers’ cottages and miners’ cottages.

It was a house concept is popular on 19th century. The word comes from England where it originally was a house that has a ground floor, with a first, lower storey of bedrooms which fit within the roof space. It used to mean a small old-fashioned house.

In modern terms it is usually a modest, often cozy dwelling, type of a rural setting ed Kingdom the term cottage denotes house that are designed to resemble traditional .

In the US the word cottage is often used to mean a small vacation home. Home designers like Andrew Jackson Downing brought this style of home into American favor by including building plans

In Canada the cottage-style dwellings are the term generally exists with no reference to size at all.

In Britain, traditionally, cottage houses were compact English farmhouses occupied by peasant agricultural workers which we now dream of a comfortable living homes.

Autosave_meditranian, spanish small,beach,mountain, vacation,cottage

Features of Cottage house

Cottage homes are often dreamed off as smaller sized homes with beautiful flower gardens and a quaint design with a feeling of a in peaceful rural surroundings, complete with cottage-style gardens bursting with colorful blooms.

The Architectural facade is a normal cottage house with a simple porches and fence, portico designs with simple columns and spacious and roomy covered porches.
Balconies with two-story house designs are some of the features of a cottage house.

The facades also have large bay windows.

Adding with it a Flower gardens bursting with colorful blooms are reminiscent of a cottage house that adds beauty and reminiscences of the old 18th century outlook.

 

 

Selection of color
cottage house avoid rich colors, use plain white where necessary or rather best use the material in its most natural colors.
The natural dilapidation of the old look brings honesty to the cottage and a rustic feeling to the cottage.

Cottage Style House with Wood Shingles
It is also a cottage houses more compact size and their asymmetrical exterior features.

Stone brick and timber are the main material using on cottage house. This structure reflects the gentle and natural feel. Stone naturally creates the rustic and cozy and comfortable sense of oldness to the traditional times.

small log mountain house

small log mountain house

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cottage Style House with Stone Exterior

A Cottage style homes may be tucked away into the woods, located near the water, or otherwise surrounded by nature. They can also be blended seamlessly into local residential neighborhoods.

Small Log House Plan

Log House Plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net Zero Energy Plans
Cottages in the outbacks, out in the mountains , by a small stream or by the rustic beach side can be designed for off the grid Net Zero Energy buildings with cottage homes ambient without losing the charm, of cottage homes or cottage style house typical of Cottages.The cost of doing so is very minimal, call us for further details.

Check out our Cottage house floor plans, click here

Click here Check out our cottage house floor plans, Cottage house. cottage home, cottage plans, Cottage Style House, house floor plan, house floor plans,

Click here Check out our Net Zero Energy Architect

Click here for checking out our small house plans

 

 

Carbon Trading

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Edited  by Net Zero Energy ArchitectPerumal Nagapushnam

Bio fuel

Biomass energy and Bio-Fuel

Biomass energy- Bio Fuel

Biomass Energy is derived from recycling the carbohydrates to liquids or gasses for energy.

Types of Biomass
– wood chips
– municipal solid waste
– municipal industrial waste
– forest waste
– animal waste
– agricultural waste

Disadvantages

The disadvantage of biomass energy is that when there is a demand for waste material the cost of waste escalates and the viability of installing a biomass plant becomes commercially NOT viable

Advantages of Biomass

Some waste  available in abundantly such as Industrial waste and Domestic waste.The waste produced in London is 8000 tons per day, New Delhi has a domestic waste about 9000 tomes, New York has 12,000 tons per day and KL: has 2000 tons per day.

Bio-Fuel saving as an Energy Efficient product and Net Zero Emission Product

As example of Bio-Fuel, an additive to diesel reduces the commission of co2 and other gasses and improvises the energy efficiency of diesel by 20%
Bio-fuel additive supplied by Bio-Fuel Sdn Bhd (M) has many advantages such as:
a) increased efficiency of diesel by 20% . it helps to reduce the diesel consumption by 20%.
b) The reduction of emission of the dirty dozen gasses such as Co2, N02, HC2 etc by 80% compared to diesel.
c) It increases the torque of the engine by 8%

Savings calculation of bio- fuel
Assumptions

  • Diesel price is RM7.80 per liters
  • The amount of diesel used is 1,000,000 liters
  • 1 Liter of Bio-Diesel B5 is RM2.50 per liter
  • 1aving in using Bio-Fuel Additive by Bio-Fuel Sdn Bhd (M)
  • 1 million liters of diesel(at RM7.80 per liters) used cost RM 7,700,000

1.)Saving  using Bio Fuel (20% savings)—RM1,540,000
Advantages( increase in torque, and 80% reduction in emission of Co2 and dirty dozens)

2.)Saving in using Bio-Diesel B5
1 million liters of diesel(at RM7.80 per liters) used cost RM 7,700,000
5% savings fuel—50,000litres are saved using B5
1 Liter of Bio-Diesel B5 is RM2.50 per liter, the Diesel price is RM7.80 per liters
and therefore the saving is RM7.80 minus RM2.50 equals RM5.30 and therefore the total saving for 50,000litres is RM 265,000

3.)Compare the saving is 1,435,000Million per 1000,000litres, RM1.435 per liter of diesel consumption. Contact us the supplier at 60172246801 for details or email at systemdesignarchitect@gmail.com

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Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect , Perumal Nagapushnam
Green Architect, System Design Architect,

Geothermal Energy

Harvard’s research reveals that the amount of Geothermal Energy in the earth , will suffice to supply electricity the US for 2000 years.
Some of the regions where energy is abundantly available are:

a)Yellow stone National Park
b) Ireland
c) Japan
d)New Zealand

Methods of Used to Harvest Energy from Geo Thermals
A shaft sunk into the subsurface streams reservoirs generates pressurized steams which is converted into electricity by a turbine. A heat exchanger is used to generate clean stream

Advantages of Geothermal Energy
1.It is clean energy
2. the life span is several decades
3.It does not use fossil fuel to generate electricity
4.It does not have waste disposal which is dangerous to the environment
5. It is available 24 hours of a day and night, and not dependent on the wind or sun.
6. The footprint for built up space for the buildings are minimum in comparison to other sources of energy .

Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
1.It produces toxic gas
2.steam generates sound to the environment as the steam is harvested.
3. A few places in the world where the geothermal can be harvested economically although the world is a large heat sink.

Projects using Geothermal Energy

  1. California Geysers in the US
    This project generates 1,300MW of power with 200 steams wells.
  2. Eden Deep Geothermal Energy Project in the UK
    this project supplies energy for 4000 homes.

Prepared  by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
C
heck out with us on our Green House Plan by our Green Architect

Wind Turbines

This is the energy that helped the pioneering Americans to conquer the frontier, where, every village and farm was dotted with a wind mill .
Wind energy is free and clean and available in abundance and created without having to burn fossil fuels or manufacturing process that damages the environment.

The estimated energy that can be harvested in the wind is 20million MW world wide according to World Metro logical Organization.

Advantages of wind energy:

a) It is clean and does not employ fossil fuel
b) It can be installed in great speed unlike hydro energy
c) It is cost less those solar or any other sources of energy. It is about 3 cents/kWh compared to 5cents for coal powered plants.
d) It is modular system and can be added upon
e) It does not depend on the sun and the time of harvest in not restricted to the day but wind may be harvested during the night and storm situations when there is wind. About 90% of the time the wind turbine can harvest energy. The minimum wind for wind to be harvested is getting lower, presently technology to harvest wind as low as 5m/s
f) The cost of wind energy does not depend on the prices of fossil fuel or the market forces.
g) It is 60% efficient compared to 20 to 40 % efficiency of Photo voltaic panels.

The offshore wind energy is becoming more popular in UK and in the US, the following are some of the projects:
1.)Thanet off shore wind farm
Total off shore wind energy off the US Atlantic has the potential to take off the fossil fuel by 30% total energy off the grid.
2.) Vatenfall off shore wind farm
The wind turbine in England supplies energy for 200,000 homes built for £780 m it has 100 no of turbines of 380ft over 35km2 , Vatenfall, a Sweddish company secured the project

3. Block Island Wind Farm
Google has scheduled to construct along the Atlantic ocean for deep sea wind turbines along a 35m transmission line to generate electricity for 17.000 households- Block Island Wind Farm will tap the enormous energy of the Atlantic coastal winds.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/07/27/a-milestone-for-wind-energy-work-underway-on-first-offshore-platforms-in-u-s-waters/
4. Wind farm in Yorkshire England
The world largest wind farm in Yorkshire England will provide energy for 2,000,000 households. English pounds 14.5bm. Wind farm, comprising of 100 turbines of 380m high {115m} and spanning over an area of 35km sq{13.5 sq mile}

Wind energy is proportionally related to the following factors:
a) Wind speed
b) size of wind blades
c) type of blade system
d) the height of the wind turbine

A modern wind turbine produces electricity 90% of the time, but it generates different outputs depending on the wind speed.
a turbine’s best efficiency is 40% at a wind velocity of 9 meters per second (about 20 mph), it will be 40% only at that wind speed. At all other wind speeds it will be something worse.

Consideration for design

The wind should be 5-8mph, the height of the wind turbine is be above the surrounding by 10m to receive unobstructed wind supply, the supply of wind is uncertain but is available during the night, cloudy days, when the PV panels don’t work, complementing with the PV solar panels as a Hybrid system, may be a good consideration as they compliment each other. Location of site near the sea coast will make wind turbines a more viable option by the strong wind

Some interesting facts
The amount of energy the world needs is 155,500TetraWatt per Hour, which is 155.5x1012KwH.

The amount of energy the earth received from the sun is 10.3x1017KwH which compared to amount of energy that is sent in not 1%, not 0.1% but 0.015% which is a pittance of a proportion. Conclusive is to say that this calls for a case of renewable energy, if we could tap the energy from the sun, the energy we consume is hardly anything to think off in comparison to the environmental damage we create by fossil fuel. The energy of the sun is used for converted into wind, wave, movement of air and the vegetation in it.

Moreover the amount of Geothermal energy available in the US , according to a report produced in Harvard ,is sufficient to supply the US’s energy for 2000 years.

Hyper Green architect

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect
http://www.sda-architect.com/

The amount of energy generated is a function of the type of Photo voltaic Panels, the tilt of the panels, the racking type of the PV System,the size of the panels, and the tracking of the sun’s by tilting the panels. This article advises on the types of Photo voltaic panel and related matter about its basis unit of construction and the calculation of the energy generated by panels.

Types of Photo voltaic Panels

Photo voltaic Panels makes use of energy from the sun  and the generated energy is called Renewable energy.Typically most of our energy that are generated by the burning fossil fuel. This energy is harmful to the environment. unlike Renewable energy. The use of renewable energy is good clean energy,no harmful by product are produced such as CO, NO 2, SO 2 and dioxin, Dioxin is a very poisonous gas that is detrimental to health. Dioxin is more poisonous that cyanide. Dioxin has a great affinity for animals and water.On in-taking of Dioxin, the Dioxin will remain in their bodies for a long time, as the chemical is a very stable compound.

Renewable energy is good for the environment because there are clean energy and does not foul the air. The total amount of energy that the world consumes per year is only about 0.015 % of the energy that is available in the earth from the sun.

Photo Voltaic system

Photo Voltaic system are Grid-Connected where the surplus energy is sent to the grid . The surplus energy is purchased by utility company and on a winter week where there were less energy produced by the system, you may be able to access electricity from the Grid.

There are 4 Types of Photo voltaic Panels(as per NREL of the US)

  • Crystalline Si Cells——————–24% efficiency is achievable
  • Multi junction Concentrators——-40%  efficiency is achievable
  • Thin Film Technologies————–18%  efficiency is achievable
  • Emerging PV————————–10%  efficiency is achievable

The attributes of Properties of Types of Photo voltaic Panels

  • Crystalline Si Cells

    There are 2 types of Crystalline Photo-voltaic panels-mono crystalline and poly-crystalline.Both of them are made of silicon crystalline cells. Mono Panels are more efficient than Poly Panels.Poly Panels are less expensive than Mono Panels.They are made of thinly sliced wafers. The types of Crystalline Si Cells are:Single Crystal,Multi crystalline.Thick Si film and Silicon Hetro-structure

  • Multi junction Concentrators

    a) Multijunction Concentrators, are more efficient because the wider spectrum of the light is used for generating energy.
    b) Hetrojunction Concentrators, are a hybrid of crystalline and thin film .It is more efficient as it reaps the benefits of crystalline and thin film technology. It is more efficient when the temperatures are high.
    c) Concentrating Photo voltaic, are concentrates the photo voltaic spectrum increasing the solar isolation and making the panels efficient.
    d) Photo voltaic Thermal, are panels that combines the thermal and photo voltaic energy of the sun to produce energy.
    e) The types of Multi junction concentrators are: 3 junction,2 Junction and Single Junction GAas

  • Thin Film Technologies

    It uses low heat and cost lower than crystalline panels.The thin film technology permit the panels to be flexible enough to be used on roofing material. glazing or wall panels. Thin films are more efficient with high temperatures.
    The types of Thin film technologies are :Multi-junction poly-crystalline,Nano poly-Si, Amorphous SiH(stabilized),CdHe and Cu(In GaSc2)

  • Emerging PV

    Some of the photo voltaic panels which are emerging and may make a difference and become a state of art panel are: organic cells,dye sensitized cells and inorganic cells

Best situations for the  Types of Photo voltaic Panels for Maximum Efficiency

  1. Panels should be tilted to face the sun, or facing south if you are located in the Northern Hemisphere and face north if you are in the Southern Hemisphere.
  2. Photo voltaic panels on Roofs tops,Car park Coverings and shading louvers reduces the cost of construction.The cost of Roof covering is reduced. The cost of shading devices reduce cost.The cost of roof cover on car parking covers are reduced. Covering of car parking structures help to reduce the heat island effect.
Types of Photo voltaic Panels

Types of photo voltaic efficiency by NREL

Efficiency of the  Types of Photo voltaic Panels

The Photo voltaic solar Panels efficiency ranges from about 20% to 45%, the more efficient the more costly it would be and may make the technology uneconomical or not affordable to use them. we soon found that the most important factor that influences the choice of PV panel is cost and area of space limitation.c) the tilting of the panels
Power generation will defend on the features such as :panels which track the sun,roof installation or open system and the type of the PV panels.

The STEPS for  calculation of PV panels sizes is

Following the steps if you are mathematically savvy, otherwise you could seek the help PVwatts supplied by NREL-check it at http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/. The PVwatts calculator assumes a Grid connected system, the Steps below assumes off Grid connection system. The PVwatts calculator will produce the comparative cost savings in the system( over the utility bills) and will consider the technology used (Thin film, Premium, Standard), Racking system used( Roof or Open Rack, axis tracking system,1 axis tracking system or 2 axis tracking system) and the Tilt of the panels.

Step 1 – Calculate the daily energy consumed by the light fitting.

Energy required= Lamp Wattage × Operating Hours per day
= 13 watts × 8 hrs/day
= 104 watt-hrs/day

Step 2 – Calculate the electric energy that the PV panels need to generate.

Assumptions: the battery is 80% efficient and the discharge efficiency is 60%
Energy PV generates = Energy required daily / (Electronics Efficiency × Battery Charge/Discharge Efficiency)
= 104 watt-hrs/day/ 80% × 60%
= 217 watt-hrs/day

Step 3 – Calculate the amount of solar radiation that the PV panels need to collect each day.

ESolar Radiation Needed = EPV Produced/PV panel conversion efficiency
= 217 watt-hrs/day/10%
= 2170 watt-hrs/day

Step 4 – Calculate the average. daily solar radiation at the location of lighting system for the season with the lowest amount of solar radiation

The 30-year-average of monthly solar radiation on a horizontal, flat panel is 2900 watt-hours/square meter/day. And on a flat panel tilted to an angle of latitude plus 15 degrees (facing south), it is 5000 watt-hours/square meter/day, San Diego in December.

Step 5 – Calculate the size of the PV panels required

If the PV panel is in a horizontal position:
Size ,PV Panel = ESolar Radiation Needed/Daily Solar Radiation
= (2170 watt-hrs/day) / (2900 watt-hrs/m2/day)
= 0.75 m2
= ~8.2 sq ft

Plus 15 degrees (facing south) for PV panel tilted at an angle of latitude :
Size ,PV Panels = ESolar Radiation Needed/Daily Solar Radiation
= (2170 watt-hrs/day) / (5000 watt-hrs/m2/day)
= 0.43 m2
= 4.6 sq ft

Guidance to selection of the PV Panels:

The factors one uses to select the panels depends on the following:
a) Space for the panels either on the roof or with the site such as car park sheds or other places, louvers, wall panels etc
b) The amount of energy to be generated
c) The tilting of the panel
d) The tracking system
e) Roof installation or open system
f)  The Type of the PV panels

Integration of PV Panels with the Building

The integration of the PV Panels with the building will have make reduce the optimum level of performance of the panels. The panels. Panels performance will depend on its tilt, orientation and the ability to rotate along the seasonal solar path .
PV Panels can be integrated with roof covering( but need to be cautious as working space by the side of the roof and the top has to allowed for future maintenance).Roof top installation of Net Zero Energy achieve the highest categories of Net Zero Classification. The PV panels may replace the Car parking roof covering.This has it advantages such as easy maintenance and accessibility for maintenance. Facades and the louvers of openings can be constructed by PV panels.

 

COST

Check out our supply cost of (CLICK HERE) PV solar panels

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

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Energy Efficient Products

prepared by Ar PERUMAL NAGAPUSHNAM

As the world is embroiled in a race to develop sustainability in the designs ,some of the most commonly thought of Energy Efficient Products  to achieve this ends are Photo voltaic panels, solar collector panels, wind catchers and Light tubes.

1. Photo-voltaic panels

These are devices that generate DC ( direct current) from the sunlight, the  direct current is produced using a photo-voltaic cell. A photo voltaic cell shown below is the basic unit of the Photo voltaic panels.This cell uses the light portion of the sun’s rays to produce direct current. Note that the infra red portion of the suns ray are not used for generating current. The infra red is the heating part of the suns rays.

photo voltaic cells

solar pv cell

The cell is created by a sandwich of 2 variant of silicon, which is either a mono crystalline or poly-crystalline constituting a photo-voltaic cell.The Photo voltaic panels types that are  available :
i) mono crystalline , are plain uniform blue colored cells
ii) poly crystalline, are blue with grey and has a sparkling surfaces
iii) thin film technology
iv) Emerging PV
v) Multi junction Concentrators-

mono and poly PV Panels

mono and poly saturated panels

The supply of DC is inverted(inverter) to AC  from DC at a standard voltage for more usable electricity.The amount of current is proportional to:
a) the intensity of suns radiation or ir-radiance (measured in W/m2).
b) direct sun light is 10 tens higher than an overcast sky
c)Energy efficiency of  the panels, it may range from 16-40% in the conversion of suns radiation to DC
d)The glass thickness of glass that protects the cell has an effect of the amount DC generated.
e) the size of the panels
f) the tilt and the location of the panels
g) the high temperatures may reduce the efficiency of the panels.

2.Solar collector panels

These are containers of waters that are that absorb the radiant heat of the sun causing the water in the container to heat up and rise to a tank of water which is transported to heat to the building for consumption. They are located on the roof top and the amount of heat collected for hot water consumption will depend on the tilt of the panels and the amount of direct sun on the panels, overcast sky may not do well in producing heated water for consumption.

3.Wind catchers

This system has been used for centuries in building in the  tropics or hot dry climates to reduce air-conditioning cost . Wind is diverted, using a shaft, into the building to ventilate the building. It displaces the hot air rising up the stack (stack effect) and helps to keep the building ventilated with fresh air and cooling the building. Care should to taken not to mix the fresh incoming with the hot air rising in the stack effect. check out Shalini Ganendra house in PJ for an example of effective use of wind catchers. check out some interesting images of wind catchers.

The software used to analyze wind catcher study is Vasari. which is part of Revit, auto-desk. The study of wind is also called wind tunnel study, fluid dynamics in buildings.Fluid dynamic studies are called computerized fluid dynamics (CFD). check out how wind can be used as a way to design Net Zero Energy designs in buildings.

4.Light Pipes

These are tubes that transmit day light into the building s[ace . at the roof the tube is encapsulated with an acrylic dome to capture the day light ,w which is transmitted into the building via a highly reflective mirror finished aluminum tube, This will be an energy saving option as the lighting in a commercial building constitutes 20-30% of the energy pie of energy consumption. check out Solatube which are some examples of light tubes which are used effectively for redirecting sun;s lights for energy savings.

SOME  FACTS OF ENERGY
1.Energy efficient use is greater dependence on renewable sources rather than fossil fuel.

2.The Best solution to energy efficiency is:
a.) to use less( for instance, using equipment such using LED lights , pumps that consumes less power or systems that use less energy to operate)
b.)reduce wastage ( the lights that are lighted up where there are no occupants are removed, escalators which are running where there are no users are switched off… etc)
c.)remove redundancies in design( equipment that are designed for peak loads are reviewed)

3.Solar Energy is huge and a great potential and a vast resource, the problem of storage is another problem, this is being solved by companies such as Telsa and modern technologies are rapidly advancing reducing the cost of storage and increasing the storage capacity. Storage areas are called UPS(Uninterrupted Power Supply), which are spaces of storing batteries are protected from acid overflow floors and the other protection is dependent of the importance of the building dependence for power.The cost per kWh is reducing rapidly.

4.Fuel Cells, produces hydrogen and oxygen from water using electrolysis, this is a cheap solution to the renewable energy. the  constraint to the storage of gas and safety requirements. It requires a large space to store the gas and moreover the safety precautions required are very stringent and these 2 constraints makes the reliability of Fuel cell as uneconomical and not practical. for instance the space required for a commercial building would occupy 2 basement levels and the cost of the space is prohibitive.

5.Biomass Fuel is good as it reduces the cost and reduces the emission of gas, and keeps the air clean, it helps to attain the Net Zero Emission Building very easily, read on for calculation of the saving and benefits of biomass energy using palm oil.Other sources of biomass are charcoal, wood, waste from agricultural products.
6.Wind Power,is the fastest growing rapidly as a source of clean energy, read wind turbines

7.Hydro power is traditionally the only source of energy in the last century, but causes tremendous damage to the environment in the means to create a dam, where many communities are displaced, ecological flora and fauna re disturbed and causing untold damages tot eh environment.
8.Geothermal energy is available in abundance , except for the discharge of toxic gas the availability is abundant. read Geothermal Energy for more information

Check out the Cost of Installation of PV Panels for your homes.

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect  Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/

 

Lead Glazing panels

stained glass

Glass panels for building

The glass technologies have abounded by heaps and bounds and so has the types of glass has increased to a wide range of types.

Types of glass

1.) Sheet glass
Sheet Glass were glasses that were manufactured traditionally by cutting the sheets of glass from large blocks of glass, which cutting produced less quality of glass in comparison to float glass.
2.)Float glass
The float glass process is also known as the Pilkington process, named after the British glass manufacturer Pilkington, which pioneered the technique (invented by Sir Alastair Pilkington) in the 1950s
3.) Clear glass
The glass that is used conventionally and most commonly used for windows etc, it is colorless and plain which has no special features.
4.) Stain glass
The stained glass is traditionally used in churches, also called the lead glazing, It is the glass window which portrayed the gospel stories to convey the message during the times where the gospel was not available to the masses, during the pre-printing era.
5.) Beveled edge glass
A glass that has the glass edge has been beveled to give a special decorative feature by reflecting light at the edges.
6.) Tinted glass
The glass which is colored to give an aesthetic feature but may have some thermal properties.

samples of tinted glass

tinted glass

7.) Tempered glass
The glass that has been strengthening to resist impact, generally used for glass curtain walls.
8.) Laminate glass
The laminate glass is constructed by laminating thin sheets of glass to create the laminate glass. The glass does not shatter when broken but remains intact without shattering to the floor. The strength of laminate glass is not as strong as the tempered glass.
9.) Skylight glass
A composite of Tempered and laminated glass, constructed in such a way and strong enough for a maintenance worker to walk on the top of the skylight for cleaning purposes etc.
10.) Energy Efficient glass- Low E Glass
Glass which is made to resist the infrared ray and allow the light component inside the building for comfort. As this also saves the cooling bill during summer and thereby called EE glass, as it saves energy. There many types of glasses with differing solar coefficients, the type of glass selected will depend on the heat load one is trying to achieve and the budget for construction. These glasses are generally very expensive.
http://educationcenter.ppg.com/glasstopics/how_lowe_works.aspx

11.) Chromogenic glass * Net Zero Energy Design by Tom Hootman
a) Electrochromic glass, responds to the voltage electrical charges
b) Gas-chromic glass, responds to the flow of hydrogen levels
c) Photochromic glass, glass that responds to exterior light levels
d) Thermochromic glass, glass that responds to exterior temperature changes

12.) Colored glass
Are glasses that are back painted glass which has a decorative effect as the painted back appears with a glass effect and are generally used for the interiors of the buildings.

Other Terminologies for glass

Soft Coat -a coating which helps to reduce the heat into the building

Effect of soft coat on glass [amels

soft coat glass

Hard Coat-a coating which helps to reduce the heat into the building but not as efficient as the soft coats.
Heat soaked glass or Heat strengthen glass

Glass when is manufactured has impurities which will expand when is subjected to the heat from the sun. and this relative and differential expansion cause the glass break and shatter, heat soaked or heat strengthens glass is a process where the Glass is placed in a high-temperature heat furnace so that the defective glasses are eliminated during the heating in the furnace, so that after installation glasses do not fall off,

Manufacturers of glass

PPG– An American glass manufacturing glass that produces the latest type of glass
Pilkington– firm in the UK and the original company that pioneered the manufacturing of glass such as float glass.
NSG– Nippon  Sheet Glass, a Japanese glass manufacturer
MSG– Malaysian Sheet Glass, a Malaysian glass manufacturer

Prepared by Green Architect and Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Interlocking retaining-wall

Garden Interlocking retaining-wall

Retaining walls

The basic function of retaining wall is to retain the earth slopes by 90 degrees “slope,”

whereas the earth natural has sloping sides naturally ,self retaining at 30 to 60 degrees, the slope depends on the property of the spoil.

reposing of slope and retaining walls principles

reposing of slope and retaining walls

Principles and Terminology

The function of the retaining wall is to retain the earth vertically rather than let the earth lie in its natural slope ranging from 0 degrees slope to 60 degrees. If the profile of slope is created by cutting the slopes of the earth the slopes angles may even be about 60 degrees. If the ground are hard the profile may be even 90 degree vertical, but unfortunately not all ground are made of solid rock, there for a retaining wall serves the purposes of creating a vertical wall.

*For slopes that are created by filling of the earth, the slope may be 45 degrees to 30 degrees. Again this slope has to do with the character and properties of the earth.

Retaining wall

Typical Retaining wall

 retaining wall details

concrete retaining wall details

Design Considerations

The retaining walls helps to resist the overturning, slipping of the earth. In designing the retaining walls, the following considerations will have to be considered:

  1. Nature and type of soil
  2. Height of the retaining walls
  3. The type of material the retaining wall is constructed off( eg concrete, timber shoring, steel shoring, stone walls, brick walls , keystone walls, etc
  4. The amount of water flow, or water content in the soil. The water table height is necessary as this will increase lateral pressure on the retaining walls

Types of retaining walls

There are about 5 types of retaining walls, namely:

1.Brick retaining walls

Wall constructed using brick wall, such as drainage, or wall which are cement rendered with stucco or rough finishes to create a special effect externally.

2.Concrete walls

Walls that are constructed using concrete, the height of these wall can be high, the only set back using this walls are the cost of construction and the spaces needed for shoring when constructing these walls is much as it goes higher,

3.Timber walls

The walls are usually used for gardens and is restricted to low walls only and if the ground conditions has a high water table the water may not be good for the wall durability.

Garden timber retaining wall

Timber retaining wall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Pre-cast crib retaining walls

crib retaining-wall

crib retaining-wall details

Crib wall are easy to construct and as it is pre-cast, there is no curing time and constructed with great speed and great heights. The low crib walls are also some time decorative and useful for gardens.

structural walls Gabion retaining wall

Gabion retaining walls

4. Gab-ion walls

Walls that are constructed with a foundation, and gab-ion cages made of gi mesh is filled with rubble stones, and for garden walls the colored stones are filled within the cages and hence it become decorative in nature.

 

 

 

 

 

Gabion retaining wall green w

Green Gabion wall

5.Steel wall, sheet piling walls

shoring earth

Sheet Pile for shoring earth

Sheet pile are driven into the ground to shore up the earth, usually used temporarily for construction of concrete wall or trenches, laying pipes etc, in some instances the sheet piles may be left as a permanent feature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.Geo-textile walls

Wall are constructed using the geo textile materials, the wall is created by wrapping the earth by the edges of the wall in layers and the geo-textiles sheets while holding the edges of the wall, also anchors the earth from slipping.

Geo- textile walls by Tencate

Tencate Geo- textile walls

These wall can get to 20 to 60 feet high or even more if it is staggered, and these wall can be hydro seeding with grass to create a green wall. The geo textile material are anchored into the earth as to anchor the slope from slipping.

7.Green walls ,architectural designs

These walls are decorative in nature but may be used as thermal insulating wall on buildings, where the theme is eco green buildings or eco green homes.

green walls

beautiful green wall

green images

green images

interior green wall

green wall

green walls 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

block retaining wall
Garden block retaining wall details

 

All you need to know of Mountain House

What is a Mountain House?? Mountain House Floor Plans are designed and built as an expression of their owners need for a second and small house. Conventionally the Mountain House Floor Plans were a small and cozy cottage of times past has changed to luxurious modern vacation homes.

Mountain House seems to be built and designed with the strong nature in mind. These were Dream home. that invokes the ideas of the getaway to commune with nature.

The modern Mountain House Floor Plans layout structures are designed for comfort in the interiors, while it reflects the historic classical Mountain House and infused with the regional styles combining the contemporary materials.

In the mountains can be peaceful and magical spirituality transcends. Mountains provide some of the majority scenic landscapes and diverse ecosystems with fresh air and water, abundance of flora and fauna drawing towards a peaceful simplistic way of life

While Modern Mountain Houses need to consider extreme weather patterns, uneven and sloping topography, limited site access and variety of other restriction, it is inspiring to see many amazing modern or even traditional mountain homes around the world. Clean lines, simplicity in forms and details, industrial materials, and an expressive, honest structure typically define modern homes. The modern mountain houses have other distinguishing features.

Check out our Mountain house floor plans layouts

Prepared by Arun of Saito College

Dream House

Dream House Floor Plans

How to design a dream house floor plan

Follow these 10  steps, it leads and  guides and a serious student of Design( Interior Designing ,Architecture or Engineering) to design a dream home.

Step 1-Design Brief for a dream house floor plan

A Design Brief is a list of requirements for of the home design , The size of of the brief is pending on the size of the project. The brief will correspond in its size requirements . For a large project a Design Brief may be as thick book listing all the requirements of design from Interior Designing ,Architectural, M&E and Civil and Structural requirements.
Request for a Design Brief before commencing to design .,Some clients may not have a proper brief, if so you may have to sit with them and assess the brief.

 

The Design brief may outline :
1)the details of the building and the Interiors
2)details of the interiors,
3)the quality of building construction,
4.)site conditions ,
5.)compliance to the building codes,
6.)studies that needs to be undertaken etc

Net Zero Building building site analysis

Eco Green building site analysis

Step 2-Site Analysis for a dream house floor plan

A Site Analysis is a  study of the conditions of site, its features. the characteristics of the site, the adversities of the site, the weather (wind directions) conditions, the topography features, the flood levels, the direction of sun path, the views and vistas, existing vegetation, slopes, building set back of the site and other conditions existing in the site.

In some instances the type of soil and ground conditions should be analyzed  as it will affect the cost of building.This is refereed to as geotechnical investigation. Please read on..for site analysis for Net Zero Energy and Eco Green building design

Bubble diagram for designing a house

Bubble diagram for a dream house floor plan

Step 3-Bubble Diagram for a dream house floor plan

A Bubble Diagram is a study of the relationship of spaces as required in the Design Brief (Step 1) and connecting with the site analysis( Step 2). The spaces are approximated in shapes of bubbles and those bubbles that are related closely by functions are placed closer to each other. and spaces that are affected by the site conditions are approximated and reflected in the Bubble Diagram.

Step 4- grid

The approximated bubble diagram layout is laid out over a grid line. A grid line either in 2 ft (600mm),4 ft(1200mm) or 8 ft(2400mm) grid are necessary and used to designing the building as it helps to minimize the cost of materials or structures in the building construction.  A 2 ft (600mm), 4 ft(1200mm) grids lines are used with the intention to save material  and detailing the interiors and 8 ft(2400mm) grid lines are used to save the construction cost of structure.

Step 5-Template of the room (spaces)

Draw a templates of the spaces( such as the bedroom, the kitchen, the toilets, the staircases, the Great room etc) as identified in the Bubble Diagram required in the client brief, and place them over the grid as your bubble diagram  and the Grid lines and  study the spaces and  makes senses of the  design layout plan.The  design layout may seems like this.

Preliminary house design layout

house design layout

Step 6-Design Layout and Form for a dream house floor plan

In finalizing the design layout ensure all the requirements of the clients brief are met and correlate it with the form of the building. Make the adjustments in relationship with the form you have minded. Visualize the form with the layout as they correspond with each other.

Finalize the design layout in relation to the Form of the building or make adjustments to the Layout due to a Form or the adjust the Form to the layout. At this stage all the interior concepts should be integrated with the building, eg garden in the toilet, or garden in the Living, water pool in the building, water fall view from the Dining, BBQ areas etc.

toliet with green

toilet with Eco-green layout

Step 7-Details for a dream house floor plan

God is in the details and so at this stage ensure the details you have in mind are incorporated. Ensure the details are thought thoroughly  such as spaces of storage, cabinets, shelves, interior layout ideas, Net Zero Energy requirements, Eco-green and sustainability requirements details…you may at this stage want to revise the above step 5,6 as you may discover a problem in trying to establish the layout or even so you may have difficulty in detailing a corner correctly. These steps are cyclical in nature you may want to revisit the layout with the forms as many times as you may want too. Check our how to design baths, how to design kitchens, how to use stones in designing,how to design swimming pools and  how to select colors

Step 8- Architectural Styles and Appearance for a dream house floor plans

Design the style and appearances with the ornaments that symbolize the styles, such the Victorian styles have the front highly ornamented, the timber is crafted, the fascia board is crafted to illustrate a style.

material mapping

3d Model with mapping material for a dream house layout

Step 9- Create a 3 D Model for a dream house floor plans

Create a 3 D Model and study the design, review the interiors in the 3 D model, you may review the layout to suit the forms proportions, or the required interiors are not attainable. I would recommend google sketch up software as it is easy to use and the warehouse downloads are just amazing, where almost any thing can be downloaded.

Step 10- Materials selections and Rendering 3 D Models

Select materials for exteriors and the interiors and start rendering the 3 D Models and review if you obtain the views you wanted, review the rendered interiors. I would recommend I-Render as a rendering software and Google sketch up for creating the 3 D model.

perspective of room Level 1The Traditional Japanese House Floor Plan

perspective of room Interior of  Japanese House Floor Plan

Check our our beautiful house floor plans going really cheap, place an order for special rates

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

coastal beach house

beach house on stilts

What is a Beach House?

  • Beach House that near the sea.
  • Beach House is built on a beach, lakefront, coastal area or any land with water views.
  • Beach House Is use as a vacation or second house for people who commute to house on weekend or during vacation periods
  • Beach House Is also named as Coastal Houses or Waterfront House
  • Beach House are range in style from Traditional House Plans to  Modern House Plans
  • Beach House are all about summer and warm weather living

 

 

  7 Features of Beach House 

 Designed for shoreline living with the main living areas typically raised one level above the ground to accommodate rising tides and prevent flooding. This is achieved by building on a pier foundation (or pilings).

  • The parking area is located beneath the home and made possible by the pier
  • Features Large windows in the Beach Floor plans are strategically placed   to give the breath of the grand views of the shoreline or coastal views
  • Beach Floor plans with large decks ,porches for functions such as out door living such as to soak up under the sun and listen to sounds of coastal waves beating.
  • An open floor plan allow gentle sea breezes to cross ventilate flow through the home.
  • The elements of the homes is specialised in materials and construction methods to cater for the marine or coastal environments.
  • Floor plans style offering everything from a simple beach vacation bungalow to a luxurious oceanfront home.

 

 

TYPES OF THE BEACH HOUSE

There are 3 types of the Beach House:

  • StiltBeach Houses , Pier Beach Houses  and Platform Beach Houses
  • Weatherproofed Year-Round Beach Houses
  • Luxury Beach Houses

  1. Stilt Beach House, Pier Beach House and Platform Beach House

  • Structuressuch as stilts, piers foundations or columns arebuilt , to allow siting on a  steeply sloping terrain next the water
  • These structures alsoprotect the beach house from large waves and high tides.
  • Beach housesare raised at least 8 to 15 feet above the lowest land level. The higher the level that is raised above the lower levels the stronger the piers foundations to support the beach house.
  • These bases also serve to anchor houses to the underlying ground during harsh winter storms with high winds.
  • Steel I-beams, concrete columns or pillars and timber piles, posts and framesmay be appropriate for the construction of a beach house floor plan.

  2.Weatherproofed Year-Round Beach Houses

  • Constructed with withstand a variety of hazards, including falling trees, high winds and floods.
  • These types of beach houses are seen in the barns of farms in New England.
  • Structures built in this manner survive events such as earthquakes and a heavy build up of snow that weighs down the roof as they are constructed from large, heavy wooden beams
  • Octagonal house with a low roof
  • This design withstands high winds easily
  • The force is directed down onto the roof and around the sides of the house.
  • Strong softwoods, such as yellow pine, are preferred over hardwoods because softwoods under stress bend slightly, rather than break.
  • Storm windows with high-impact safety glass

3. Luxury Beach Houses

  • With as many bedrooms
  • Features like swimming pools, guest houses and extensive gardens for large families.
  • These types of larger beach houses require larger plots of land

 

Style of Beach House

Why do people love beach houses, is it  being near water that attracts them to the beaches? Is it primarily due to fact that people love the outdoors where activities such as swimming, kayaking, canoeing, sailing, and it’s a perfect place to read next to.people also want to live as close to the beach as possible.

 

Written by Carmel Ho Kar Wei

eco sustainable home using photovoltaic solar panel

eco sustainable home

What is Eco Green Homes Design

An Eco Home is rating scheme in UK for encouraging low-impact on the environmental home designs and build homes using materials and technology that reduces its greenhouse effect and lowers its energy needs.It rating is based on Energy,Transport,Pollution,Water,Land Use and Ecology,Health and Well being and Management.
Going Green with homes are related to using material that affect the environment and energy savings, see the difference between Net Zero Energy Architect to Green solutions

Eco has reference to the ecological in the environment, therefore it is using the landscaping and green ecological strategies to enhance the environment’s sustainability.

Hence Eco Green House suggest that house that maintains the natural green environment in a house, applying the principal of reduce, recycle and reuse as in produce clean air, healthier environment, improving quality of water, more energy efficiency and minimize waste. green environmental design as in friendly and sustainable. The focus is in energy conservation, improving water and air quality and using building materials which helps to achieve these purposes of energy savings or improving water and air quality. so that we can lives well without needlessly damaging the environment using ecological strategies.

Types of Eco Green Homes

There’s two types of Eco Green house designs, namely:
Eco friendly house designs, Eco friendly home literally refers to minimizing harm to the environment by using eco friendly materials.
Sustainable Eco house designs , Sustainable Eco home means environment conscious design to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability of the environment.

The Eco green home make use of the available resources such as wind, water and sun to lower the environmental impact and reduce the energy consumption.
For following instances are the case:

Sun
The main facade and the larger window should face at south during summers in the temperate areas And in the east, west and north have to place a few small windows to prevent heat loss. An the small opening have to be on the north side to help cooling.
In the tropics the FACADE should be aligned along the east west direction minimizing heat gain of the building and windows should be facing the rising sun and large window are avoided in the setting suns side of the homes.
Solar panels are also used to recycle the solar energy to produce electricity and hot water.
Use Natural day light harvesting will enable a savings of about 20% of energy bills.
Energy Efficient light fittings are also used in this Eco Green home design to save electricity. These may be high performance LED lights .

 

Wind
Eco Green Homes designs may use the cross ventilation by the prevailing winds to cool the house using a wind tunnel.
Mini wind turbine energy for residential use to produce electricity.Tubines can generate electricity where there is sufficient winds. Read on factors that make the wind turbine work.

Water
Eco Green Homes are designed to collect rain water from the roof into drums or collection tanks and reuse it as portable water.How this is done may vary from one to another.
Bios-vales can also be used to collect water and to dispense the water a little by little for the landscape areas instead of running off tot the streams as this minimizes the flooding the rivers with run offs. This options also reduces the option to installing over-site water tanks to retain the overflowing of the streams.
Bios-vales can also be used a replacement for external drains as it will serve as a collection point and discharged or retained for future use.Remember that external drains if poorly built can breed mosquitoes and rats which can be a sources of spread of pest related diseases.
Bios-vales can also be used as underground retaining ponds and treated water can be recycled as drinking water. Contact us for more information on bios-vales
Waste water is also treated to produce clean and reusable water.

Other Factors for Energy Savings strategies in Eco Green Homes:

1)Insulating from the sun

Energy is saved on heating and cooling of house by insulating the walls and ceiling well. Super insulation of homes will keep the heat in during winters and keep the heat out during summers. Insulation acts as a barrier both against the undesired heat and cold air from outside and reduce possible leaks inside the home. With good insulation you can make financial savings of the energy bill up to 20-30%.

2)Thermal Zones

Materials that are used in Eco Green homes have walls of high thermal insulting character- high resistivity, and with an air chamber spaces created , to act as thermal zones to control the heat gain and lost of heat, such as Trombe Wall.
Glass walls are double glazing to give a greater insulation as the air in between the glasses are a good insulating matter . Besides, shading element for that house are important to prevent the unwanted heat gains.

Eco friendly and sustainable green house

3.)Eco strategies-Living Roof

Another good solution for improving thermal resistivity on roofs is to cover them with plants, or geothermal heating as it takes the advantage of maintaining the temperature that earth has thermal insulation, thermal inertia. This is called living roof, Living roofs are excellent noise insulators, reduce pollution from dust and other agents and provide a natural habitat for local fauna. The roof also collects the rainwater and processes the water clean for consumption, the water can be diverted into bios-vales.
Presence of plants ensures optimal air quality due to the purifying effect of the plant masses and many other benefits, Read the benefits of ecological strategies..

Eco-friendly  homes are homes that support the Green strategies.

4.)Renewable -Biomass Energy for Eco Green Homes

Biomass material available in the neighborhood can generate energy for heating and cooling the building. There’s many advantages to biomass. The Biomass Energy is cleaner than energy generated from fossil fuel oil and electricity, and from the environmental perspective the biomass stoves are less cleaner and less polluting than convectional energy from fossil fuel. It may be cheaper pending the sources of biomass.

5.)Green Material used in Eco Green Homes

Eco green home would mean a healthier home too as materials free of the volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde are used.Materials such paint solvents, glues, silicone, etc such as non-toxic materials, odorless paint and solvent-free materials free of the volatile which is harmful to occupants and the environment.

6.)Waste is reduced, recycled and reused in Eco Green Homes

. It has many benefits by minimizing waste. The designs are following the principles of reduce, recycle and reuse to produce a healthier, cleaner and better quality environment. This design can also provide a high energy efficiency living area, more valuable over long term, more delightful to come home.

Eco green home design principles are a new concept as a response to the demands of the global call for climate changes and climate warning. Hence this principle can be adopted into any homes styles such as modern green home designs, cottage green home designs and mountain green home designs.

Written by Winnie Kong. of Saito College and Ar Perumal Nagapushnam, Eco Green architect. http://www.sda-architect.com/

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

 The Salt Lake temple was built during the Gothic revival

History of Architecture –Theories in Antiquity

The following will be the outline  of the History of Architecture
A) Definition of Architectural Theory
B)
C)Principles of Classical Period-Greek and RTime line of World Architectureoman Architecture
D)Architects in Antiquity
E) Song Dynasty-LI JIE

A) Definition of Architectural Theory in History of Architecture

 Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture.It is also the principles of designing in architecture. A theory is a body of thoughts if Not proven wrong with time will become a hypothesis, and eventually evolved to become a LAW. Hypotheses becomes a Theses , Theses becomes Theory ,Theory will  become a LAW . Laws will eventually attempt to become scientific  truth. Newton’s Laws were proven wrong by Einstein and replace with Gravitational Theory. As such architectural theories used over the years to define art of designing buildings have been prpoven wrong and have in some instances were rediscovered and some displaced with time.As all theories eventually attain for establishing the truth.The time line of the History of Architecture shown that the early thoughts that once called the golden rule of Architecture has been found to be not true .
Here I would discuss the theories that were discusses in Architecture in antiquity in Greek and Roman times , the early times of Western civilizations.

B)Time line of World Architecture in History of Architecture

This is brief time line of the history of architecture, primarily focusing on the western civilization in comparison with the Chinese Architecture of the Sung Dynasty ( the Indian Period of Architecture has not been included in the time line.) I would add on the Indian Architectural  and Chinese Architectural periods later on for better overall perspective of the History of Architecture.

Time line of world architecture

Time line of world architecture, Bar Chart of Architecture

C)Principles of Greek and Roman Architecture in History of Architecture

The theory of Greek Architecture is centered on ‘Classical Orders’ .The Design was centered on proportions of elements and portions between the individual parts. The belief was any size of building was to be built around a rule of proportions. From this Principe derived  the three orders : the Doric, Ionic & Corinthian. The Doric orders were popular in Greece but not in other places.As these were defined by a certain proportion, the columns were placed almost in every building of importance,which expressed power and authority of the Roman Rulers.

Architectural Priorities of Ancient Rome
The Roman use buildings to wind the hearts of  the people such as the case of  rebuilding of  the Jews temple in Jerusalem, refereed to as the Herod’s Temple – to please the Jews citizens there.

As a world power they tried to impress , entertain cater for the citizens for the needs of the people. While they increased in power and majesty they reflected them by building strong and majestic buildings.

They had their share of problem such as: security, drainage, public utilities such as water supply( aqua ducts of Anio Novus), bridges (e.g. the Pont du Gard), public baths Baths (of Caracalla ),roads, sports facilities, amphitheaters(Colosseum 72-80 CE) and urban planning with 2 streets along the north-south axis grids. Rome had  5 level apartment buildings , many temples and theaters were also built.

The roman civilization which was successful to dominate the world for about a thousand years, laid the foundation to our day and age, such as the Roman letter that we use in English were from Rome, like wise our lives have been influenced by the Roman civilization in Governments(principles in government, language,democracy,senators,Olympics and in even our Buildings)

Use of Arches, Tiles & Concrete in Roman History of Architecture
Arches and Dome used in designs  were exploited to the maximum. Water ducts were supported by arches to transport water from city to city. Central large spaces for meting hall were built of Impressive domes , columns and arches to communicate the  majestic and power of the Romans.

  1. Concrete was invented by the Romans as described by Vitruvius in his book De Architectura. , called it opus cementicium, a mixture of lime mortar, sand, water, and stones. This revolutionized Roman engineering and architecture.
  2. Tiles were laid over concrete structure, in lieu of marble .Buildings were freed from the rectangular Greek design-plan and architectural layout were less geometrical and broke away from the rigid grid line designs of the Greeks traditions.
  3. Sculptures were embellished the buildings together with work of art-such as relief’s, statues, bust m mosaics decorations and mural fresco

D)Architects in Antiquity and in Rome in History of Architecture

The Architect’s in the History of Architecture of the Romans  contributed to-days principles of Architectural design and Architectural theories were Vitruvius, Abbot Suger, Leon Battista Alberti, I will discuss some of the thoughts of these men and also the work of Chinese architect at Song dynasty in China.

i) VITRUVIUS

 

  • Vitruvius was a Roman writer, architect, and engineer who lived in the 1st century BCE. He was the most prominent architect in the Roman Empire, he wrote the De architectura, ( The Ten Books of Architecture), and dedicated the book to the Roman Emperor Augustus. Divided into ten sections,it covers aspect of architecture such as:
    town planning,
    materials,
    decorations,
    building, civil, temples,
    water supplies, aqueduct
    landscape, pavements
    machines
The Classical Greek House Plan

The Greek House Plan Vitruvius Greek House Plan( from wikipedia )

  • It also proposes the three fundamental laws that an Architect must follow:
    1.) Structural adequacy
    2.) Functional adequacy
    3.) Beauty
    These are termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad.

 

  • The Man by Leonardo da Vinci

    Vitruvian Man redrawn by Leonardo da Vinci

    He referred to architecture as a copy of nature, as the birds construct their nest so do human build houses to give shelter from the elements that threaten him- such as sun, wind, rain and enemies. As man is of a certain proportion, so should building should be designed to have the sense of proportion. The man height was the same as the arms stretched. The Greeks invented the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian with perfect proportions base on these principles.

  • It is until these days that Architects of today still use the word proportion ,” the proportion is not right” only in a arbitrary sense. In the Romans times it was a mathematical order.
  • Leonardo da Vinci: who inscribed in the circle and the square in the Vitruvian Man, reflected this fundamental geometric pattern of the cosmic order.
  • The architects in the Renaissance architects were influenced by his teaching in his book. Architects at that time were involved in landscaping designs and Engineering works such as- civil, mechanical and structural designs.

Head of Doric Order Head of Corrinthian ColumnsIonic Capital columns

Vitruvius taught that beauty was defined by proportions and were as what he believed of a certain order:

Doric Order (1.6)

The Doric columns had the following rules in its order:
a)Vitruvius said the height of Doric columns is six or seven times the diameter at the base.
b) This gives the Doric columns a shorter, thicker, masculine appearance, whereas slender Ionic was a more feminine
c)The Doric style was common in mainland Greece and later spread to the Greek colonies in Italy.
d) Doric architecture (as in the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens)
e) Doric more popular during the Classical age and for formal buildings in larger cites such as Rome.
f)It represented male body proportions as strong, masculine and stout.

Corinthian order (1:6.5)

The Corinthian columns had the following rules in its order:
a)The ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio
b) its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column,
c) differences between these styles is n the ratio between the base diameter and height of their columns.
d) Ionic style gained the upper hand during the more relaxed Hellenistic period.

Ionic Order(1:8)

The Ionic columns had the following rules in its order:
a) Ionic columns, which have 8:1 proportions
b) represented the female body proportions, therefore it was a order suitable for libraries and courts of justice, as building were categories as male or female buildings
c)The Ionic style was built along Ionia, west coast of Turkey and Aegean.
d) the Ionic was less restrained and more decorative.

D.ii)  of the Abbot SugerMiddle Ages

a) wrote a document, Liber de rebus in administratione sua gestis,
an architectural document that emerged with gothic architecture.
b)He is possibly the Father of the Gothic period, noted for his use of stained-glass windows, a central element of Gothic architecture.
c) He is a friend of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII of France
d) Abbey of Saint Denis, Paris was credited to Abbot .This building employed every Gothic styles in the architecture- pointed arches, column clusters and cross-rib vaulting
e) It was the beginning of Gothic Era, the St Denis became a proto type model for churches all over Europe to pattern after.
f) Knowledge was spread by word of mouth.
g) Most works that from this period were theological, and were transcriptions of the bible, so the architectural theories were the notes on structures included therein. Due to the laborious nature of transcription, few examples of architectural theory were penned in this time period.

St Denis, Paris, http://christine-skaar.com/assets_d/22215/download_media/abbot-suger_150.pd

St Denis, Paris

D.iii) Villard de Honnecourt’s
a)He left a heritage of a portfolio of drawings at about the 1230s.
b)His famed due to his uniqueness of his portfolio
c) The inventions at the 19th Century was credited to his portfolio, have built church all along the Christian world
e) He was an Architect , http://www.villardman.net/diction.htm
f) During the 19th Century ,at the height of Gothic Revival movement in France and England they found his portfolio drew great attention
g) From the drawing which he produced , and that we were found, it can be concluded that he was a trained mason

Architect in Antiquity-Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti


Div) Leon Battista Alberti

The first great work of architectural theory belongs to Leon Battista Alberti, He wrote the – De Re Aedificatoria,

  • He followed the theories of Vitruvian virtues.
  • He believed in a theory that beauty could be defined mathematically and in proportions which is harmony.
    The proportions found in Romans buildings were beautiful and harmonious
  • Around 1434-35, Battista published theoretical treatise on painting known as “Della Pittura”, explaining  the rules of linear perspective, which would  have enormous influence on artists that followed him.
  • Architect need to follow the design as existed in nature not to follow blindly and objectively but to copy where the real objects of nature meets human needs.
  • He said architects, artist, sculptures and painter should accentuate beauty as “beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary.”
  • De pictura (“On Painting”) contained the first scientific study of perspective

 

Facade of Santa Maria Novella

Facade of Santa Maria Novella

 

  • He designed The Church of Sant’Andrea, and at Rimini The Church of Tempio Malatestiano (San Francesco).
  • He completed the principal facade of The Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.
  • Alberti is also involved in the redesigning a village called Corsignano, in 1459. It was the birthplace of Pope Pius II; Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat ,which radically transformed the center of the town, included a palace for the pope, a church, a town hall, and a building for the bishops who would accompany the Pope on his trips. This city is an example for re-urbanization for planners.

E) Song Dynasty-LI JIE in History of Architecture

Li Jie was a Chines who lived during the Song Dynasty China who influenced Chinese Architecture in a major way till to day.e
He published the Yingzao Fashi in 1103, it was an architectural treatise that codified elements of Chinese architecture

Revolving Budha

Sino-Judaic scholars believe the Chinese (Kaifeng) Jews used one of these to house their 13 Torah Picture of a revolving-Buddhist ark drawn by Li Jie and published in his Yingzao Fashi  Sino-Judaic scholars believe the Chinese (Kaifeng) Jews used one of these to house their 13 Torah

 

Yingzao Fashi brackets

Yingzao Fashi brackets

The 5 Brackets types for connections of columns and beams and 2 cantilevered brackets were predominately used in Chinese buildings of Worship or Chinese Official building , even in the Emperor’s Palaces, for a long time.

Yingzao Fashi door elevation

Yingzao Fashi door elevation

Li’s book used material from preexisting architectural writings. The documentation of the inherited traditions of craftsmen and architects passed down by word of mouth.It provided  a glossary of technical terms that includes mathematical formula. He included topography in his estimations for buildings on various types of sloped sites He also estimated the costs of hiring workers of different trades in crafts.
i)it incorporates building rules and regulations,a system of accounting information,standards for materials

it is book with 34 chapters in the book specify in detail the units of measurement, the construction of moats and fortifications, and standards for stonework as well as for greater and lesser woodwork. It is a detail account of brick, mason, timber details and specification for constructions

Although others were written and compiled beforehand, Li’s book is the oldest technical book on Chinese architecture to have without having to be destroyed but had remained intact in one single document.

Prepared by Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Site Analysis for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

Net Zero Building building site analysis

Green building site analysis

 

In carry our a site analysis the following considerations should be considered:

  • North direction- Solar Path

The North directions should be established for the site, as this will help the analysis of the solar path. This will help to study which of the side of the building is heated up and which part of the building need special insulation.

The setting sun during summer is the part that needs treatment (insulation or louvers shading for window). It is necessary to avoid the suns heating sun to fall on the wall as the heat is thermally conducted into the building. Winter setting sun is desirable as the heat gain is necessary to keep the building warm. In fact this is the side where a Trombe wall is placed to keep the building warm during winter.

The solar path is easily studied by using software’s such as sketch up and Revit’s Vasari and Rivet’s Ecotect or Design Studio. These soft-wares will help evaluate where sun is setting, but some of these soft wares evaluates the relatively hottest part of the building and even the amount of energy required for a specific model designed. And the solar path with these soft wares combined will help make design decisions.

 

  • Wind direction for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

The direction of the wind s and the   strength of the wind and the season of the winds will help you to understand for the following design considerations.

  1. Direction of winds can use in the cooling of corridors and courtyards and public spaces.
  2. Strength of the winds if is beyond 5m/s can be used to generate renewable energy for the clean energy in place of energy from fossil fuels.
  3. Obstruction to the use of winds sources have to be identified.

 

  • Thermal energy potential sources for  Green Building

Sources of renewable energy should be identified, such small streams, geothermal sources or wind energy and potentials for photo voltaic sources of energy.

  1. a) A small stream could generate hydro- electricity through out the day.
  2. b) Proximity to geo thermal ground can be used as a source for energy for building through out the day.
  3. c) The photo voltaic energy is limited to use only when the sun is visible, without clouds in the sky and not available at night.
  • The topography of site for Net Zero Energy and Green Building

The topographical features of the site is necessary such as the contours, valleys, slopes, cliffs, the locations of streams, the main roads entrances façade views and other features that may be potentially an advantage to the site. Connections of utilities such as telephone connections points, water supply connections, sewerage connections points and power connections points.

 

  • Vistas and view for Green Building

The location of good panoramic view and potential vista creations from the drive in and main entrances should be noted for designing purposes. The setting sun, rising suns in the morning views, or view of the beach, mountains or night views of the cities are the features you may want to look out for and if available they need to be identified.

 

 site analysis for Green building

view of site analysis for Green building

  • Adverse situations- smell, harsh winds for  Green Building

The harsh wind during the winter season should be diverted from the building using landscapes or wall, cold wintry winds can conduct the heat away from the building and this will cause the energy bill to escalate.

Forest in the Office AIr Quality conceptIf the site has poor air quality  especially if the site is confronting a busy main road , that eco-green architect would consider ways for the poor air quality to be scrubbed clean so that air quality is maintained. the ecological parts of the site could be maintained for air to be processed. read on why green design can process the air by ionizing the air and removes the dust in   the air and remove air pollutants such as the dirty dozens.

Prepared by Green Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

http://www.sda-architect,com/

cracks in homes

cracks in buildings,http://sandra-markle.blogspot.my/2011/03/writing-docudramaspart-one-i-survived.html

How to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Cracks are common in buildings, one should not be alarmed to see cracks on the walls but sit back get the help by following these steps.

Cracks can be classified as  active or dormant.  Active cracks tend to get larger and changes with time.  Dormant cracks are those have settled and need no alarm , are of no danger, but should be not left not repaired as  moisture penetration may cause further  damages.

Cracks may be classified as structural cracks or non structural crack. If it is structural cracks, one has to take immediate actions to rectify the cracks and if it non structural cracks, you need to touch up the cracks. On may recognize the structural crack by the direction of the cracks.

Cracks can also be classified by  1) direction 2) width, and 3) depth of the crack.  They may be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random.  They may range in size from less than 1 mm (fine) to between 1 and 2 mm (medium) to over 2 mm (wide).

The following are some of the types of crack occurring in concrete:

1. Pattern Cracks:  Fine openings in regular arrangements which due to inconsistent volume of concrete which is lower near the surface.

2. Checking cracks:  Small openings which are  closely and  irregular direction and space .

3. D-Cracks:  Fine cracks at close intervals in a progression with  random pattern.

4. Shrinkage cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, which are straight lines parallel to each other.

5.Plastic cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, appearing as diagonal lines in the top of a slab, caused by rapid drying of the concrete surface when curing additives are added.

6.Settlement cracksCaused by local restraining  around re-bar.

7.Structural cracks:Cracks that are a result of corrosion of the re-bar or structural over stressing or due to under designing of load.

8. Tension cracks:  Cracks which appear in concrete which are  caused by the stretching  of the reinforcement which are subjected to tension.

9.Rust cracks:  A serious cause of  structural cracks caused by insufficient rebar cover. The cover may crack off and the exposed rebar are subjected to rust.

10.Thermally-induced cracks:  Cracks appearing from stresses created by the diurnal of temperature changes over the day or seasonal.

11.Hairline Cracks:  Small cracks and fine crack lines that are randomly placed.

 

serious structural cracks

structural cracks that needs to be resolved

Cracks in brick walls(CP 111)

Cracks found in 215mm thick brick walls   by more than 25mm wide in a stepped or slanting cracks are not a concern as invariably it is deem to carry the load, as shown in test at the Building Research Establishment in England( provided it was not accompanied by considerable transverse movement). Also note the strength of a cavity wall is approximately 20% less that that of a 215mm brick wall.

The reasons for cracks in brick walls may be:
changes in ground conditions,
inadequate consolidation of ground,
shrinkage-able clay,
fast growing trees,
unsound materials(brick, mortar joints)
frost
|corrosion of iron and steel,
shringakage and expansion of walls during cold and hot seasons,
climbers, ivy , climbing rose, morning glory,etc., may cause damage to the walls,
mining subsidence of the foundations.

Cracks, of 1.5 to3.5mm wide are called fine cracks and need to be repaired but has not structural impairment, the repair may be replace the brick or fill it with mortar(1:1:6)pointing and refinish with wall paper or paint etc.

Structural cracks

Structural cracks are large cracks and will be either vertical lines or 45 degrees line cracks or any cracks that runs between the vertical lines to the 45 degree line. Structural cracks are further characterized by the cracks where you can place your finger (when you can insert a large coin) within the crack lines. Further more these cracks would crack the structural member of the building, such as the beams, columns, lintels etc

 

serious cracks

Diagonal cracks- almost always are structural in nature

 

Minor cracks are hairline cracks which are superficial that have no structural members are affected by the cracks. A quick check can be done by hacking the plastered surfaces or the rendered surfaces and check if the cracks are merely superficial on the plaster or rendered surfaces or it has affected the walls within and the structural members, if the structural members are cracked, than you need to find out if it a hair line crack or deep cracks that affects the structural integrity of the structure has been affected.

Hairline cracks in structure and on finished surfaces are acceptable and sometimes beyond the means to control them. Hairline cracks on structural members are considered normal, it may be caused by the heat that is caused by concrete when it is curing at  the construction stages.

Hairline cracks on finishes may be due to the cooling ( air conditioning)and heating during the mid day may causes it, and fissure cracks appear is considered quite normal. It may be caused by an incorrect mix of cement and sand in the plastering and rendering during constructions  or excessive exposure to the hot sun, in case the walls should have been constructed with expansion joints and movement joints to reduce these cracks

Hairline cracks

The mere size of the crack as described in the above para will decide the seriousness of the problems.

hairline cracks

hairline cracks, a minor concern

Minor cracks should be repaired and observed for further development of crack.

Step 1 in the Buildings

Identify the causation of crack to solve, this is necessary so as to avoid redundancy of rectification, and this will avoid a repetition of cracks even after the rectification of cracks were carried out.  Cracks and the following may be the causation or reasons  of the structural cracks.

  1.  The causes of structural cracks may be due to the foundation may have been under designing of the structure .
  2. The structure may have not been built structurally sound and the failures in the beams or columns may be the cause of the cracks. These may even so for cracks in drains, walls, roof slabs or ground floor slabs.The shoddy supervision of work or the lack of  materials compliance as per the specification may have been short changed
  3. There may be s sudden shifting in ground conditions such as shifting of underground streams, which may result in creating a vacuum, causing earth to collapse and thereby affecting the buildings ground structure.
  4. there may be due to vegetation or trees in the close neighborhood which roots may cause the house to be lifted up or the absorption of water by the roots may cause building lift
  5. The supervision of the ground compaction may have not been done correctly; this may results in cracks in the ground, beams and roads.Poor compaction of ground or earth sub grade or sub grade of the road may cause cracking, the sub grade should be compacted to 90-95% FDT( Field Density Test). non suspended ground floor slabs may also cracks due to lack of sufficient compaction, often the apron of a building may be seen to cracking cos of lack of sufficient defective compaction.

 

cracks on the road

cracks on the road winter quakes

The cracks may appear due to differential compression and expansion of the building m such as walls or road, the wall need to provided with expansion joints to allow for the expansions so that cracks are minimized, in colder countries such as Wisconsin the roads are often cracked due to these reason, Provisions for expansion should be provided to reduce these cracks during the winter seasonal quakes.

measuring and monitoring thecracks

measuring cracks for increasing width of crack size

Step 2 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Monitor the increase of the crack size, and  note the changes in the crack width. if the crack width is increasing. if it increasing in size , call the engineers to review the conditions. if the crack size is constant and you are safe to conclude the night mare is over and you can rectify it and sleep soundly.

 

 

Step 3 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

If the cracks are large and getting serious large and looks dangerous, get the advice of engineersA structural Engineer need to be called in, for inspection and for his advice should be sought on the nature of cracks and advice on the course of rectification action.Take the follow steps to resolve the cracks in your home.

Step 4 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Repair the major cracks and minor cracksThe existing cracks are be grooved widen along the crack line and filled up with a suitable sealant and closed up with fabrics mesh and plastered and repainted. A simpler method to repair hairline cracks is to fill it up with a filler and repaint the surfaces or redo the finishes of possible.

Step 5 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Watch out for the re occurrence of cracks, if the cracks appears, you need to evaluate the situation for reasons for these phenomenon.On repairing the cracks should be monitored for any cracks redeveloping in the future.

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,Eco Green Architect & Net Zero Energy Architect

http://www.sda-architect.com/