modern house plans

modern beach house

Interior Of Modern House

Prepared by Tan Li See of Saito College and Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

What is Modern Interior Design Style?

Modern house interiors are simply a sleek and a simple design that is focused on the functional spaces and an omission of redundancy and is more organized. Modern design uses basic shapes of geometry emphasizing the simple edges, curves, angles and sharp and clean lines in all the fit outs and design of interiors.  This style grew from the idea to build for functional elements and, to do away with the traditional deco’s and intricacies, embracing new materials which new material technology made available helps to embrace new outlooks, new ambiances, spaces with out-of-this-world feelings.

The motto that drove the modern design is primary “Less is more”, “God is in the details” , “function before forms” and new material technology.

The Modern interior design is liberated to the use of material, new shapes and forms, new details which are wide and not confined to a single defining style.It is also a minimalist approach to keep the space simple and allow the space to tell the story.

What Makes Modern Furniture Modern?

Modern furniture is streamlined with polished, smooth and sleek surfaces.  Pieces are simple, uncluttered, built for the economy of form, and to serve a purpose.  Furniture pieces are kept to a bare minimum.  The driving design concept is honesty: keeping structure and building material in plain view.

The concept of Green and Sustainability is gaining relative importance worldwide and corporates are keen to embrace this idea as a responsible corporate, Clients tend to move towards this trends and hence more designers are using recycled materials for use in modern design, Interiors designers also need to use energy efficient material and system to [produce a high energy performance designs using renewable energy sources such as light harvesting, wind turbines, Pv solar panels, geothermal energy etc Read more about Green and Net zero energy design at our website.

What about Accessories in Modern Design?

Modern Art and sculptures are used rather than little trinkets, ornamented walls or ornamented elements (skirting, architraves, and dados). Art pieces are carefully chosen for their unique appeal which may serve as a focal point in a space or convey the theme of the space as to create a mood and the right ambiance.

Geometric and simple patterns rugs , simple light fittings, simple furniture with accented colors , materials with a shin and a shine such as chrome, glass and transparent materials that accentuates the new look of modern interiors, which is a fascination.

What about Color?

With the advent of modern colors and discovery of new color combinations, these new colors align with the modern designs and detached with the conventional traditional colors.

For instance, yellow& blue and navy blue& gold are old color combinations that naturally are a reflection of the past ages.

To days designers embraced pure color such as black, white, and gray with vibrant primary colors as a way to celebrate modernity in designs.

Colors can create a certain feeling of calmness, distressing moments, anxiety, and alertness or a romantic mood or a commercial ambiance. Colors for the office and colors for the home are different. Domesticated colors tend to be floral, patterned etc.

Bold contrast using reds, greens, or black, for example, can provide a visual accenting backdrop on a wall, for large pieces; bold color can bring emphasis and focus on the furniture. Read on how to use color for the homes

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Tan Li See of Saito College and Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
h
ttp://www.sda-architect.com/
Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

cladding pvdf coating

discoloration and chalking of pvdf coating

Painting and defects of painting

Prepared by Architect Perunal Nagaushnam

Paints contain three components: 1.)pigment (colour),2.) a binder (holds the paint together),3.) carrier (disperses the binder).

Why is it necessary to paint a building? The objective of painting is a dual purpose, that is:

  • General Protection
    to protect the painted parts of the building, making it more durable.For a maximum protection, the painting coating schemes  may differ pending on the a length of time of protection to harshest weather conditions.
  • Special protections
    such as protection against the harsh weather, air pollutions, salt spray environments such as the sea-shores. Steel frames, portal frames or shipping ports structures may require protection against the tendency to rust
  •  Decorative
    the final objective is aesthetics, which is to make the object to be painted to look attractive and presentable.
  • Green and sustainable effects
    Green paints are materials that do not use toxic chemicals in the paint.The harmful toxic chemicals found in modern paints are harmful to the environment and humans, containing  metals such as Cadmium, lead and chromium are found in pigments.
    Petrochemicals, solvents, benzene, formaldehyde and VOCs-volatile organic compounds  are also used in binders and carriers. Toxic, environmentally harmful, chemicals are used as preservatives, stabilisers and thickener.
  • Special functions
    Special purposed paints such antifungal, fire retardant, odourless, quick drying

read on painting why and how to choose the type of paint… the way to select the painting schemes are found in…6 things you need to know How to choose paint for your home.

There many types of paint:
a.)Emulsion water based paint
b.)Gloss paint
c.)Spray paint
d.)Acrylic paint

Gloss Paint

Gloss paints are oil-based which consist of  resins to giving them a hard wearing quality. Gloss paints are oil (solvent) based paints and also water based gloss paints . traditionally gloss paint was only oil solvent paints, which is to say that after painting the brushes are washed away using solvent( such as turpentine or oil) or the paint can be diluted only by using a solvent such as turpentine. Water base paints can be diluted with water or washed away with water when it is still wet.

  • Liquid gloss needs an undercoat but gives the more traditional high gloss finish and is extremely hard wearing and resistant to dirt.
  • Satinwood is a durable gloss paint that gives a more subtle sheen than the conventional shiny gloss effect, however, it is not usually as hard wearing.
  • Eggshell is a paint is with flatter matte finish, used for smaller pieces of decoration in timber architraves and skirting.
  • Polyurethane glosses an oil-based paint with a polyurethane resin, causing it be tough making it with a hard wearing surface and a greater abrasion than the usual paint.
  • Silane is a mix of silicone and polyurethane paints which make the paint with a stronger surface than polyurethane as the silicone, hence giving an extra protection.

Coating systems

As a rule, all painting schemes should be painted with a primer coat, an undercoat, and a finish coat. There is some exemption to this rule, such as weather shield or pu paint polyurethane paints which do not need a primer or sealer coat. The following are the coating system for the different base materials:

Cement base surfaces
Emulsion paints  coating system, for the internal wall, are the acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat. The Emulsion paints  coating system, for external walls, are an acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat or 2 coats of weather-resisting painting coat system.
Wood surfaces
All surfaces external or internal is primer coat(aluminum oxide ) with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.
Metal surfaces (steel)-gloss paint
All surfaces external or internal is red oxide primer coat with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.The surface preparation should be mechanical wire brushing, or sand grit blasting to SA standards of 1 to 2.5, as this process would eliminate all rust which will reappear at a later stage. In some standards after sand or grit blasting the surfaces are washed clean of salt and within a minute of preparation the painting coat is applied.
Metal surfaces (steel)-PU paint(polyurethane)
The surface preparation stated above is repeated with 2 coats of Pu paint, which referred to as 2 pack PU paint, which is mixed prior to application as they harden within minutes of application and thus giving excellent protection.
Metal surfaces (GI, aluminum, stainless steel, brass)-gloss paint
The surface preparation as stated above for steel, for the above metals are not necessary as these metals do not rust, but there a small amount of oxidation in aluminum. Nevertheless, the surface needs some treatment such as acid etching to cleans the surfaces of the metal.
1.Zinc chromate primer is necessary on surfaces such as galvanized iron as red oxide as primer will chemically react with the galvanized surface, whereas zinc chromate is a neutral material that stops the reactions.
2.under coat and finish coat of gloss paint

Surface Preparation
The importance of surface preparation can not be underestimated as the quality of painting durability and aesthetic depends primarily on the quality of surface preparation, as you could see from the above materials the surface preparation vary from material to material.

Defects of Painting

  1. Painting schemes
    The first defect of paint is the lack of provision of painting schemes such as undercoat or the primer coat, sometimes as a way to cut cost the painter applies the finish coat without the  undercoat  and  the primer.
  2.  see images of  Blistering
    this is a defect where water ingress from the rear background of the material causing the paint to explode with moister inside in blister forms. This may also due to the lack of waiting for the base to dry sufficiently prior to painting, the moisture in the base may result in water escaping eventually which causes the blistering formation.
  3. see images of  crazing 
  4.  defective cycle- the waiting time for drying of the surface is not sufficient and this causes the paint to be defective as the moisture attempt to surface.
  5. see images of Run/sagging
  6. see images of wrinkling
  7. Bloom– cloudy and patches on gloss surfaces
  8. The bleeding-background material is dissolving and causes discoloration.
  9. Cissing-smooth surfaces repelling the coating of paints
  10. see images of chalking
  11. see images of Flashing
  12. Fading as a result of color pigments fading due to the UV rays
  13. Flaking-as a result of poor adhesion of painting coats
  14. Grinning-as a result of background paint showing due to lack of opacity
  15. Saponification-results of chemical reaction such as alkali surfaces

Reasons for poor quality painting

Some of the reasons for poor quality may be:
a.)poor choice of painting coating schemes,
b.)application on a damp background,
c.)poor preparation works,
d.)poor quality paints types,
e.)poor workmanships
f) poor selection of the type of paint for the wrong purpose

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by System Design Architect, Architect Eco Green Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

Dream House

Dream House Floor Plans

How to design a dream house floor plan

Follow these 10  steps, it leads and  guides and a serious student of Design( Interior Designing ,Architecture or Engineering) to design a dream home.

Step 1-Design Brief for a dream house floor plan

A Design Brief is a list of requirements for of the home design , The size of of the brief is pending on the size of the project. The brief will correspond in its size requirements . For a large project a Design Brief may be as thick book listing all the requirements of design from Interior Designing ,Architectural, M&E and Civil and Structural requirements.
Request for a Design Brief before commencing to design .,Some clients may not have a proper brief, if so you may have to sit with them and assess the brief.

 

The Design brief may outline :
1)the details of the building and the Interiors
2)details of the interiors,
3)the quality of building construction,
4.)site conditions ,
5.)compliance to the building codes,
6.)studies that needs to be undertaken etc

Net Zero Building building site analysis

Eco Green building site analysis

Step 2-Site Analysis for a dream house floor plan

A Site Analysis is a  study of the conditions of site, its features. the characteristics of the site, the adversities of the site, the weather (wind directions) conditions, the topography features, the flood levels, the direction of sun path, the views and vistas, existing vegetation, slopes, building set back of the site and other conditions existing in the site.

In some instances the type of soil and ground conditions should be analyzed  as it will affect the cost of building.This is refereed to as geotechnical investigation. Please read on..for site analysis for Net Zero Energy and Eco Green building design

Bubble diagram for designing a house

Bubble diagram for a dream house floor plan

Step 3-Bubble Diagram for a dream house floor plan

A Bubble Diagram is a study of the relationship of spaces as required in the Design Brief (Step 1) and connecting with the site analysis( Step 2). The spaces are approximated in shapes of bubbles and those bubbles that are related closely by functions are placed closer to each other. and spaces that are affected by the site conditions are approximated and reflected in the Bubble Diagram.

Step 4- grid

The approximated bubble diagram layout is laid out over a grid line. A grid line either in 2 ft (600mm),4 ft(1200mm) or 8 ft(2400mm) grid are necessary and used to designing the building as it helps to minimize the cost of materials or structures in the building construction.  A 2 ft (600mm), 4 ft(1200mm) grids lines are used with the intention to save material  and detailing the interiors and 8 ft(2400mm) grid lines are used to save the construction cost of structure.

Step 5-Template of the room (spaces)

Draw a templates of the spaces( such as the bedroom, the kitchen, the toilets, the staircases, the Great room etc) as identified in the Bubble Diagram required in the client brief, and place them over the grid as your bubble diagram  and the Grid lines and  study the spaces and  makes senses of the  design layout plan.The  design layout may seems like this.

Preliminary house design layout

house design layout

Step 6-Design Layout and Form for a dream house floor plan

In finalizing the design layout ensure all the requirements of the clients brief are met and correlate it with the form of the building. Make the adjustments in relationship with the form you have minded. Visualize the form with the layout as they correspond with each other.

Finalize the design layout in relation to the Form of the building or make adjustments to the Layout due to a Form or the adjust the Form to the layout. At this stage all the interior concepts should be integrated with the building, eg garden in the toilet, or garden in the Living, water pool in the building, water fall view from the Dining, BBQ areas etc.

toliet with green

toilet with Eco-green layout

Step 7-Details for a dream house floor plan

God is in the details and so at this stage ensure the details you have in mind are incorporated. Ensure the details are thought thoroughly  such as spaces of storage, cabinets, shelves, interior layout ideas, Net Zero Energy requirements, Eco-green and sustainability requirements details…you may at this stage want to revise the above step 5,6 as you may discover a problem in trying to establish the layout or even so you may have difficulty in detailing a corner correctly. These steps are cyclical in nature you may want to revisit the layout with the forms as many times as you may want too. Check our how to design baths, how to design kitchens, how to use stones in designing,how to design swimming pools and  how to select colors

Step 8- Architectural Styles and Appearance for a dream house floor plans

Design the style and appearances with the ornaments that symbolize the styles, such the Victorian styles have the front highly ornamented, the timber is crafted, the fascia board is crafted to illustrate a style.

material mapping

3d Model with mapping material for a dream house layout

Step 9- Create a 3 D Model for a dream house floor plans

Create a 3 D Model and study the design, review the interiors in the 3 D model, you may review the layout to suit the forms proportions, or the required interiors are not attainable. I would recommend google sketch up software as it is easy to use and the warehouse downloads are just amazing, where almost any thing can be downloaded.

Step 10- Materials selections and Rendering 3 D Models

Select materials for exteriors and the interiors and start rendering the 3 D Models and review if you obtain the views you wanted, review the rendered interiors. I would recommend I-Render as a rendering software and Google sketch up for creating the 3 D model.

perspective of room Level 1The Traditional Japanese House Floor Plan

perspective of room Interior of  Japanese House Floor Plan

Check our our beautiful house floor plans going really cheap, place an order for special rates

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

cracks in homes

cracks in buildings,http://sandra-markle.blogspot.my/2011/03/writing-docudramaspart-one-i-survived.html

How to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Cracks are common in buildings, one should not be alarmed to see cracks on the walls but sit back get the help by following these steps.

Cracks can be classified as  active or dormant.  Active cracks tend to get larger and changes with time.  Dormant cracks are those have settled and need no alarm , are of no danger, but should be not left not repaired as  moisture penetration may cause further  damages.

Cracks may be classified as structural cracks or non structural crack. If it is structural cracks, one has to take immediate actions to rectify the cracks and if it non structural cracks, you need to touch up the cracks. On may recognize the structural crack by the direction of the cracks.

Cracks can also be classified by  1) direction 2) width, and 3) depth of the crack.  They may be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random.  They may range in size from less than 1 mm (fine) to between 1 and 2 mm (medium) to over 2 mm (wide).

The following are some of the types of crack occurring in concrete:

1. Pattern Cracks:  Fine openings in regular arrangements which due to inconsistent volume of concrete which is lower near the surface.

2. Checking cracks:  Small openings which are  closely and  irregular direction and space .

3. D-Cracks:  Fine cracks at close intervals in a progression with  random pattern.

4. Shrinkage cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, which are straight lines parallel to each other.

5.Plastic cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, appearing as diagonal lines in the top of a slab, caused by rapid drying of the concrete surface when curing additives are added.

6.Settlement cracksCaused by local restraining  around re-bar.

7.Structural cracks:Cracks that are a result of corrosion of the re-bar or structural over stressing or due to under designing of load.

8. Tension cracks:  Cracks which appear in concrete which are  caused by the stretching  of the reinforcement which are subjected to tension.

9.Rust cracks:  A serious cause of  structural cracks caused by insufficient rebar cover. The cover may crack off and the exposed rebar are subjected to rust.

10.Thermally-induced cracks:  Cracks appearing from stresses created by the diurnal of temperature changes over the day or seasonal.

11.Hairline Cracks:  Small cracks and fine crack lines that are randomly placed.

 

serious structural cracks

structural cracks that needs to be resolved

Cracks in brick walls(CP 111)

Cracks found in 215mm thick brick walls   by more than 25mm wide in a stepped or slanting cracks are not a concern as invariably it is deem to carry the load, as shown in test at the Building Research Establishment in England( provided it was not accompanied by considerable transverse movement). Also note the strength of a cavity wall is approximately 20% less that that of a 215mm brick wall.

The reasons for cracks in brick walls may be:
changes in ground conditions,
inadequate consolidation of ground,
shrinkage-able clay,
fast growing trees,
unsound materials(brick, mortar joints)
frost
|corrosion of iron and steel,
shringakage and expansion of walls during cold and hot seasons,
climbers, ivy , climbing rose, morning glory,etc., may cause damage to the walls,
mining subsidence of the foundations.

Cracks, of 1.5 to3.5mm wide are called fine cracks and need to be repaired but has not structural impairment, the repair may be replace the brick or fill it with mortar(1:1:6)pointing and refinish with wall paper or paint etc.

Structural cracks

Structural cracks are large cracks and will be either vertical lines or 45 degrees line cracks or any cracks that runs between the vertical lines to the 45 degree line. Structural cracks are further characterized by the cracks where you can place your finger (when you can insert a large coin) within the crack lines. Further more these cracks would crack the structural member of the building, such as the beams, columns, lintels etc

 

serious cracks

Diagonal cracks- almost always are structural in nature

 

Minor cracks are hairline cracks which are superficial that have no structural members are affected by the cracks. A quick check can be done by hacking the plastered surfaces or the rendered surfaces and check if the cracks are merely superficial on the plaster or rendered surfaces or it has affected the walls within and the structural members, if the structural members are cracked, than you need to find out if it a hair line crack or deep cracks that affects the structural integrity of the structure has been affected.

Hairline cracks in structure and on finished surfaces are acceptable and sometimes beyond the means to control them. Hairline cracks on structural members are considered normal, it may be caused by the heat that is caused by concrete when it is curing at  the construction stages.

Hairline cracks on finishes may be due to the cooling ( air conditioning)and heating during the mid day may causes it, and fissure cracks appear is considered quite normal. It may be caused by an incorrect mix of cement and sand in the plastering and rendering during constructions  or excessive exposure to the hot sun, in case the walls should have been constructed with expansion joints and movement joints to reduce these cracks

Hairline cracks

The mere size of the crack as described in the above para will decide the seriousness of the problems.

hairline cracks

hairline cracks, a minor concern

Minor cracks should be repaired and observed for further development of crack.

Step 1 in the Buildings

Identify the causation of crack to solve, this is necessary so as to avoid redundancy of rectification, and this will avoid a repetition of cracks even after the rectification of cracks were carried out.  Cracks and the following may be the causation or reasons  of the structural cracks.

  1.  The causes of structural cracks may be due to the foundation may have been under designing of the structure .
  2. The structure may have not been built structurally sound and the failures in the beams or columns may be the cause of the cracks. These may even so for cracks in drains, walls, roof slabs or ground floor slabs.The shoddy supervision of work or the lack of  materials compliance as per the specification may have been short changed
  3. There may be s sudden shifting in ground conditions such as shifting of underground streams, which may result in creating a vacuum, causing earth to collapse and thereby affecting the buildings ground structure.
  4. there may be due to vegetation or trees in the close neighborhood which roots may cause the house to be lifted up or the absorption of water by the roots may cause building lift
  5. The supervision of the ground compaction may have not been done correctly; this may results in cracks in the ground, beams and roads.Poor compaction of ground or earth sub grade or sub grade of the road may cause cracking, the sub grade should be compacted to 90-95% FDT( Field Density Test). non suspended ground floor slabs may also cracks due to lack of sufficient compaction, often the apron of a building may be seen to cracking cos of lack of sufficient defective compaction.

 

cracks on the road

cracks on the road winter quakes

The cracks may appear due to differential compression and expansion of the building m such as walls or road, the wall need to provided with expansion joints to allow for the expansions so that cracks are minimized, in colder countries such as Wisconsin the roads are often cracked due to these reason, Provisions for expansion should be provided to reduce these cracks during the winter seasonal quakes.

measuring and monitoring thecracks

measuring cracks for increasing width of crack size

Step 2 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Monitor the increase of the crack size, and  note the changes in the crack width. if the crack width is increasing. if it increasing in size , call the engineers to review the conditions. if the crack size is constant and you are safe to conclude the night mare is over and you can rectify it and sleep soundly.

 

 

Step 3 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

If the cracks are large and getting serious large and looks dangerous, get the advice of engineersA structural Engineer need to be called in, for inspection and for his advice should be sought on the nature of cracks and advice on the course of rectification action.Take the follow steps to resolve the cracks in your home.

Step 4 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Repair the major cracks and minor cracksThe existing cracks are be grooved widen along the crack line and filled up with a suitable sealant and closed up with fabrics mesh and plastered and repainted. A simpler method to repair hairline cracks is to fill it up with a filler and repaint the surfaces or redo the finishes of possible.

Step 5 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Watch out for the re occurrence of cracks, if the cracks appears, you need to evaluate the situation for reasons for these phenomenon.On repairing the cracks should be monitored for any cracks redeveloping in the future.

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,Eco Green Architect & Net Zero Energy Architect

http://www.sda-architect.com/

What is Architecture ?

The question -What is Architecture ? is often discussed among students of Architecture endlessly. Students of Architecture spend a no of years trying to get the grips of the meaning of Architecture. In the early years the students of Architecture are confused trying to get a grips of it. In this article I wish to reduce this gap of bewildering students.

Architecture  is designing the building space in which we live in. Some define it too broadly as “Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music “. While there is  truth in this definitions, the space we live in and work in , are our Architectural spaces and as such, it is every thing about us- the Environment.

Net Zero Energy buildings

Traditional Malay House,

Architectural design is putting and making a composition of  the space in a logical meaningful way that makes sense. Thereby there is a indirect correlation ship with how music notes are composed. whereas in building the notes are features and elements borrowed from the past or created anew fulfilling a functional need. You can design spaces that are awful and it is poor taste. Good designs have the following intrinsic attributes:

  • Comfortable and Functional
  • Durable with time
  • Sustainable design with eco biodiversity green ecoconsiderations
  • High energy efficient buildings- read-NZEB
  • Creates an ambiance of the space that it was meant to be
  • A space that creates an emotional experience that leaves traces of memorable experience otherwise it is a shell.
  • Reasonable Costed and not flagrant, buildings of exorbitant cost can achieve anything that you want. A insensibly costly building is a sin.
  • Beautiful with the visually, makes the hears hears sound that are pleasing, allow light to flow and thereby making the space an memorable experience.
  • Defect Free, buildings may look wonderful in the beginning but may result in leakage, cracks and uninhabitable conditions is not good architecture, the right material not the right construction is not used.

    small log mountain house

    small log mountain house

If any of those above is not found in your Architectural designs, it may be due to a deliberate omission. As to achieve all may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building with great interiors has terrible structural design and high unreasonable cost. So good Architectural design -is all about making compromises along the way with cost, comforts, durability and other contending elements.

History of Architecture

Architecture is as old as History .When we talk of history of the past civilization, we talk of the architecture of the buildings. And buildings are the only remnants of the past. most record, evidences of the cultural activity is studied by the functional spaces of the buildings.the spaces such as baptismal fonts, altars of worship, temples of ancients, places of sacrifice, inscriptions of words on temple walls. Buildings of the past are mostly temples or buildings of worships. the remnants of homes are generally destroyed except for the remnants of the foundations such as in the Indus Civilizations. The civilizations of the past are :

  • Egyptian, Indian, Chinese
  •  Assyrian Period (before Babylon)*1
  • Mesopotamia (Babylon and Before), Ancient Americas (Mayan       …etc)
  • Persian Period
  • Greek Period
  • Roman Period*1
  • French(Gothic )*1
  • Georgian Architecture-The George Whyte’s House *2
  • England(Georgian, Tudor, Victorian)
  • Industrial
  • Modern
    Today buildings are high influenced by one another. For instance:
  1. the White House was patterned after the grandeur of the Roman Capitol
  2. The high rise buildings, in our cities are influenced by the new material manufactured during these periods after.
  3. The Gothic building followed after the Roman, whereas the Gothic (French) improvised from the Roman Arches and post & beam system to heavy arches(flying buttress) which supported higher and magnificent cathedrals.
  4. Chinese, Japanese Architecture while were developed independently but were not influence by the others neither influenced the world as we know of today. Except the Indian influenced spread to Angkor Watt, Malaysia, and Bali Indonesia, which is now the Bali architecture.
  • Post Modern Era
  • Green Sustainability and Net Zero Energy Buildings Movement
  • Zero Carbon emission designs, Carbon neutrality,ZeroCarbon
Carbon Trading

Green architect

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

Appendix:
*1 pg 538-566, volume A, World Book Encyclopedia

*2.pg 13 Houses of the Founding Fathers by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus 111

*3 pg 30 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*4 pg 73 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*5 pg.47 “The Swimming Pool” by Marta Baker