sdaarchi SDA Architect 11 whys for Green Ecological Biodiversity and Greening our Buildings and Cities | SDA Architect

Here are reasons persuading for the case of Greening our Cities and Green Ecological Biodiversity for all Architects to be informed.

Reason 1-Remove the Heat Island effect by Green Ecological Biodiversity
It is known from research that the heat island effect is reduced as there is more green vegetation in the surrounding, the ambient temperature is lowered. Building aprons around the building which tend to conduct the heat into the building, therefore it is best to use grass Crete or turfs at the building surrounds in lieu of aprons. Road pavements should be replaced with grasscrete.

Reason 2- Reduces your energy consumption by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Smart landscaping reduces the energy consumption in the building, where it is primarily used for shading and warding off the heat from the building and in redirecting the cold wind winters away from the building will help to reduce the energy consumption by 10 to 50 percent of the energy bills. Shading the air conditioning units will help to improve energy efficiency. Read on save energy by landscaping.

Reason 3- Reduces pest controls and Waste by Green Ecological Biodiversity


compost by Green ecological biodiversity

  • Pest controls –Green Ecological biodiversity will certainly go a long way to reduce pest controls, such as reduction of mosquitoes, rats which is a prevalent problem from New York to Singapore. In NYC which is a concrete desert , which has little trees resulted in an ecological imbalance of rat population, which as large as the human population in NYC. The problem arising from this imbalance is rat related diseases, oriental mites, etc. The solutions may be to enhance the Greening the city with Green ecological Biodiversity.
  • In the recent Greening of Singapore City, which was to green the city but failed to keep ecological bio diversities in place is keep away the bird and bats from the city, which resulted in an increase of mosquitoes and rats. The bird and bats eat up mosquitoes and rats and help to keep the balance. And eventually the recourse was to increase pesticides to kill the mosquitoes which in turn affect the water ways. The solutions to these cities going Green Ecological biodiversity.
  • Humus compost Waste– the waste from the Green landscape can be converted to natural humus compost, natural manure which helps the soil acidity in balance, healthy soils and keeps the bio-tic cycles( worms and living organism) of the soil in balance. When petrol-chemical based fertilizers are introduced into the soil, it destroys the worms and destroys the balance of the acidity of the soil and harden the ground and destroy the productivity of the soil whereas the compost based manure created by plants builds and keeps the soil soft and moist with a Eco balance.
compost bin

compost bin in Green Ecological biodiversity

Reason 4- Increase oxygen content in the air by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Oxygen is necessary for our bodies in the following respects: a lack of it creates a tendency toward committing suicides, In Utah there is an suicidal epidemic due to the lack of Oxygen in the thin air, and an aggressive greening strategy of Utah city will certainly help to reduce the thin levels of Oxygen in the mountain tops air.The green ecological biodiversity will introduce more oxygen into the air.

Green ecological biodiversity

Green ecological biodiversity cycles


There are many hundreds of other reasons why Oxygen is needed – for brain developments, speedy human body recovery, reduce respiratory diseases, improves immune system , which are emphasized in the alternative medicine .

Reason 5- Improves air quality by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Green trees ionizes the dust and the dust from the air falls to the ground and thus helping to keep the air scrubbed, fresh for human use.

Reason 6- Reduces the air pollution by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Further more the pollutants such as SO2, NO2 and Carbon Monoxide is removed by the trees and helps to keep the air refreshed

Reason 7- Reduce stress and helps recovery and sick leave by Green Ecological Biodiversity

  • It was discovered from researches that if beautiful scenes placed in hospitals bedrooms helps patient recover 30% faster and uses 30% less medication for recovery. This goes to say the same for homes and offices; we are resilient from the mental and physical stresses that we are inflicted at work by having green scenes in our building s and cities.
  • Research also reveals that the no of occupants taking sick leave is dropped with green ecological biodiversity. This will help to enhance the productivity of the staff and people.

Reason 8- Increases the value of property by Green Ecological Biodiversity
The investment on Green ecological biodiversity comes with an increase in the value of property . This based on the Green of Singapore resulted in overall increase in value of the city.. I refer to landscaping with Green ecological biodiversity and and not the “Go Green Certification movement” ( such as LEEDs, or Mark, GBI certification). A developer complaint that he does not get higher rental by having invested on Platinum certification by Green bodies.

Reason 9- Improves the presenteeism, decreases absenteeism and sick leave by Green Ecological Biodiversity
Research reveals that greening with landscape within the building and in the surrounding will tremendously improves the quality of life and decreases the absenteeism of the workers and tenants working in the building and this helps to increase the productivity of the occupants.

Reason 10-Improves the water quality by Green Ecological Biodiversity
As rain water is treated in the blue infrastructures that work in complement with the green infrastructures, water is stored and recycled for our consumption by water hydrology, which in turn reduces waste water and polluting the rivers. Bios vales are used to clean up the water, reprocessed and recycled for consumption even as portable water.

Reason 11Self Reliance and self sustaining by Green Ecological Biodiversity
The forest does not need human care such as watering the forest; neither does it need insecticide and pesticides to survive. We can learn from the natures bio-metric to be independent self sustaining and self reliant. If we can establish the green ecological biodiversity of plants and landscapes, biodiversity of the animals that inhabit the landscape and biodiversity of the Eco cycles that help symbiotically one cycle to another for survival can we be self sustaining and self reliant. The fish in a water tank, with enzymes, bacteria, fungi, green weed and the snails is self reliant. The weeds produces O2 for the fish to live on, which in turn produces C02 for the weed to live on, the enzymes and bacteria eats up the waste of the fish and keep the water clean. The symbiotic relationship exist and so should we as Architect do likewise for our future survival and self reliant sustainability.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, Green architect





Haze in Singapore

Can Green and Sustainability strategies solve the Haze in Singapore and Indonesia

 8 valid reasons to go Green and Sustainability and the 8 valid weaknesses in the Green movement principles

Here we discuss the flaws in the Green and Sustainability movement that is catching on so rapidly world wide.

Reason 1- Sustainable planning
The cities and buildings are planned well for reduction and recycling of waste , energy efficiency, cleaner air within the office, and clean water for consumption, The green architecture is sustainable-sustaining the existing the environment for high quality of life well planned for the sustaining of life

Weakness of this
It is a weak attempt to solve the larger problem such as domestic waste, improve the life in urban living, improve the air quality or improve the poor water quality as they portend to improve. It should be aggressively attend to the issues rather to tend to it superficially, for instance” Can the Green and Sustainability stop the haze into our homes”

Reason 2- Waste
It will reduce outlandish waste in our environment, which is a serious problem as the land fills are full and the waterways are polluted by the landfills which return into our consumable systems dangerously affecting our health.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Waste should be removed all together and not reduce, but reused and recycled completely. In nature what waste we produce as CO2 in the air from our breaths is converted to O2 by the green landscapes. All waste from domestic and industrial waste should be like wise treated completely obliterated or reprocessed to useful matter.

Reason 3- Energy Efficiency
The buildings are energy efficient and installed with higher performing systems to reduce the energy consumption.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
The Energy consumption should be Net Zero Energy Building and not a weak attempt to reduce energy consumption. And more importantly removed the dependence on the Grid. Wind turbines should complement with solar PV panel and combined with geo thermal energy. When there is no energy from the sun at night the wind will compensate for supply and when both fails to supply in case the eventuality of a disaster, geo thermal could be the alternative supply of energy.

Reason 4- Air quality
It helps to keep high air quality, which controlled and regulated which is improves healthy living environment but does not improve the haze or reduce the dust in the air.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
No air quality is really improved; it is a real attempt to temper with air quality. The air is polluted with CO, NO2, SO2 or dioxin should be cleansed for consumption. There are no real attempts to even address this problem.

In the event of a Haze,( as in South East Asia by the recent burning of trees in Indonesia, or volcanic dust in the air etc) Does the Green building cleaned the air that we breathe in! No! It is not. One should reprocess air to remove the dusts, the pollutants, the hazes and bacteria and Viruses, in the air for use.

Reason 5- Water quality
It helps to reduce the wastage of portable water but not improve water quality, As much as high air quality the water quality will have a direct effect on the health of the residents.It focuses on the rain water harvesting.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Portable water is reduced, rain water is harvested but water in the pipe is contaminated, the water should be harvested for consumption, water from the underground for consumption should be considered as an alternative sources as supply in an eventuality of a drought of off seasonal weather changes affecting the water supply.

Reason 6- Reduces Energy consumption, Saves Resource, Reduces Waste
Every person is conscious of reducing consumption, waste and a new life style of economy. Material made from recycled Waste material is favored .Domestic waste is reduced, paper is not throw away, but either reused or avoided from being used.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Waste is reduced but not totally eliminated. It is said that the spider eats up the web waste and in nature there is no waste. Organic matter is recycled into inorganic matter,which is consumed again into the system.

Reason 7-Innovation
Creativity to think out of the box is granted some point for qualifying for the green certification.

Reason 8-Reduces long term cost of living
It does not cost much for now and it will eventually reduce the cost in the future and some propose that cost should not be factor; the cost of human life should be saved at all cost, as future of human life depends on sustainability.

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
In reality there is no reduction of cost in the future as the cost of sustainability is always higher and this is a cost already into the future and therefore the cost does not reduce in the long term. The argument that sustainability saves life to justify the high cost now is a fallacy.
In reality there survival of the human race does not depend on rainwater harvesting, pv solar panels etc but by eco biodiversity, net energy building off the grid and total self reliance as in the biometric of nature.

Reason 9-Sustains Environment for the future
In reality all the above principles as and the argument has been flawed

Weakness of this Green and Sustainability principle:
Green and landscaping not an essential feature of Green and Sustainability Architecture

  • Issues not considered in Green and Sustainability Architecture
    The ecological balance is not considered as we live in a eco system and the environment has taken a bitten and if it fails our survival will be at stake,
  • Sewer waste is not at all in design consideration. Sewerage and domestic waste is processed and recycled into the environment as in The Edmonton Composting Facility – Canadian recycling plant where human waste is recycled into manure for the city use.
  • Waste waster should be recycled as it is done in Singapore for human consumption.
  • The Net Zero Energy calls for total reduction of energy consumption which is not merely touching on sustainability, but attaining higher levels of Green and Sustainability. If we are able to be off the grid our sustainability will be even better still as self reliance is attained.
  • How can the Green and Sustainability help in the smog that polluted south East Asia with the recent spate of burning in Indonesia. In the light of the haze that is not considered, haze is a serous issues in China ( pollution from the industrial waste, in Singapore, Malaysia a result of burning in Indonesia)
  • If a disaster like a Tsunami where the power grid was destroyed, or a volcanic exploding dust in the air cutting of the suns rays for months, a blizzard of rays from the sun hit the world how can we survive this independently and be self reliant in the midst of catastrophic disaster.
  • The forest is sustainable and self reliant where no human care for treatment with pesticide or insecticide or regular watering is needed but it is self reliant surviving on the natural rain water unlike our farms where pesticide, manure, insecticide and regular watering is needed for its sustainability. We can learn from the nature’s Green and Sustainability as it is because of its biodiversity where one depends on the other and so should we live together with nature’s ecosystem. Read further on why green landscaping can help our sustainability.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Case of Net Zero Energy Building all over the world
Many are skeptical about the reality of Net Zero Energy Building Design. As such I though it is best to show you the buildings which have achieved the Net Zero Energy Building Design status. This Net Zero Energy Building Design approaches and strategies has become a trend world wide as the movement is catching on quire rapidly. Here there are 5 cases of the strategies adopted world over from Indonesia, Malaysia to the US.
Case 1

Apartment in NY ( read on Apartment in NY )
The Apartment had 48 apartments of an gross area of 53,000-sq-ft
Approaches to Net Zero Energy Designs strategies(The strategies adopted contrived a 90% reduction of consumption of energy);
• wall and roof insulation,
• window glass with low-e coatings and insulated frames,
• shading of building
• Reduction of infiltration through building skin
• Compartmentalization of ventilation spaces provided the best controlled fresh air into the apartment spaces.
• A high-performance air-source heat pump was introduced as a heating plus cooling system.
• One VRF outdoor condensing unit is recommended per apartment
• Domestic hot water included heat recovery from the drain as a pre-heater and recovering the waste heat from the VRF system by using a heat exchanger.
• Improved zone temperature control and substantially reduced energy usage
• Higher-efficiency cooling/heating
• Improved tenant comfort; potential to sub meter heating, cooling, and DHW
• Resiliency (no boiler on the lower floors); and most important, dramatically lower carbon emissions.
• Lighting strategies include low lighting power density (LPD) design solutions while maintaining acceptable levels of illumination. Where applicable, occupancy sensors and bi-level lighting controls are evaluated. The most efficient available appliances are considered for apartments and common areas.
• Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays
• High performing Appliances s such as : refrigerators, Clothes dryer, Television and TV set-top (cable) boxes


Case 2

The Bullitt Center in Seattle, Washington, 6 storey Office block of approx 60,000ft2

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Design strategies:
• Day lighting harvesting
• geothermal heating and cooling,
• Operable windows and other measures to increase its energy efficiency.
• increase the height of each floor of the building to allow for improved day lighting further into the core of the structure,
• Reducing the need for heat-generating light fixtures.
• Geothermal and radiant floor heating & cooling are used to efficiently moderate temperatures
• The BMS controls the heating & cooling , the window shades, operable windows , composting, water treatment, and ventilation.
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Case 3
Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Zero Energy Office Building ( PTM ZEO)

The area of building was 43,000sq ft averaging BEI of 35kW/sqm.year with a reduction of 80% of the national average BEI
It is the world’s first net zero energy commercial office building.

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Designs strategies :
• Double-pane windows reducing heat gain and provide day light harvesting.
• Energy efficient building envelope.
• Day lighting with controls of blinds and light shelves.
• High efficiency pumps and fans.
• Desiccant heat wheel DE-humidification.
• Energy efficient office equipment.
• Concrete slab thermal cooling and storage.
• Wet/ trickling water night cooling roof.
• Phase change thermal storage.
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Case 4

NREL Building, USA

The floor area is about Area-360,000sq ft , energy use intensity target of the new building is 35 kBtu/SF/year, (110kWh/m2/year)
Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Designs strategies :
The largest commercial Net-Zero Energy Building in the United States
Energy performance for the facility is 50% better than ASHRAE 90.1 standards.
• orientation of the building to minimize heat gain and
• maximize day lighting harvesting
• operable triple-glazed windows,
• hydronic heating and cooling using thermal slabs, and
• demand-controlled outside air system with energy recovery.
• a combination of evaporative cooling,
• outside air ventilation,
• waste heat capture
• efficient servers
• The data center has a remarkable power usage effectiveness (PUE) rating of 1.12 compared to a national average of 1.91
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy 2.5 MW solar PV rooftop and parking canopy
Case 5

Pertamina Building
There Pertamina Building , a 99 storey office tower will be a Net Zero Energy Building

Approaches to Net Zero Energy Building Designs strategies :
• A ‘wind funnel generate energy.
• The tower’s curved facade will reduce the heat gain throughout the year.
• Exterior sun shades will dramatically improve the workplace environment
• Artificial lighting in the office
• photo voltaic used to create renewable energy
Other case are reported here read on:
Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to use House Architecture in designing your dream house plans


An Architect is one who designs your house but an Architect unless he has a great burning passion and a great love for his work and the people he designs for, can he realize the house into a home. This creation of a home from with love is refereed to as  house architecture. The house architecture constitutes of the following aspects of architectural design

  1. A) Styles

The architectural house style adopted today have a storey to tell of the past. It tells the evolution of styles with time due to changes in our society such as development of new material and sciences of construction for instance:

  • The architectural house style available for selection are of the
  • In choosing a style you may want to choose from the past as they were and modernize the styles and layouts, to suite the availability of material and skilled craftsman that may have long lost.
  • The houses of the Founding Fathers in the America had water-wells outside the home. The slaves will fetch water from the well for them to take cold showers.*1
  • Any attempt to recreate the buildings of the past may be skilled labor cost prohibitive. For instances the windows of building of the past are highly ornamented but present day houses are simplified to a great degree.
  • Today’s design is less simplified during the industrial revolution which warranted mass productions. New motto “Less is more” to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a …”by Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. As such houses are designed with less pediments and ornaments on the facades of building as they did in the past.
  • Buildings today are built with a purpose, rather than to copy fully from the standard building of the past
  1. B) Layout – Cultural and Lifestyle for house architecture
  • A good layout is one that best suites your lifestyle and what you can afford.
  • If you love the river views, than design your architectural house styles to optimize the views from the Living, Master suite, etc.
  • If you love the summer heat provide a patio, balcony or terrace to sun bathing.
  • If you love to party outside have a great BBQ set with a large indoor and out door dinning space.

The house layout is best described by your love for life and your taste.

  1. C) Comfort for house architecture
  • Home and the Cottage –two words most suggestive of comfort in the English language…
  • Comfort is not relative and fleeting. Homes, well designed can be comfortable and removal of stressing with the sound of birds, the water fall, the ruffles of the winds should be employed to distress the stressed mind.
  • Design your dream house for comfort, read on..
  1. D) Landscape for house architecture
  • The landscape well done, weathers comfort and even a sense of comfort to the eyes.
  • As Andrew Jackson Downing, a cottage prominent American architect said. “… no architectural decoration however beautiful or costly can give the same charm of truthful decoration to a cottage as flowering vines and creepers…vine on a rural cottage always express domesticity and of the heart”.
  • It reduces the perceived scale of the house, it reduces the heighten effect to a comfortable on.*3
  • smart landscaping reduces energy consumption in homes and buildings.

In choosing a house plan choose well with the above consideration, you may want to check out – by

for some great house floor plans and house architecture.

Check our some great house architectures we have created within our web site at: log house floor plans, cottage house floor plans, Modern house plans, Malay house floor plan, log house floor plans, etc…



*1 pg. 20 ,”Houses of the Founding Fathers “ by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus III

*2 Willian H Rantett( writing in The Architect “, 1851)

*3 pg. 228 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin”


Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

What is House Architecture?

House Architecture is the spaces within our houses, in which we live in. This is architecture.

Some define architecture as ” Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music ”

There is some truth in this in a broad sense but in a practical sense it is limited only to the shell and the simple relationship that it creates within and around. It is not everything.. as to say “ Architecture is”, because it is encompasses all  sciences, psychological happenings and hence it is not “IS”.

Traditionally Architecture of the house design is derived from the Architecture of the Temples, Cathedrals, churches, and places of worship.

As King Solomon built a House for the Lord (Temples), he like wise built a house for him self in a similar manner of the simpler version.

Our houses in almost every culture derived it shapes and form from our places of worship. The house was a type of place of worship deity.


conventional layout

conventional layout


House Architectural design is the placing of the Living room, Dining, Kitchen, Bedroom, Study, Library, Music room, Visitors, Baths and Garage in good space that make it beautiful and which gives :

”         Comfortable, Functions to what we do.

”         Durability with time

”         Reasonable Cost to the house.

If any of these are not found in your Architectural designs, it may because of a deliberate omission. As to achieve all, may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building may have terrible structural design and incurring a high unreasonable cost.

So a good Architectural designs -is all about balancing one for the other.How to make a design a wonderful house floor plans with great architectural designs?There are many concepts in house plan design (nothing to do with styles) such as:

  • The Traditional Layout, which for today needs are obsolete, but these layouts are remodeled with modern utilities, such as the layouts of house of the Founding Fathers remodeled.



compact layout

compact layout

  • Courtyard Layout such as Courtyard centered layout. Where all views and vistas in the house plan is centered on the courtyard. see link for samples of courtyard design:

This is rather pleasant in respect of views of the courtyard, which could be a feature of greenery, garden, breeze way, corridors, patios and of course which can calms the stressed mind, even contributes to fresh supply of oxygen leading to healthier residents.

layout House Architecture

courtyard layout House Architecture

courtyard layout House Architecture

  • Compact Layouts

Cozy tight spaces for small houses, especially in Cottage, Log houses, Vacation Houses and Beach house where the ambiance of a cottage is necessary, for no pretense of grandeur. see link for samples of compact design

Where on parking his car in the Garage, one walks through footpath along the garden to the kitchen and the kitchen views towards the garden with features such as swimming pools. There may be even waiter falls, a naturally running stream or specially designed garden. The rest of the rooms are rather conventionally designed. See samples design of this layout in



  • Apartment’s layout is rather confined to a small space. Where the layout are packed to the minimal and the best of the design comes out of creative use of little spaces, nook and corners. The best of the apartment in the great view overlooking the hill and the cityscape and the common spaces such as open garden where you could go down to relax.
  • Open Layouts, where Living, Dinning and Kitchen are simply in one big space.
    • This give flexibility to function such as party, there is sufficient space for big gatherings,
    • Flexibility of space for other use
    • Overnight room space for sleeping over for large families
    • Play area for children within the house, instead of being cooped in.
  • Conventional Layout

Conventional Layout is where the entry is made at the Hall by visitors, whose visit is kept barred within the Living room, and formal dinning.

  • The owner makes a Garage entry via the mud room into to the kitchen.
  • Groceries can be unloaded direct in to the kitchen fridge from the garage after shopping.
  • Kitchen, Living and Dining are placed together for convenient movements that take place among them.
  • Bed room all clustered together for privacy and convenience

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


Conventional Layout

Neo classical

Neo Classical Architecture

Neo Classical Architecture, Photo taken from Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia


What is Neo Classical Architecture?

It evolved during the 18th Century .Much of its influence has been felt in America and world over. The following are some of the buildings of distinction that were remarkably been influenced by this period:

  • Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • White House (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • Massachusetts State House (Boston, Massachusetts} read on
  • Washington Arch (New York, New York) read on
  • Beacon Hill Memorial Column (Boston, Massachusetts) read on
  • Second Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Bank of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Philadelphia Stock Exchange (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Monumental Church (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Virginia State Penitentiary (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Baltimore Basilica (Baltimore) read on

The characteristics  of Neo Classical Architecture is:

  • its planar qualities
  • Projections and recessions
  • sculptural bas-reliefs
  • Tablets or panels.


Prepared by:   Net Zero Architect Perumal

What are the Characteristics of  houses in Tudor Architecture?
The Tudor Architecture was beautiful and elegant with the impressions of the  black and white structural lattice framing on the facade. The semi exposed beams and vertical structural members accentuated the beauty of the house.This style has been popular among the modern homes where the elements have been modified to suite the modern times. In is very popular in Asia to which vividly symbolizes English homes.

  • the In Tudor Architecture the houses are made from a wooden framework of beams.
  • The timber beams in Tudor Architecture are uneven because they were cut by hand rather than by machine.
What is Tudor Architecture?

Tudor architecture

The  above Building mimics  the Tudor Architecture styles  where the timber works are replaced with cement or timber external lining to resemble Tudor architecture. It is treated to look akin to the Tudor Architecture, whereas during the times of Tudor the beam were serves as a structural member.

Today the architects , even the famous living Architect, continue to use the above features in recreating the architecture of old.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam



It was period during the time of King George’s Rule in England from 1720 to1840. It is during the rule of George I , George II , George III , and George IV.

What are the characteristics of houses styles and building in the Georgian Architecture?

  • Pillars in the front of the house.
  • Square symmetrical
  • A paneled front door in the center
  • Tiled hipped roofs (A roof which slopes upward from all the sides of a building.)
  • The roof was often hidden behind a parapet
  • low wall built around the edge of the roof
  • Fan light above the door. ,Paired chimneys
Georgian Architecture

Sash Windows of the Georgian Architecture


  • Sash windows (windows which slide up and down)
  • Panel front door centered, topped with rectangular windows (in door or as a transom) and capped with an elaborate crown/ entablature supported by decorative pilasters
  • Cornice with decorative moldings,
  • Multi-pane windows were symmetrically vertical or horizontal
  • Roof: are Side-gabled roof , Gambrel roof and Hipped roof
  • Chimneys on both sides of the home
  • A portico in the middle of the roof with a window in the middle
  • Small 6-paned sash windows ,dormer windows in the upper floors,
  • Large windows with 9 or 12 panes on the main ground floor


Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal

The Victorian Architecture is refereed to the architecture during the reign of Queen Victoria.

potrait of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria

The Victorian period is the time when Queen Victoria ruled Britain from 1837 to 1901.During this period new inventions in Railway and manufacturing process made building materials manufactured available more abundantly every where in England because of cheaper cost of transport..

This helps industries develop, due to rising demands and building material were    made available cheaply, to all over England, such as timber, bricks and slate. This is the era which Charles Dickens describes the city of London with vivid details in the Tale of two cities ( London and Paris) and in The Great Expectation.

The working population in the countryside was still living in tiny cottages, hovels and shacks .. In urban area, the poor people lived in terraced houses.Terraced Houses were made of brick walls  and simple brick sills and chimneys with window that constituted the  architecture of that  time.


Victorian Architecture
Terrace housing during the Victorian era


the Victorian Architecture
Villa reflecting the Victorian Architecture

 Victorian Architecture

public housing in town reflecting the Victorian Architecture


The wealthy people in Victorians preferred villas ( not the same as Roman villas), The middle classes lived in superior terraces with gardens in the rear of the house and in the front of the houses. What where the character tic features of Victorian Houses, Villa.

The Terrace House which was propagated widely as an acceptable  mode of housing  in the countries ,which Britain were ruled all over the world were a derivative of the Victorian era.  It constituted the following character:

  • Red face Brick
  • High window with stone borders
  • Pediments over the window
  • Arched doors ways

It should be noted it was during the Victorian Era the British empire expanded all over the world and the inhabitants of the British empire imbibe the Victorian education, which help to spread the knowledge of laws, English, Christianity,sciences, geography, engineering,land surveying, town planning, public administration. etc which educated the world at large. Roads and railway Infrastructures  were constructed which helped to develop the nations such as Singapore, Israel, Middle East, India and Africa. After the World War II it retracted from governing the Empire and Independence given to all the Commonwealth nations, it had shrunk being a super power.

The Gothic period lasted from the 12th to the 16th Century. It started in the late Medieval and

ended at the beginning of the Renaissance.

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture

Its architecture evolved from Romanesque, of Roman Influences of architecture.


It was characterized by:

  • Ribbed pointed arches,
  • ribbed vaults, and
  • High buttress.
  • High windows permeating light inside building
  • Tall building with greater span and any other period of time
During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

This allowed the building unlike the Roman building to be larger and taller. The span of building were greater and the spaces inside auspicious. Lights were allowed in at high window an allowed the bright special divine radiance inside the buildings.

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

Design of houses and building are primarily a composition of ornaments borrowed and in traditionally were religious significance of a meaningless object of beauty today because the meanings have been lost..

The architectural house layouts are different from location to locations varying only because of the difference of lifestyles.

The roof tiles used were of distinctively characteristic of the Chinese architectural house styles. It was a small tile which lapped over well. The small sized tile allowed the roof to arch in both directions to allow the characteristic Chinese roof style. The last row of tiles was held up firmly with a cemented ridge..The view of a Chinese ornamented roofs, lighted, unusually brilliant at night.


Chinese home

Chinese home

Here is a classic modern design where use of the exposed roof tiles from the interior which with the light radiating from the edges creates a wonderful design with a pleasant ambiance copied from the Chinese architectural house styles.

The windows used in traditional architectural design styles are similar to the Georgian or Asian styles. They must have been influenced by the cross border trades that occurred among them influencing the architecture as well

Here are some great large timber decorative doors used in Chinese design.





Chinese courtyard typical of the way small Chinese enclaves lives with a central courtyard which held the community together for utilities at the center for the courtyards. – the water well were located in the center of the courtyard. The courtyard was also the place of meeting and functions.Courtyard houses are enclosed, without any windows on the external walls, and with a main entrance to the enclosed buildings with in the compound.It may be noted with caution the courtyard is typical of Indian homes and the source or origin of courtyard homes are still not yet established.


Chinese home interiors

Chinese home interiors

These Chinese architectural layouts designs provided privacy for the family and security from thieve. The courtyard houses created a protection for the family life from the outer world.


Ornaments in Chinese home

Ornaments in Chinese home

Chinese artifacts made the wall and entrances with traditional religious symbols and marking or family stamps were typical of Chinese architectural house styles.

Chinese home had family awards and pride displayed in the center of the house to see, much similar to the Japanese display of family artifacts.

Chinese hardware for door entrance were designed specially to ward off the evil spirits away. This is a way to keep save the people residing in such quarters.

Pre modern Chinese homes held much in common among both rich and poor Chinese people; they used similar techniques, such as foundations of pounded earth, timber framing and brick and tile facades. Though there are regional variations–China is a very big country, after all–and few houses from ancient China remain, scholars have isolated basic principles of traditional Chinese architecture. These centuries-old principles include emphasizing the orientation of the house, the layout of rooms, and the importance of symmetry.



Chinese house design requires that the front of the house faces south. This tradition stretches far back in time, as archaeologists have found evidence of many rectangular houses with a door facing south from the Neolithic era in China.

The oldest Chinese houses that are still extant date from the Ming dynasty (1368 to 1644 C.E.) also tend to face south, as do later houses. The north-south orientation of Chinese houses, outside of issues related to sunlight, probably had much to do with wind direction (colder winds generally blow in from the north).


Feng Shui

The importance of orientation eventually developed into the Chinese architectural theory known as feng shui. Feng shui literally means “wind and water” and its concepts dictated the placement of rooms dedicated to certain activities, as well as the types of materials used in buildings. Designing a house according to feng shui concepts was thought to direct beneficial energy to the household.

Foundation and Roofs

Most Chinese houses had pounded earth foundations. Builders pounded dirt and soil into the shape of a foundation or into bricks. Earth was also used for the walls in areas where wood was rare.

Traditional Chinese houses had roofs made of clay tile. However poorer households in certain areas made roofs of thatch and bamboo.

Wood Framing

In areas with enough wood to make its use affordable, builders used wood to frame house walls and provide roof support. The wood framing system was standardized during the Ming dynasty, and while ordinary people could often do much of the rest of their house construction, they often had to hire experts to construct the framing.

In the study of traditional Chinese house architecture, the consideration of wood framing is important. In Chinese architectural theory, the basic building block of a building is “the space between,” or the bay; that is, the space defined by the vertical posts that support the roof.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy  Architect Perumal Nagapushnam



Indian House in Goa

Indian House in Goa

It is hard to put in a nut shell that what and which constitutes Indian house design. India has been ruled by the British, Afghans moguls, that Indian house designs character has not been defined by these colonial master. or rather the British learn much words from the Indian culture( words such as shampoo, lantern, bungalow, cantonment, canoe, cyber,etc)

The houses in the North of India is not different from the houses in  South neither  were they any different form homes in the East – nor the West. However some enclaves in Goa and Pondicheery had remarkable difference because of the Portuguese and French influences for a much longer period of time than rest if India.

The Royals(refereed to as the Raj) lived in huge palaces where their wives and nuclear family lived in. In most places there were a large central courtyard where royal functions took places , where guards paraded with the elephants and a place of ceremony for the Raj. It was heavily guarded with one main entrance and with secret passages for Princely families to exit during wars. Water supply was secretly duct-ed underground to from the mountains for consumption at the Palaces .These water were designed for fountains in the gardens and dropped along window openings to allow the wind to pass through creating a cool breeze into the courtyards. the Net Zero Energy Architects should note that the passive designs were traditional used in the ancient architecture of India with respect to cooling with water and massive walls were good insulator of heat during he summers.


Indian house floor plan, Goa India

Indian house floor plan, Goa India

While in the courtyards held functions, the children and the wives were not to be seen in public spaces, they watched the function form hidden rooms from above the courtyards. The word Bungalow, is an Indian word adapted by the British for single storey house in large compounds.Landlord lived in Bungalow whereas peasants lived in Villages. These Bungalows were places where the rich landlords lived in.

Traditionally this bungalow , Indian House Design patterned after the palaces of the Princely palaces-courtyard house were common. The bungalow was elevated above the ground which led to an central hall which led to the master suite on one side, and to the visitor’s room on the other and the main dining hall.

Check out for some great design of Indian houses at http// The dinning hall had view of the central courtyard which was visible form the master suite, and all the other bed rooms. The maids quarters and the kitchen were at the end of the courtyard. A corridor led to the kitchen that butted the courtyard.

indian courtyard

Indian House with a courtyard ,Another great courtyard design of Indian House Plan

 Indian had a great love for their Gods and devoted to their gods in Temples ,and housed their gods in Indian design Temples. The palaces had temples and offered sacrifices to the god before going to war. They offered gold, precious stones, diamond, jade etc to their God when they were victorious in the wars and business ventures. These offering were held in Temple

Treasuries chest vaults.

The Temples were built in granite stones, sometimes mountains en block were carved and chiseled out to form the temples in the South of India. Use of precious stones in the temples were quite normal in their devotions.Marble for surface treatment was also common as it was found abundantly eg the Taj Mahal.


 places of worhip

stone work on Indian places of worhip

Houses in the villages were usually had a front terrace where the folks sat out in the evening for a yarn.On entrance it lead to a common hall which was like Living room and Dinning room combines. There were rooms in the rear for the privacy of living.

In the Mohenjo-daro the civilization it was known to have been built in grid lines and the houses were known to have public sewer lines and common utilities. But with the advent of rapid modernization  and urban migration   during the British rule the  these urban planning once in greatness was  lost.where the focus was not exploiting the industries of India rather than planning the cities for urban living.

 The houses are traditionally timber house plans. Some of oldest houses dated from the 16th Century. These houses are now in museums which is an object of study by craftsman and builders.

The plan of the house and how it is used also remain traditional. Only the kitchen and sometimes the place for eating meals are modern; the other rooms, for working, sleeping and social intercourse, remain true to tradition. The floor is covered with straw mats (tatami); the family kneels at low tables to eat and drink, and they sleep on the floor as from time immemorial. <4>

Thus living in the Japanese style broadly implies adherence to tradition, just as we would do if we dwelt in modified chalets in our central European cities. The architect, as a ‘creative’ designer, has no part to play in the traditional housing of Japan. The craftsman designs the house according to ancient traditional rules, as was the case for centuries in our mountain valleys.

The Design of The Traditional Japanese House
The Traditional Japanese House has view into the garden, the house is flexible , the strength  of the house and the beauty of the house is amazingly well built all together that creates a wonderful and comfortable ambiance as one enters into the The Traditional Japanese House. The comfortable feeling is what Architects try to create, a feeling that put you to ease as you are inside the home.

 a)Views into the garden

The houses are design for views in to the garden, balconies are surrounded with cuts the sun and the harsh weather in the homes. Balconies are essentially a major feature of the Japanese House.

b) Flexibility

The partition made of light material to allow flexibility of the use of room. A living room could be the dining, or even a common family area. Sliding Shoji Screens are common.

 c)Strength of structured

The structure of the timber that is used of extra strength to endure the weathering and the earthquakes that Japan is so frequently subjected too. While the structure is robust the internal materials are light weight using paper, bamboo, straw and timber.


The elegance and grace of the house is aesthetically designed to bring a simplistic view of the house with little furniture which helps the mind to likewise be simple and functional in thinking and living.This helps to think straight and live straight disciplining the mind and the body.

The Japanese House Plans
As you enter into the house, the shoes are removed at the Genkan( Hall way) and slippers are worn .

 Architectural Insights
Economy and brief of material used is maintained and the use of light passing into spaces via translucent material is common.

The perfect proportions of squares are used relating to the tatami mats.

Haiku timber House
Haiku is a type of poetry, which means each poem contains seventeen syllables–frequently in the order of 5, 7, 5 syllables .The theme of haiku poetry is the relationship and interaction between nature and humankind.Haiku says that form and function are one. This philosophy was adopted by Frank Lloyd Wright. Haiku Houses have many of the features of their Bungalows.It is elegant and beautiful, priceless in its inherent peace, tranquility and harmony.

The Traditional Japanese House were in many way designed for Net Zero Energy Building, firstly  the house were made of timber which was a naturally abundant and the veranda  were thermal zones which kept the heat away during the summers the smart landscaping  kept the heat  away during summer and the homes were lifted above the ground to keep the heat away from the ground which air below the floor was a good form of insulation, the interiors were made of paper which was an excellent material which insulated the interiors form gaining heat nor losing heat during winters, with respect to Green sustainability the choice of timber could never get better.

Before leaving the site, please check out for our boutique designs for Japanese floor plans at :

And enjoy.

Thank you

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam:

The Challenges of Net Zero Energy Building Architect

The Challenges of the Building Architect is greatly increased as the Knowledge that an Architect should imbibe is already a difficult and a broad one.But the additional roles of the Net Zero Energy Building Architect. for now and in the future is becoming even a more arduous and a difficult journey to undertake and to become a Net Zero Energy Building Architect.

Building Architects are becoming acutely familiar with the need to produce high performance energy buildings in the Green and Sustainability certification Requirements by the certifying bodies such in LEEDs ( USGBC), GBI (Malaysia), Green Mark (Singapore), Passivehaus ( Germany) and Zero Carbon( UK)etc

There was much accolade and hue and cry when Pyramid Building in Putrajaya attained the Platinum certification of GBI, all over the world. The achievement of sustainability and low energy consumption buildings is only the beginning of a greater goal of being organically independent. (read below) In reality achieving a level of sustainability is only the tip of the ice berg.

Net Zero Pie

Energy Pie

Energy consumption can be minimized by using the principle recommended by Ashrae 98.1 and Living Challenge. Modern technology makes it possible to produce Net Zero building, it is no more a fantasy for Net Zero Energy Building Architect .This is possible for high rise building and large scale commercial developments.Read on

Net Zero Energy Building Architect should be able to meet the challenges the climatic situation poses, as necessity is the mother of invention. Architects now have found relevance in the world with sciences and not merely delve in the realms of creative and artistic world.


Net Zero Energy Building Architect

Net Zero Energy Building Architect knowledge should be extended to the world of Building Physics and  ought to be able to:

  1. Provide an integrated procurement system with the Net Zero consideration in place at the outset. Integrating the Net Zero component into design at the outset of schematic stages, which conventionally is never done
  2. Be familiar with the technologies that enhance the reduction of Net Zero and those qualify Energy Star Renewable energy types such as Photo voltaic systems. Solar thermal systems. Wind turbines, biomass harvesting, geothermal heating and cooling systems and day light harvesting, chilled beams
  3. Familiar with Building Physics of the heat gain, the thermal heat gain, the sciences of heat (conductance, conductivity, specific heat gain, the psychometric chart of air characteristics of moist air), Heat wheel and recovery, enthalpy wheels, daylight factors, Resistivity, energy modeling, solar analysis. plug load, peak loads,
  4. Familiarity with software’s such as Ecotect, Vasari, Therm, design studio etc
  5. Familiarity with standards that govern the Net Zero Energy Building such as Ashrae Standard 90.1, Building codes established by Calgreen, IgCC, Standard 189
  6. Familiarity  with the requirements of certifying programs such as LEEDs, ( USA) GBI(Malaysia), Mark standards( Singapore).


renewable energy

wind turbine

The definitions of Net Zero Energy Building is defined by the NREL, read definitions The highest of the goals of NZEB is the Zero Energy Emission (Carbon) which is difficult to calculate and achieve. This goal is more difficult to achieve that Net Zero Cost.  There are many professionals that are pushing the agenda on Net Zero such as Architct MacClay, many should emulate stand and help to move this principles forward.However the our future with Green sustainability and Net Zero is not enough, we need to be ecologically well balance, ecological biodiversity integrated benignly and furthermore for our survival be organically dependent( read below)


The Future with organic dependence

The future for Net Zero Energy Building Architect will depend on how we look to nature and learn the bio metric of nature which does not waste, where waste is reused by others ecological systems.The forest does not need manure, pesticide or insecticide neither watering for survival. They are organic and independent from the external sources for survival. The Forest is organically independent. I wish to coin the term organically dependent

This goal is to be organically dependent of the utilities provided by the National Utility providers for electricity, water and waste disposal etc.

As much as the US should be minimizing the dependence of oil from the Middle East, so should we be in every aspect of maintain and achieve independence to outside sources.Imagine we had a Tsunami as in Japan, our total dependence on the Utility companies can pose a great danger, if the Tsunami was worst than it did, Japan may have been wiped out the world power.

Our long term survival depends on our independence from the external sources. This principle is greater than the sustainability of building which is a trend through out the world.

For one to be organically independent the following should be considered:

  • Energy consumption should be produced economically at the site or building. which we have defined as Net Zero Energy Building.
  • Waste should be saved form the rain harvested at the site and reserved at the site for use where water is not supplied form external supplies. Options such as pumping from underground wells should be considered as a last fall back on reserves when water in the store runs out. Rainwater can be stored underground using Biosvale storage systems.
  • Waste water disposal should be recycled for reuse at the site. Portable water for drinking and use at the site should be harvested at the site.
  • Sewerage waste should be processed at the site and reused for vegetation.


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Beach House Floor Plan


There are many designers claiming to have designed good beach house designs, but what a good beach house floor Plan should constitute. I think fundamentally the good beach houses designs should have these considerations:


  1. First and fore most Beach House floor plans needs to be designed as a resting abode, after a stressful working time. It should be a place where ones nerves are calmed settled.
  2. Secondly the plans need to be designed for recreational activities such as games by the beach, a BBQ by the patio or terrace etc. The idea of a beach house is also to get together for some fun.
  3. View of the beach from the living, dining and the bed room is essential feature. Create a warm spectacular view of the beach, jetty and surrounding landscape. You may achieve this by having large glass window panels for visibility but carefully shaded for energy savings. Read on smart landscaping on how you can achieve Net Zero Energy building by smart landscaping.


Beach house and cottage house

Cottage Beach house, 1*


  1. Use a courtyard with landscape within the beach house as it creates a world of the beach within where views are not permissible or even a swimming pool to relax within when it is not comfortable at the beach.



I love the design of swimming pool in the design of Equis House*2 by Barclay and Crousse. The view of the swimming pool is in the path of the blue ocean. The blue pool is built lifted up in the air that is seen with the blue ocean as the background from the beach house . Where the beaches are scares but merely rock out crops-“a spacious terrace, designed as a man made beach, extends to the horizon line via a unique narrow swimming pool. This area is characterize by its relationship with the sky and the water”*3



Beach house with a swimming pool

Beach House- Equis House 1*

  1. The beach house shall be a comfortable place- shaded from the heat or cold winds and designed for your specific needs- a sun bathing summer sun or winter views.


  1. The floor plan for house need to take the harsh weather beatings- the salt spray in the air would rust down metals and any metal that is not protected well will be rusting away very quickly. So the houses need to be protected well against the weather extremities. And the house needs to be well detailed to serve these purposes.


  1. The floor plan for house , should keep the sand out of the foot ware, where it is NOT needed. A good design should to care of this. Sand and dust in the air, can also minimized by a good landscape design to cut of these elements.


  1. Don’t forget the context of location. Beach house floor plans need to be designed for the surroundings .If you are in the tropic use the coconut palms as a good element for design. Palm trees make great landscaping for the house. If you are in the Mediterranean Sea use the natural stones, that are richly found in your house design so that it sits comfortably in these settings.
Beach House- house by the sea

Beach House-Play house by the sea




If you are perched on top of a stone outcrop, design for the winds, the great sun sets or sun rise for great vista of the horizons. Remember you can install a wind turbine to harvest wind renewable energy where you can earn money when you are not there. Wind energy harvested well can make your home a Net Zero Energy building, where you can sell your net zero carbon emission as money earner.


  1. If you run out of ideas, visit us at for some great design. Enjoy your visit. These designs have great visuals for floor plan for house.


  1. In modern floor plans for great flexibility the open house plan concept is also an option as it provides spaces for privy and wide open space for children to run around within and to have great indoor functions with wide spaces.
  2. Net Zero Energy Architect

It is pertinent that homes are designed for Net Zero Energy building where there total power consumption is reduce to zero over a period of 1 year. A beach house has plenty of sun and wind these resources will contribute much renewable energy. It is a shear waste of resources in the light of the Net Zero Energy building favored by the Department of Energy in the US (DOE). Ashrae 2020 envisioned that all building tends towards Net Zero energy building by the year 2030.

  1. Should you need advise kindly call our Net Zero Energy Architect in our website at
  2. Our Net Zero Energy Architect will attend to your needs as soon as possible to your satisfaction
  3. Lastly have fun in your venture in seeking for Net Zero Energy building plans.







*1 pg.85 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin

*2 pg.52. “Beach House” by Hauser Am Meer, Maisons En Bord De Plage, Huizen Aan Zee

*3 pg 54 “Beach House” by Hauser Am Meer, Maisons En Bord De Plage, Huizen Aan Ze

*4 pg.66 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin”



The Amazing Beauty of the Traditional Malay House

The Traditional Malay House is a special dwelling distinguishing form western dwelling.  The Traditional Malay House  are dwellings which evolved over time. It was  influenced by the Ethnic Malay styles, Indonesian styles and the memorial cultural events which were celebrated then. The construction skills for traditional houses are being lost over the day. However the architectural forms, such as tropically roofs and proportions with decorative elements are considered by some to still have relevance.


Traditionally materials such as timber, bamboo, attap, zinc roof, rattan were used to construct the Malay house. Pre cut holes and grooves were used to connect the columns and beam. This gave flexibility and strength to the house. In Some homes Rattan ropes were used to fasten the members.

The roof is made is made of attap( a local thatched roof), laid over timber trusses. The roof may be curved to represent the shape of bulls horns as in case of Seremban Malay houses. The roofs may also be constructed of zinc sheets.

The walls are fixed with timber planks horizontally or vertically.

The flexibility of homes was essential to make shift from one place to another easily. Hence the use of nails was used to fix window and door. The advent of nails was rather a latter invention which was used rather moderately.


Traditional Malay House in Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak were built on stilts raised above the ground to keep animals and floods away as to survive in the remotes of the Malayan Jungle. The raised homes also provided ventilation from below and thus keeping the house comfortable.

The roof overhangs also provided cover from the tropical heat and heavy rainfalls.

Traditional Malay House

Veranda of Traditional Malay House

Veranda of Traditional Malay House

 were design with a Rumah Ibu, Rumah Dapur and Serambi. Rumah Ibu is the house proper, Rumah Dapur is the kitchen annex and the Serambi is the veranda.

The windows were constructed of adjustable window timber slants. The windows allowed wind to move into the home, and cutting the heat off, with the panels in a closed position.

The staircases are molded, the roof fascias are highly ornamented, carved timber lattices. This timber lattices are used generally at the floors to decorated the facades. The Gable ended roofs are similar to the Japanese, Thai, Cambodian and Sumatrans Roofs.

The houses in Malacca were influenced by the Portuguese Colonial Masters. The staircases are decorated with colored tiles

Please see our Traditional Malay House  designs in our website

Prepared by:Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Net Zero Energy Building ( NZEB)

Here are steps which we used to design Net Zero Energy Building  for an office commercial tower. the located in Kuala Lumpur for a utility company.We hope to win the award and as we do we will reveal the details of the project. The proposal is being considered in a favorable light.

Methodology/ steps
                              Proposal Proposal details Savings in the electrical load
Step 1

stage 1 to Net Zero design

step 1 to Net Zero design

Baseline building Low Energy High Performance Building.

  • Standard 189( standard for design of high performance Green building)
  • Defining NZEB, classification by NBI Benchmarking by BEI based on NBI
  • Energy modelling by Ecotect software

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 2  

Stage 2 to Net Zero design

step 2 to Net Zero design

Heat gain analysis

solar path analysis

  •  Optimizing the orientation the building based on the study on the  energy model with respect the solar path. best layout produces optimum savings

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 3

srages 3 to Net Zero design

step 3 to Net Zero design



 Shading the worst side of the building with green planting, vertical green walls and the theme of Office in the Forest and Forest in the Office will help the air con temperature by 4 degree 10%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 4

step 4 to Net Zero design

step 4 to Net Zero design

step 5 to Net Zero design

Thermal zonedouble skin

double skin cladding

double skin

 Double skin cladding will provide super insulation at the inner skin wall( composite alum panels ,fiber glass and high density board with a Thermal Zones  and   Thermal Bridging and greening the zones with the double skin wall glass wall with a Low Energy glass ceramic frets. 10%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings


Step 5   LED lightsstages 5 to Net Zero design The use of high energy LED lights for the external and internal useDay light harvesting for the inner part of the building by using light shelves, sin harvesting using the latest technologies to the inner part of the buildings 18%

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 6  

stages 6 to Net Zero design

step 6 to Net Zero design

High M&E Performance systems

High Performance systems

High performance mechanical systems, pumps, equipments, air con systems
Technologies such as Energy recycling wheels, Hydrocarbon refrigerant, PowerPact to reduce the hikes in energy supplied

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 7  

stage 6 to Net Zero design

step 6 to Net Zero design

BAS Sensor monitoring and controls

BAS monitoring and controls

 Saving of lighting by using BAS systems, actuators etc
A BAS that monitors the energy consumption, by provision of sub meters and good regulators to keep the energy  consumption down.

Energy Pie

Energy Pie savings

Step 8  

stage 8 to Net Zero design

step 8 to Net Zero design

Solar panel
wind turbine

Photo Voltaic Panels

renewable energy PV

Wind turbine

Wind turbine renewable energy

Solar Panels will produce about 10 percent of the power consumption using high performance PU panels, the flat roof at the car parks, the elevated eco walks, the horizontal louvers above the building or car-parking lots etc. will be providing shade using the solar panels .A Wind turbine will be located  at the roof top of the  building. For wind turbine to be effective the wind speed ought to be a minimum of 5m/sThe Biomass produced form the site of Campus of 80 acres site could be used to generate electricity. 7-10%

Energy Pie savings

Renewable Energy Pie savings

Total saving in the electrical load 100%

Diagram above is a modification and reinterpretation of Tom Hootman‘s energy savings concepts.

Other Design Process which ought to be integrated in the building design are:

a) create a shoe box model of the tower and analysis the energy consumption, using this model as a basis of comparison for the proposal for the detail design.This will be called the control energy model

b)Add features which will help to reduce the energy consumption as listed above from  Steps 1 to Step 8. Using he control energy model above, the energy saving are evaluated and compared for each of the proposal

c) The Benchmark for energy consumption is established by the Consultant using the Peers Buildings Baselines and the energy pie is created with benchmark for each category of the energy pie.

d) Specific modification are made based on this energy data.

e)The renewable energy normally are a very costly element. it is advise that the options such as Photo Voltaic systems , wind turbines, biomass energy harvesting systems, geothermal heat/cooling systems  from the ground are studied carefully  to make up for the  last remaining portion of the energy pie to create the Net Zero energy building . The last remaining portion reduced to a minium of the total 20-25 % of the total energy pie.

There are 4 Definitions of Net Zero Energy Buildings by the NREL (The National Renewable Energy Laboratory):

  1. Net Zero Site Energy Building -a building that produces as much renewable energy as it uses over the year.
  2. Net Zero Source Energy Building – a building that produces as much renewable energy as it uses over the year when accounted from the energy source.
  3. Net Zero Energy Emission Building -a building the purchases or produces enough emission-free renewable energy to offset the emission from the energy used in the building
  4. Net Zero Energy Cost Building-a building that receive enough financial credit to offset the energy consumption of the building over a period of a year.

The Net Zero Energy Cost Building is preferred definition as it is much easier to achieve and convince the building owners to adopt the proposal of  can see the actual cost benefits for the money  invested in to achieving the Net Zero energy building. In the case of a large development such as a 64 storey office tower, the cost for Green and sustainability would range about USD15million. therefore any vested investor would like to see invested money returned over a period of time. The achieving Net Zero Energy Emission Building are long shots deals as it can be capitalized eventually by selling  Carbon print to companies of vested interest


Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam of































List of World Famous Architects ALIVE

Here is a List of World Famous Architects ALIVE and there are much discussions if they have been under rated or overrated.I wrote  this article so that  clients or students of architecture can search with ease the Living legend ALIVE .It is interesting that they all have an identity , strong individuals and differing entirely one form another. During a competition among these architects the solution to the sites problems even among the best of architect differ. And this it is a misnomer to think a site has only one solution to the problem.

There are interesting differences among them- such as Zaha uses difficult  geometrical curves in her design because of her first degree on Mathematics, which laid the foundation for 3 dimensional curves. And Rem Koolhass has a early background as a journalist and he continues to communicate using building sculptural forms to the masses.Frank Gehry departure from the orthodoxy is fundamentally because of early influences comes as working as a driver.As such one can see in a competition, the solutions they offer to a specific site are so breathtakingly different from one another.One would think there is a solution to every site and not a host of solutions varying and departing from one to another.


  • Frank Gehry(1929-)
  • Zaha Hadid(1950-)]
  • IMPei(1917-
  • Renzo Piano(1937
  • Rem Koolhass(1944-
  • Daniel Libeskind(1946-
  • Norman Foster(1935-
  • Santiago Calatrava(1951-
  • Jean Nouvel(1945-
  • Tadao Ando(1941-
  • Richard Miers)1934-
  • Moshe Safdie(1938-
  • Shigeru Ban(1957-
  • Robert Venturi(1925-
  • Cesar Pelli(1926-
  • Richard Rogers(1933-
  • Bjarke Ingels(1974-
  • Alvaro Siza Vieira(1933
  • Denise Scott Brown(1931-
  • Peter Eiseman(1932-
  • Peter Zumthor(1943-
  • Tom Wright(1957-
  • Maya Lin(1959-
Famous Architects ALIVE

Famous Architects ALIVE

An article will be posted soon on each of their  individuality, work designed by them their famous quotes and criticism in their work  look out for this article  in the web site

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to Build a Log House-Part 1

Construction Lesson 1 (Sill Logs, Floor and Joints)


What are the Sill Logs?

Sill logs are the logs that rest directly on top of the foundation and its connected to it by the anchor bolts.


How to Choose Your Logs?

  • Just about any type of log can be used, as long as it’s relatively straight and it is around 8”-10” diameter.
  • It has only minor tapering no more than 2”. And the length for it is around 16 ft.
  • Conifers such as pine, fir, spruce and tamarack are preferred because these softwoods are workable, durable and relatively lightweight.
  • Hardwoods, particularly oak can also be used, though their sapwood is highly susceptible to infestation by borers and fungus.


Sill Logs:

  • After completing the foundation based on the house plan the work on the upper part of the house begins.
  • The first step in the house structure is to install the sill log on the floor plan
  • Note: this is an important part of the job because if the sills are not laid as mentioned in the house floor plan and if its not laid squarely and securely that might effect the whole structure.


Steps of Constructing the log house Sill Log.

  • If you don’t want a full basement, you must excavate the house plan dimension at least below the frost line, install footings and construct a wall up to 20 in. above grade level.
  • You must also install piers within the foundation walls as mentioned in the architecture plan to support the floor girder. Also, install anchor bolts along the top of the walls to attach the sill.
  • Begin floor construction by hewing or cutting flat the bottom of the sill logs.
  • Then make holes in the sill logs to fit in the anchor bolts and install sill sealer or a termite shield according to the local building code.
  • The corner joints are made by bottom notching the logs based on the house design.
  • Hew flat the top of the girder and install it over the support piers.
  • Join it to the sill with a mortise and tenon joint. Drive nails through the top of the tenon and into the mortise to complete the joint.


Steps of constructing the log house sill log and floor:

  • In a similar manner, hew or cut flat the top of the joists and install them between the girder and sill logs so they are flush with the top of the girder.
  • Install the sub flooring perpendicular to the direction of the joists. Now you’re ready to start on the walls as designed in the architecture plan.

Steps of constructing the log house wall joints:

  • Many different types of notches can be used to join the logs, but a good choice for the beginning log builder is the scribe, fit, round-notch method.
  • It features semicircular notches cut in the bottom of the logs to fit over adjacent logs. Also, a V-shaped groove is cut down the length of each log bottom so the entire length can sit flush on the log below.
  • Although this method is slower than others, the corner joints are self-draining-water running down the outside of the house hits the log tops and runs off, instead of being trapped in the notch.
  • The V-grooves also eliminate air drafts between the logs.
  • The joints between courses do not need chinking, so you can avoid one of the most chronic maintenance problems of log homes: repairing cracked chinking.


Prepared by: Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Check out our log house designs :

The different Types of Architects and what they do?

key words: Project Architects,Resident Architects,Design Architects,Bungalow Architects,Shopping center specialist Architects,Interior designing,Hotels Architects Architects,Hospital Architects, Architect Arbitrator ,Commercial Office Architects,Architect Planners,Landscape Architects,Timber building Architects,Resident Architects. arkitek

There are many Types of Architects  listed below are some of them and what they do:
Many types of Architects are covered in these website such as Green Architect,Net Zero Energy Architect, Eco Green Architect.

Principal Architect

He is runs the Architectural company, he may be the founder, owner of the company

Project Architects

What does a Project Architects do?
The Project Architect  manages a team of Architectural office staff consisting of Resident Architects , Design Architects and a team of draftsman .He ensure the project is managed contractually ( contract administration. A Project Architect is  used for a large project  or he would be required to deal with many smaller projects.

He reports firstky to the Pricipal Architect of the comapny and he may report to the Owners of the building ( or a Project Management Team). He rports on the overall progress of works,manages changes that occurs which may arise from time to time ,manages the Program or any issues that may arrise at the site. He also manages a consultant teams of Civil & Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Urban Town Planner, the Cost consultants( called the QS), and Landscape Architect, Interior Designers, Specialist Consultants such as –Acoustic consultants, Lighting consultants, Façade consultants and Green Sustainability, Net Zero Energy Consultants and Ecologist. The contractor or the builder reports to him on the progress regularly

Design Architects

What does a Design Architects do?
A Design Architect designs the building, by complying with the client’s design brief and local building code and  bye law requirements. He report to the Project Architect or to the Pricipal Architect. 

He submits the plans to the local authorities for approval and coordinating the approvals of the engineer’s plans to the local authorities as well. The design architect during the construction will ensure the design aspects of the building are attained and reviews the approvals of materials submitted by the Contractor and ensure it is compliant with the specifications of the contract.

Bungalow Architects

What does a Bungalow Architects do?
An Architect that specializes in designing of Bungalows as the design and construction of Bungalow is a rather confine to a very specialized area of work. The difficulty of putting up a Bungalow cannot be underestimated. He  meets the needs of the owner of homes both at a macro level and at a micro level of details. Every nook and corner of the bungalow is subjected to review by the house owner . This Architect ought to be rather knowledgeable about the details of material, construction and aesthetics of the buildings. He should be familiar with the different types of house plans,history of house architecture, the types of houses, large homes and small homes, timber materials , log houses, cottage houses, beach houses, 2 bed room houses, 3 bed room houses, duplex houses, southern living homes, Asian homes and Green Homes, modern house plans, Open house floor plans, Japanese house floor plans etc, It is varied form place to place and region to region. He  designs homes according to the need of the owner and it meeting with the local market value systems to maintain value of the homes.

Shopping CenterSpecialist Architects

What does a Shopping center specialist Architects do?
The shopping specialist architect , deasl with large shopping centers, hyper markets and supermarket. It might seem like a simple thing , which is not true otherwise; in fact a mistake  undertaken in the design of a shopping centers, may result in a gargantuan tragedy. It may resulting in a white elephant or a ghost shopping center. Therefore in selecting an Architect to design a shopping center one should evaluate his background of experiences in shopping centers designs. The strategies to capture the flow of traffic, direct the flow,captivating their interest,lighting levels and the latest trends in shopping is rather important for the success of the shopping center and creating a thriving shopping center.
The Architect will study the types of shops and how it will be laid out to create demand and reduce dead ends of circulation of traffic and is aware of the magic of working public traffic using anchor tenants.

Interior designing Architects

What does, a Interior designing Architects do?
An architect who is specialized in the interiors of the building and creates and transforms the interior spaces to a functional space or a space of beauty. The interior design should begin at the outset of design process making the spaces as an integral part of the building and not as a make over of the design as an after thought. There is a difference between an Interior designer and a interior decorator. A Interior decorator merely provides the make up of the building .

Hospital Architects

What does, a Hospital Architects do?
A Hospital architect deals with an area of specialization  with the internal planning of hospitals. These are medical and health requirements, which shall be complied. All aspects of the spaces are designed with the health of the patients in mind .For instances the lifts are specially  much slower that the conventional lifts it takes into consideration of patients with weak heart or high blood pressure who are susceptible to heart attacks. The rooms are designed for clean room conditions and the air will be designed for clean air to minimize the spread of air borne diseases.Room are subjected to view for quick recover.Planning of the services are necessary for Energy efficiency as Hospitals guzzles energy.

Hotel Architects

What does a Hotels Architects do?
Hotel Architects are specialist in designing the bed rooms, the commercial kitchen, ballrooms, restaurants, lounges, connectivity of service corridors to service lifts, loading, unloading area and the maintenance areas. There are many types of hotels. Some hotels that are  centered around golfing circuits, some are based on beaches fronts, some on ball rooms and seminars services and others dependent on visitors from the Air port or local retail centers etc .Operators of Hotels, such as Hilton  have their own manuals for designing hotels in keeping with their brands.Architect  design according Hotels Operator’s  guidelines stipulated in Operator’s manuals. This will  ensure the operations are efficient and profitable. All 5-6 star hotels will be designed with the Operators requirements at the outset. This will avoid design tragedies and mega failures in Hotels. If you need to know if Design matters, look around at Hotels that have failed in business other than  that “location matters”.

Commercial Office Architects

What does a Commercial Office Architects do?
The design of high rise office towers shall be designed with low maintenance free designs, efficient layout floor plans, high energy performance building, shaded well from the heating sun and conservation of heat during summer and cautiously with the safety of the end users during maintenance of building, design for easy management of the building. New concepts such as Net Zero Energy Building, which is our area of special focus.  Green and Sustainability concepts are introduced by certification bodies such as Living Challenge, LEEDS, Green Building Index,Green Marks etc.

Architect Arbitrator

What does a Architect Arbitrator do?
An architect that is familiar with the contractual relationship between the parties in the building industry and how the function and further more he is most familiar with the designing and the design process and the work that all parties are bound in the industry. And this makes him as a suitable candidate to arbiter the arguments that arise among the parties in the industry. In some countries where there is no Construction court, many lawyers and even Judges are not familiar with the terms of the contract, duties of the parties of the contract and the relationship between them and make the proceeding and the judgments to be miscarried. Therefore it is best to have architects who are legal based who are the best arbiter to conduct and make the best judgment in arbitration case.

Architect Planners

What does a Architect Planners do?
An Architect who is trained academically as an Architect and  as an Urban Town Planner.An architect is aware of what is happening within a building . Town Planner designs a collection of buildings in a Town or country settings. An Urban Planner designs the interrelationships between the buildings. He interconnects the buildings with open spaces, parks and garden etc. Building are designed by architect without any consideration to the buildings in the neighborhoods. It is said that building have to talk to each other and the design of park in relationship with the footpaths leading to one another is necessary to create an wonderful urban environment. Urban Town Planning fills in  these gaps and is a go in between Planning and Architects in urban areas.

Landscape Architects

What do Landscape Architects do?
A landscape architect, at a micro level, is one who designs the soft landscape (plants, lawns, shrubs etc) and the landscape (pavements, benches, footpaths, street lights bollard etc) .
At a macro level he may be a designer as a Town Planner. He may also design the country sides and be involved as Town and Country Planner does in Town and Country Planning.

Timber Building Architects

What does a Timber building Architects do?
An architect who is familiar with the architecture of  timber, the different type of timbers ,how to preserve timber, the art and crafting and beauty of timber . He has an appreciation of the fine timber quality, how to design rustically in some situation ,making a beauty out of the ruggedness of the house.He is a master of timber homes.

Resident Architects

What does a Resident Architects do?
Resident Architects are those who oversea the quality of materials used and overseas the workmanship,during the construction of the building. He will ensure where  standing supervision is required especially where concrete works are carried out.He is partly responsible for the works carried out by the contractor. He ensures the contractor uses materials , specified by the designer (Architects), He is engaged only during the construct of the works until the building is successfully handed over to the Owner of the building. The Owners of the building, may extend his engagement as A Residential Architect until the Building is certified fit for occupation (in some regions this is called the Certificate of Fitness in others it is called Certificate of Completion and Compliance.)
a) He should be able to study all drawings such as Architectural and Engineering . He identifies errors in drawings and missing details .He checks and conduct test on the material that is used by the contractor.There are times although the approved samples submitted are never used on the building during the construction by the contractor. The materials are short changed during the construction . This leaving the building with a massive maintenance problem ,during the life span of the building.
b) He may send the materials to the laboratory for testing to ensure compliance with the specifications.
c) He submits progress report to the building owner and the Principal Architect of the project. He reports the works is in progress and the no of workers at the site. He also report  the equipment used at the site.He reporst the weather conditions at the site.
d) He monitors the Health and Safety Manuals and enforces it at the site such as ensure the use of  Hard Hats, Safety boots, Safe erection of scaffolding , Safety cables, safety nets , safety platforms are in place, ensure no water-ponds are found at site to minimize the breeding of mosquitoes, healthy the living quarters for workers, the Electricity cables are elevated above the ground with proper switch outlets etc.
e) The Resident Architect endorses the correctness of the Contractor’s Progress report.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, contact us

What do Architects do?

Architects are designers of buildings and creators of spaces. The spaces are designed for a purpose, which is referred to as function of the spaces. This may sound simple and enjoyable but can become more laborious and burdensome as the details of the design are thought through. Eventually the whole experience of designing can be a wonderful experience of joy and satisfaction as he sees the end results and the realization and actualization of his creativity. The designing also involves knowledge of technology of construction, selection of materials to create the right effect he is trying to create. He may use advantageously the effects of light, sounds, and other effects to create a space with a certain type of experience he wants the people to feel as they come into this space. The intrinsic ability to design is some times inherent but with others it can be developed with time and practice.


He is employed by a land owner who may want the Architect to design a building in his plot; the Owner may limit the design with a budget which the Architect will design with in. There may be other parameters that limits the design such as local authorities requirements, building codes , the soil conditions, neighboring vistas, views, wind directions, smells( in a sense of adversely from the neighboring drains, septic tanks).

In my opinion the Architects more often than not specialized into areas of specializations such as- Design Architects, Project Architects, Design Architect, Bungalow Architects, and Timber building Architects, Paper Architects, Shopping center specialist Architect, Interior designing Architects, Landscape Architects, and Hospital Architects , Residential Architects, Hotels Architects, Commercial Office Tower building Architects, Residential Architects, Architect Planners or Architect Arbitrators.


What does a Project Architects do?

He is the Architect that manages a team of office staff consisting of Resident Architect , Design Architect and a team of draftsman and he ensure the project is managed contractually ( contract administration. This position is normally used for projects of a large scale.

He reports to the Owners of the building ( or a Project Management Team)-on the overall progress of works and manages changes that occurs which may arise from time to time.. He also manages the consultant teams of Civil & Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Urban Town Planner, the Cost consultants( Called the QS), and Landscape Architect, Interior Designers, Specialist Consultants such as –Acoustic consultants, Lighting consultants, Façade consultants and Green Sustainability, Net Zero Energy Consultants and Ecologist. The contractor reports to him on the progress regularly.

Greening the site ,Green Architect

Greening the site ,
Green Architect

What does a Green  Architect do ?

What does a Green Project Architect do?
A Green Project Architect utilized the means of Total Integrated Delivery Process in achieving a Green and Sustainability designs, It is centered in 5 core areas of Green and sustainability which are:
a) Energy Efficiency
b)Water Harvesting
c)Air Quality
d)Green Planning and Monitoring
e) Innovations
The word Green does not mean Green colored building or having Green landscaping  on the building. In actuality the Green Movement has forgotten the benefits of Greening the buildings. Read on the benefits.

As an off shot of the Green and sustainability movement, a new breed of Architect was created the Net Zero Energy Building Architect . Net Zero Energy Building Architect establishes the goals of Net Zero Energy consumption .

Net Zero Energy Building Architect  establishes the  bench marks of energy levels at the outset of the projects inception and maintains the benchmark of energy through out the project delivery at the documentation stages and completion of construction and until  the maintenance stages.The actual results are monitored and maintained .The Net Zero consultants are engaged through out the job.The Project Architect will coordinate them which is not done so in the Traditional Procurement  System.

Salary of Architect is pittancewhat is Architect’s Salary all over the world, on browsing the website and listening to architects, I have listed their salary in a table for ease of comparison. And an interesting revelation is found that the world’s economy is some what  is depressed except in a few growth centers and the growing feeling, which  is they are not paid well.

Salaries of Architect’s Around the world per month in USD
The Salaries of Architect’s Around the world including the US  is summaries here below,  this info is  derived from a survey  into the web, which I put it together as a matter of interest.I have come to know that the work the Architects engage in a laborious and a extremely stressful work and yet the salaries  around the world is not a positive one. It seems after many years of studies and after many years of hard work the Architects are paid much below the average salaries of other professions.Please see below the facts :

Salaries Around the world per month in USD

Country Graduate Architect Experienced Architect
USA{Albuquerque} 3600 8000
Ireland 1500 4000
Kosovo 450 900
Malaysia 800 4000
Bangladesh 300 750
Kenya 450
Mexico 500 1000
Germany 2300
Croatia 200
Japan 5000
Saudi 1500 4700
Canada 2800
Hong Kong 2800 5000
India 350 1000
Singapore 2500 6000
South Africa 1200
Israel 2000 4000
Serbia Belgrade 500
Indonesia 350
Brazil 1150 4000
Vienna 2200
Argentina 500
Poland 450 2200
China {Shenzhen} 1200 3000
Colombia 2200
Russia 1800
UAE 1500 4500
Kuwait 10,600
Qatar 4600

How to build a Log House-Part 3
Foundation Lesson 3 (Perimeter Foundation & Full Basement Foundation)

This  article on how to build a Log House-Part 3 is the last part of the session, which deals on the subject on how to build a Log House in totality from the foundation to the roof.

Perimeter Foundation:

  • It can be made of concrete, concrete blocks or concrete faced with stones.
  • If made of concrete it can be Single pour and Double Pour (footing and foundation).

Single Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • It’s not used as much as the separately poured footing and foundation.
  • However it simplifies the task and cut down on time.
  • Lay out the outside dimensions of the footings, the wall thickness and outside boundary of the wall on the batter boards using the house floor plan.
  • Then position the builder’s string to show the dimensions.
  • Excavate the footing and construct the forms.
  • Bring All Service pipes in below the footing and frost line before pouring the footing.
  • Make sure any low spots under the edge of the footing are filled with stones

Double Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • The footing is usually poured separately from the foundation.
  • If the soil is stable, the footing is poured directly in a trench dug without forms.
  • If the soil is less stable, forms must be constructed to hold the concrete in place.
  • The forms must be leveled by using the carpenter’s level and stones are used to fill up the holes around the form to keep the concrete from running out
  • If pouring without forms drive small wooden stakes into the soil at the bottom of the trench where their tops should be level with the height of the footing.
  • Pour the concrete and smooth more or less to the height of the stakes then pull the stakes out and fill the holes with concrete and smooth over.
  • Form a key in the footing to help hold the concrete foundation in place and it can be done by using a beveled 2”x4”. However in the tropical countries water stop is need to be added to prevent water seepage.
  • Reinforce the footing with two to three reinforcing bars spaced about 3”-4” off the bottom of the trench.
  • Make an inspection after the form for the footings are completed.

Pouring the Foundation for the House Plan:

  • After the footing has cured for 5-6 days the foundation can be formed.
  • Remove the footings forms and construct the form for the foundation.
  • Individual sections of forms should be nailed together from the outside.
  • Set up the outside forms first and level it by using the carpenter level and then do the same on the inside forms.
  • Higher and larger foundation walls should be poured slowly to allow the concrete enough time to set up.

Basement Foundation:

  • Basement foundation has the same fundamentals of the perimeter foundation however its has additional features such as:
    • Foundation drains.
    • Insulating the basement.
    • Basement floor.

Foundation Drain & Basement Insulation:

  • A drain should be placed around the foundation to help carry off excess water that collects at its base.
  • Put a 2” layer of gravel around the outside of the bottom edge of the footing.
  • Then put clay drainage tile or perforated plastic on top of this around the outside of the footing.
  • Throw from 2”-6” of gravel over the clay drainage to extend it up over the top edge of the footing by at least 2”.
  • If you need insulation for the basement, install 4” thick batts of rigid foam with moisture barrier below the concrete floor and on the gravel. It can be installed on the outside of the foundation wall as well.

Basement Foundation Floor:

  • Usually poured after the foundation forms are removed.
  • Before pouring the floor first position the drain as needed.
  • The floor drain should be ½” below the surface of the finished concrete floor.
  • Pouring basement floor should be done with a fast pace to prevent the concrete from setting up before you can get it all finished.
  • Check out for some great Log House Floor Plans at :


How to build a log House-Part 2

This article on How to build a log House-Part 2 is part of a 2 other articles on this subject of how to build a Log House from the foundation to roof in totality. On hard ground where bedrock is close to the surface, buildings usually require only a minimum foundation.

The Types of foundation generally used in a log house:

1– Pier foundation:
Its the simplest and least expensive, where concrete or flat stones are mortared or laid dry.

2– Slab Foundation:
The Slab Foundation for a home plan is, of the simple kinds of foundation where a concrete slab is used as the foundation.

3- Perimeter Foundation for a house floor :
Its made from concrete, concrete blocks, or sometimes stones. Follow the architectural Floor Plan very closely with respects to the dimensions as this will cause the finishes to look tardy, if it is not correctly followed. The ceiling lines, the tiles finishes and the wall straightness will appear tardy if the dimensions of the Log House floor plans are not strictly followed.

4- Full Basement Foundation:
This is the most complicated type of foundation, Its made of poured reinforced concrete or concrete blocks
Note: Regardless what type of foundation is chosen a proper footing is needed to be placed slightly below the frost.

How to make the foundation for a log house?

Step One: Establish the Boundaries.
1-Establish the exact outside boundaries of your home using a 2”x2” stakes, nails & a rope.
2- Make one end of each stick sharp to be able to drive it into the ground easily.
3-After placing the sticks hammer a nail into the upper center of each stake
4-Once the stakes are placed in position use a rope and connect it to the nails on top of each stake
5-Once three stakes are connected you will able to outline an approximate 90 degree between two walls.
6-Make sure that the angle between the two walls is a perfect 90 degree angle using a triangle with proportions of 3:4:5

Step Two: Erect Batter Boards:
1- The batter board is made by driving 2″x4″ stakes into the ground in an L shape around the corners
2- Nail, a 1”x4’ or 1”x6” batter board, to the stakes to create a right angle and it have to be set back at least 4 feet from the outline stakes and the height is minimum 18″
3- Make sure all batter boards have been installed on all corners at the correct height.
4- Tie weight to builder’s string and drop them over the tops of the batter boards and drop a plumb bob where the two strings cross.
5-Make sure the plumb bob falls exactly on the nail head in the corner stakes this locates the outside boundary of your foundation.
6- Use the same method to locate the inside boundary but by deducting the width of the proposed foundation.

Check out for some great and handsome architectural floor plan for Log house at:

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How to treat for termite in house plans

Hello there this article will be discussing is about how to treat for termite , which is one of the important aspects in construction. Termites are small, pale soft-bodied insects that lives in large colonies with several different castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth. Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly destructive to trees and timber While each termite species thrives in different climates and eats different types of food, all termites require four things to survive: food, moisture, shelter and optimal temperature. Unfortunately, all homes, regardless of their construction type, can provide these ideal conditions for termite infestation.

Before Construction
Treating termite before construction can help you defend against possible claims in the future. Where construction specification for several projects requires the protection for termite in their finishing’s. To help you in dealing with this problem this article will provide you with some tips that you must incorporate in your construction activities. Food and moisture resources around and inside home should be eliminated because termites are attracted towards moisture.

Where Are The Termites?
Termites are frequently living where there is a high concentration of moisture and dampness. In old houses these are frequent problems because they tend to live in obstructed or block water supply and sewerage pipes. Also there is evidence that inside wood products or decaying wood surfaces are high probability areas for a termite to live in where they end up actually eating wood and wooden products inside your house.

Pre Construction Chemical Treatment
Termite treatment in pre construction stages includes few steps that must be done to ensure an area of termite-free construction.

Treating the soil before any slab placement with insecticides is the most common method of termite treatment. This will form a chemical barrier between ground slab and masonry that will prevent the insects to approach the building. The chemical treatment can be done as follow:

  • Before making the foundation the bottom and sides of excavation must be treated with chemical products.
  • make holes in the earth where slabs on grade will be built and fill them with chemical products.
  • Be sure to use chemicals where walls and floors intersect.
  • Treat the perimeter of the construction by making holes filled with chemicals all around the structure.
  • In pipe bedding fill an area with chemical products to secure the future of the piping.
  • Use specific anti-termite chemical to treat the portion of the buildings were wooden products such as cabinets, doors, among others, will be placed.

Post-construction termite treatment
We can’t be acting in the pre construction chemical treatment all the time. Sometime termites are found after construction, so what can we do?

Start with an assessment of the entire area before starting any kind of treatment. A deep investigation will determine the extent of the damage, if any damage is found then determine the location of the termite, the access points to the structure and their spread in the area. The following tips should be kept in mind during chemical treatment.

  • As in the pre construction process, make holes and filled them with chemicals, to create a barrier around the house.
  • Treat the floors and walls by drilling holes and filling them with chemicals. All walls or the vast majority of the walls have to be treated to ensure that no more spreading will continue.
  • Apply chemicals on all points of contacts of wood with the ground or with any part of the building.
  • The voids in masonry can be used with anti-termite treatment.
  • Change and replace wood products or furniture that have high impact and presence of termites, beyond any limit of reparation.

Precautionary measures
when you
treat for termite perform these simple steps to ensure that your area kept free from these pest .

  1. Keep drains and gutters clean to avoid leakage.Make sure that there are no blockage, filtration nor broken pipes with excess of moisture around them.
  1. Eliminate sources of moisture.Do not leave unattended areas where there is a high concentration level of humidity. Clean those areas constantly to assure that it wont face the same problem again.
  1. Destroy termites.Apply chemicals as soon as you detect areas where termites are being reunited to avoid the spreading of it.
  1. Remove Wood Products.Remove wood products that have had the presence of moisture or have been in contact with water for a long period of time.
  1. Eliminate the wood contact with the ground.Do not bury direct pieces of wood in the ground for any use to avoid the moisture from getting in it.
  1. Fill junctions or voids.If you notice some voids of open space between the building and the ground, act quickly and fill those areas to avoid termites getting in the house.

The Chemicals Used for the Treatment:
There are currently several general kinds of termite chemicals registered for soil treatment. All termite chemicals are effective for their intended purpose but the choice often boils down to toxicity and odour versus longevity and resistance to leaching.
The water based termite chemicals do not contain solvents and are odorless. Some of the water based termite chemicals include Premis, Biflex Aqua and Termadore. The Premis is a chloro-nicotinyl type termite chemical and has a toxicity rating of S5. Premis termite chemical remains effective for at least two years.
The Biflex Aqua is a synthetic pyrethroid water based termite chemical with a toxicity rating of S6. Where its recommended to do a re-treatment of termite treatment with Biflex Aqua after five years for maximum effectiveness. The Biflex Aqua gets blinded very quickly and strongly to the soil particles and provides a best option where moisture movement in the soil is a factor.

Contact our Architects  at the website for further advise.

Prepared by:

What is Architecture ?

The question -What is Architecture ? is often discussed among students of Architecture endlessly. Students of Architecture spend a no of years trying to get the grips of the meaning of Architecture. In the early years the students of Architecture are confused trying to get a grips of it. In this article I wish to reduce this gap of bewildering students.

Architecture  is designing the building space in which we live in. Some define it too broadly as “Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music “. While there is  truth in this definitions, the space we live in and work in , are our Architectural spaces and as such, it is every thing about us- the Environment.

Net Zero Energy buildings

Traditional Malay House,

Architectural design is putting and making a composition of  the space in a logical meaningful way that makes sense. Thereby there is a indirect correlation ship with how music notes are composed. whereas in building the notes are features and elements borrowed from the past or created anew fulfilling a functional need. You can design spaces that are awful and it is poor taste. Good designs have the following intrinsic attributes:

  • Comfortable and Functional
  • Durable with time
  • Sustainable design with eco biodiversity green ecoconsiderations
  • High energy efficient buildings- read-NZEB
  • Creates an ambiance of the space that it was meant to be
  • A space that creates an emotional experience that leaves traces of memorable experience otherwise it is a shell.
  • Reasonable Costed and not flagrant, buildings of exorbitant cost can achieve anything that you want. A insensibly costly building is a sin.
  • Beautiful with the visually, makes the hears hears sound that are pleasing, allow light to flow and thereby making the space an memorable experience.
  • Defect Free, buildings may look wonderful in the beginning but may result in leakage, cracks and uninhabitable conditions is not good architecture, the right material not the right construction is not used.

    small log mountain house

    small log mountain house

If any of those above is not found in your Architectural designs, it may be due to a deliberate omission. As to achieve all may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building with great interiors has terrible structural design and high unreasonable cost. So good Architectural design -is all about making compromises along the way with cost, comforts, durability and other contending elements.

History of Architecture

Architecture is as old as History .When we talk of history of the past civilization, we talk of the architecture of the buildings. And buildings are the only remnants of the past. most record, evidences of the cultural activity is studied by the functional spaces of the buildings.the spaces such as baptismal fonts, altars of worship, temples of ancients, places of sacrifice, inscriptions of words on temple walls. Buildings of the past are mostly temples or buildings of worships. the remnants of homes are generally destroyed except for the remnants of the foundations such as in the Indus Civilizations. The civilizations of the past are :

  • Egyptian, Indian, Chinese
  •  Assyrian Period (before Babylon)*1
  • Mesopotamia (Babylon and Before), Ancient Americas (Mayan       …etc)
  • Persian Period
  • Greek Period
  • Roman Period*1
  • French(Gothic )*1
  • Georgian Architecture-The George Whyte’s House *2
  • England(Georgian, Tudor, Victorian)
  • Industrial
  • Modern
    Today buildings are high influenced by one another. For instance:
  1. the White House was patterned after the grandeur of the Roman Capitol
  2. The high rise buildings, in our cities are influenced by the new material manufactured during these periods after.
  3. The Gothic building followed after the Roman, whereas the Gothic (French) improvised from the Roman Arches and post & beam system to heavy arches(flying buttress) which supported higher and magnificent cathedrals.
  4. Chinese, Japanese Architecture while were developed independently but were not influence by the others neither influenced the world as we know of today. Except the Indian influenced spread to Angkor Watt, Malaysia, and Bali Indonesia, which is now the Bali architecture.
  • Post Modern Era
  • Green Sustainability and Net Zero Energy Buildings Movement
  • Zero Carbon emission designs, Carbon neutrality,ZeroCarbon
Carbon Trading

Green architect






Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


*1 pg 538-566, volume A, World Book Encyclopedia

* 13 Houses of the Founding Fathers by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus 111

*3 pg 30 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*4 pg 73 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*5 pg.47 “The Swimming Pool” by Marta Baker

The Pit Falls in Log House timber treatment

Log houses although marvelous to look at the early stages could end up being a night mare of maintenance problems that could bear heavy cost to you. Here I would like to cover the pit fall that you can avoid eventually Log House timber treatment.

  • Selection of good Logs -Quality and Type for Log House
    For your house to be solid and lasting you need to ensure that the logs are uniform, regular and 12 inch in diameter .For house design with long well the logs need to be long for the span. Unless the floor plan for new house has taken this into account at the very outset. Long spans cost you more and smaller log spans will cost you less. Good house design has this consideration in mind.Uniform logs will fit well and reduce the chances of water leaks and lost of heat during winter.The resistant wood-to decay are the best last long but may not be suitable for log house but the less resistant wood more prone to decay but suitable for workability as for log house.Ensure the barks are peeled off when constructing the logs as it will peel off and be messy inside the house and outside. As the barks are not long lasting it is prone to insect’s attacks and fungi prone.Design of the floor plan for new house should ensure the log is always dry and water shall never stagnate to help preserve the logs.
  • Preservatives could be used to help prolong the life span of this wood. Preservatives are used externally and internally. In the interior use a good non-yellowing alkyd varnish of penetrating oil sealer. If you are buying the logs, ensure the logs are preserved to good acceptable safety standard which is actually hazardous to people, animal, plant and the environment.

Externally the preservatives need to contain fungicide which stops the growth of fungus and mildew. You need to use pigmented preservative that don’t affect the beauty of the timber.. Once this is done stack the wood over each other for good ventilation-that is it is criss – crossed over the layers and this will help to preserve the logs.

  •  Termite Treatment for Log House
    As the ground excavated for foundation, it should be treated with anti-termite treatment. These chemical could be purchase from the stores, but as a general rule use chemical that are safe though all of them are hazardous to health but take necessary precautions. Some chemicals have been banned from use. A good treatment will guarantee 10 years of protection .These protection although weans away with time but could be treated externally after the guarantee period for an extended period of time.
    Nothing is better than, to protect the excavated pits for foundations and slabs before the concrete is cast, this is a far better protection than to protect them as a after thought once the building is up.
  • Good foundation will ensure steady building(not covered here)
  • Correct setting out of foundation will ensure good quality finishes in interior finishes(not covered here)
  • Selection of good materials-roof tile, slates, ceiling, painting, lock-set, sanitary fittings, pipes, plastering, stones, brick and blocks(not covered here)
  • Choose an architect to help you do up the specifications to ensure compliance to local health and check the website at

How to work on stones for my new architectural floor plans?

Stonework might seem easy because of its robustness but there are some pitfalls to look out for. There are sand stone, marble, limestone and granite stones. Generally all stones absorb moisture and when placed on the ground for finishing it has to be specially treated for water

Use of stone in a Traditional house

Use of stone in a Traditional house in Tibet

mark stains.Features such as sills, copings, cornices which has a catchments for water may be a source of water moisture problem.Where penetration of moisture in stones such as granite is not so, cavities for discharge of water should be provided.Compatibility of stones such as granite and limestone, hard stone and soft stones may cause cracking at joints. Stones of different acidity and alkalinity may causes problems at joints.

Rainwater with its acid may cause limestone to loose it shine and may cause it to fall down if not fixed correctly externally.

Limestone is one less durable stones. It offers the least durability to weather. Moisture is absorbed in to the stone, sometime to 20% and this can cause staining.

It is less durable than limestone but a good source of floor finishes that is elegant for the interiors of the house. It gives the domesticity and grandeur of richness.

Granite weathers very well and durable, used for external wall as of its weathering properties. It is extremely heavy and hard as such work ability is limited and carving of stone is done on softer stones.

Some sandstone has appreciable movement of moisture and therefore precautions are necessary as explain before for moisture movement

Flag stone
Flag stones are not a term used for type of rock but the manner by which are rock spliced off the is slices. They can be of many types’ flagstones such as granite, blue stone, slate, limestone. Their irregular shapes and surfaces make the stone attractive.

stone house

stone house

How do I use stone on my new architectural floor plans?
Stones works can be elegant or made a great rustic look. For elegance you need to crafts it well with skill. For rustic look you can use it as naturally as it exists for great looks.If you are new to this choose an architect
Use stones in its natural form as much as possible. Nature is beautiful don’t recreate its beauty.

Rule 2
Use contrasting color of the stones to accentuate them pg 126 –“Stonescaping Ideas” by Andrew Wormer

Rule 3
Use different textures to accentuate the other

Rule 4
Use the stones for its real purpose- for instance the stones on floor if it is soft but with possesses great beauty but will collect moisture and eventual discolor and loose it beautify and even wears off & erodes easily.

Rule 5
What architectural style are you thinking off, if you are thinking of Mediterranean style, or Spanish styles, don’t use stone that are glossy, shiny etc. Give it a natural white, natural stones, but a rustic look.A modern house, will have the clean, sharp edges, smooth walls and straight features, with modern tiles, marble, granite with its appropriate elegant finish. As a said before modern building can be designed with stone work and have a great look. check out my stone  designs at

Prepared by

How to design swimming pools in my architectural house design?

If you want a swimming pool in the yard of your new house floor plan, all you need to know these tips for creating your dream house. This article will help you through briefly how to design swimming pools which is part of the architectural design, however it is recommended you always use an architect to do what they are trained best in:

  1. decide on the type of pool
  2. decide where is the best location for your pool
  3. type of material you want for your pool
  4. swimming pool lighting
  5. landscaping your pool
  6. equipment s for pools
  7. style of swimming pool architecture


1. Decide on the type of pool
There are:

  • Naturalistic pools, briefly naturalistic pools are very much the pools you want for an informal setting, where comfort is found.
  • Architectural pools, Architectural pool are brutally fitting the house floor design but may yield a animated   effect for advertisement and magazines covers, befitting the rich and famous.
  • lap pools, Lap pools serve its intent to keep the occupant fit or for training purposes,
  • recreational pools, are pools to give the casual dip, and walk around the poolside or BBQ by the pool
  • spa bath, fountains, streams and water falls
  • Reflection pools.

2. Decide where is the best location for your pool
You could locate pools away from your house, by the side or inside your house. In making this decision always check with your architect, landscaping architect or swimming pools specialist for advice, as your site may pose danger to the swimming pool and your safety. Seek the advice for the Codes will decide the pool parameters.

3.Type of material you want for your pool
Pools are made of:

  • Concrete structure with tile finish, where the ground is not safe
  • Pvc lining where the ground sub base is strong to hold the pool
  • Plastic lining which is a lot stiffer than pvc lining

You may choose which ever all have proven their qualities but I would advise concrete structures as  they could be renovated and more robust and will befit most ground conditions. Study other options, if the cost of construction is the limiting factor.What about the deck materials:
You have great choice of concrete imprints, brick pavements, flagstones, tiles, or even wood deck. All       would look great depending on your choices.

4.swimming pool lighting
The swimming pool lighting is what brings elegance to the pool at night or at an evening by the pool party. Don’t over light up the pool, design the light with options alternative swishes to given low ambiance and medium ambiance and high ambiance as this could be used for different occasions.


baths with earth colored finishes

How to design bath?

 In designing floor plan for houses, bath rooms are the places of mediation and comfort even at the times of troubles and trials. The baths design should endeavor to create a peaceful ambiance for contemplation. And to settle the troubled mind, should there be one.These are the steps to design baths .

toliet with green

toilet with green




Step 1 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans

Get a plan of your Bath
Check the room sizes .Is it ,big enough to for the ambiance you are creating. For a master suite the size should be 8’x10’ or above. Any lesser dimension like 5’ x 7’will make the architectural design  look small .Good luxurious sizes of toilet may be as big as the master bed room -perhaps anything bigger that 14 ‘ft x 16 ft Get a grid paper over it and start planning your bath design.


Step 2 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans

Decide what you would like to place in the bath
What would you like to have a in a bath for fittings:

  • shower cubicle,
  • bath tub,
  • spa pool,
  • water closet,
  • bidet,
  • hand basin,
  • mirror, plants, and
  • all accessories and artifacts
  • cabinets
choose toilet fittings

Step 3 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans

Now you have made up your mind, make a template of these fittings, start placing them around to get a feel for the space. If you feel the space a little squeezed up, get the Architect to correct the architectural design .Most Architects would have no clue as to your needs and wants. This is the time to be explicit with the architect. Select compatile warm earthy colored tiles or stones finishes for baths.

Step 4 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans

Some tips for designing the layout.

  • Design for great visual of toilet fittings as you make your entry from the bath door. Toilet fitting look good .The fitting against the backdrop of tiles will make the bath look wonderful
designed for viefws of the fitting from the entrance

designed for viefws of the fitting from the entrance

  • Good ventilation is essential. How much time, have we noticed that after we have taken a hot shower and the bath mirror is full of vapor condensation moist? Is that not irritating!
  • Have sufficient hooks for clothes change when going to bath etc.
  • Makes sure the bath is spacious for comfort.
  • Light color fitting match with wonderful elegance with light colored tiles. White fitting against dark colored tiles make a great combination.
  • Don’t forget the shaver point for men, soiled cloth baskets and waste disposal for waste to be included into the bath design.
  • Good lightnings will make the bath wonderful, wall lights will make it radiant
  • Additional features like view to the garden, or a small garden in the toilet or plant decoration will be a great pleasantry in bath designs. This will enhance values of your new architectural floor plan designs.
  • Curtains will be great idea to make Bath design have a cozy look.
  • Use files with great colors,tiles with textures


  • Design for greenery in the toilet as the green helps to de-stresses the minds and recovery of the soul
good window view for baths

good window view for baths

  • A good looking Mirror and with a marble table tops with glass to support toiletries may be pleasant.
  • Hide all stop cock, and taps behind flower vase or curtains or placed inside cabinets.
  • Lastly use proper floor finishes or else it will be slippery when wet.

Step 5 to design bath for my new architectural floor plan

In designing a toilet, you are check with NBKA, National Bath and Kitchen Association, for guide lines of bath room designs in the US. for the codes that it should be in compliance with the recommendations.For those living outside of the US, you are required to check with your local authorities that regulate the toilet designs requirements.

Check out our great House Floor plans design …they the best in the world wide websites




Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

*1 pg.165…”The new smart approach to bath design “.Creative Homeowner by Susan Maney
*2 pg.116…”The new smart approach to bath design “.Creative Homeowner by Susan Maney

How good designs give value to architectural floor plan?

What do I mean by good value? Simply put you may spend millions of dollars to your new dream house but no one will pay the same for it. It was money wasted for your own pleasure that gave no value to architectural floor plan.

Let say your house was valued at  USD200,000  and you renovated your house with a renovation cost of USD 100,000. The total value of  your house should be USD300,000.Now if I put the newly renovated house is pit out for sale . If you found buyers for more than USD300, 000, then you have  added value to the house .Got it? If you  got a buyer for less than USD300, 000, it may seem that you did not study the market forces sufficiently before you started to design the architectural plans, Therefore it is absolutely necessary to engage an Architect to do up a design that provides value to your newly designed home.

So when designing your new architectural floor plan, you need to enhance value to architectural floor plan. This is how you do it by providing spaces that contributes to value is:

  • Kitchen appropriate for the region( not too costly )
  • Master suites and Bathroom( appropriately sized up)
  • Deck( to view in to the garden after lunch or dinner)
  • Swimming pool( choose the suitable type of pool)
  • Fireplace( the type should be suited for the overall architectural style)
  • Lawn and landscape( well landscaped to enhance the views from the dinning, kitchen, living, mastered), in recent times it trees may provides shading form the summer sun and in the tropics shading the building to create  and induce micro climates.The trees may be used to divert the harsh winter winds and resulting in increasing the heating load of the electrical power consumption.
  • Net Zero Energy Buildings features in  will have a positive value as you do not pay the monthly electric bills
  • Green Buildings increases the value of the property by 10-15% m the experience in Singapore to Green the City was a positive experience not only the city but each individual property faced an increase of value to architectural floor plan buildings.

Now if you had the above done and don’t see any value added what could have gone wrong: In this instance there are 2 possibilities could have happened:

  • Possibility 1 -you over spent on the renovation and market ( the buyers) does not appreciate what you have done. The Buyer did not value what you have valued as important. You got to know the market (what the buyers want) wants before designing the building.
  • Possibility 2 – you made an error in design .Your design is just lousy. It is horrible an has no architectural aesthetic sense. In some countries builders tends to do design that turns out to be obnoxiously ugly, this is where you need to appoint an Architect to do so, if you need help call us at

To avoid costly mistakes ,look around and see what type of kitchen, master suite, deck, swimming pools, and fireplace, lawn and landscaping features and design  that every one is  looking out for. Check this out in the immediate neighborhood.This does not means that you are not creative by copying but rather working out a house design that enhances value which is centered around your needs.

The design when completely built, your passer on visitors should be  giving you the”wow”-The wow factor is an indicator. of  their jaws need to wide open, you know your design is done well. Checkout at web site for some great designs styles with great value at



Prepared by:

10 rules on How do you design a Cottage house floor plan

How shall I recreate the settings of the wonderful, great cottages rendered in the poems and legends past? There are some simple guide lines to follow. Call or contact us at if you need further Architect’s advice. Keep reading and see how simple it can get, see for your self:
How do you design a Cottage house floor plan

Rule 1:
Let your heart dictates the cottage house floor plan.
Rule 2: How do you design a Cottage house floor plan
Let a great prominent Architect -Andrew Jackson Downing (writing in the Horticulturist, 1848) say it to you best, “Do not build your dwelling like temples, churches or cathedrals. Let them be characteristically, dwelling house. let the cottage be a cottage.”The cottage house floor plan don’t have to be ornamented with architectural facades, special doors, window or architectural pediments features and lastly avoid church like features like high pitched roofs or Stain glass window.Modern house floor plans are in opposite other end of cottages.
Rule 3 How do you design a Cottage house floor plan
Use simple porches, veranda’s, simple bay window, and simple doors in its most natural existence that brings honesty to the cottage and a rustic feeling to the cottage.
How do you design a Cottage house floor plan Rule 4
Use a porch as entrance, not direct into the house.
Rule 5
Step roofs allow the snow to fall of naturally
Rule 6
Place the kitchen in the primary position –IN the Front of the house.
Rule 7
Your cottage may be located near a river, sea side, pond, mountain height, or by a simple brook. Use these features into your cottage house plan aggressively integrating then into you.
Rule 8
Avoid rich colors, use plain white where necessary or rather best use the material in its most natural colors.
Rule 9
Avoid large homes to keep the maintenance low and the ambiance of the cottage recreated with little upkeep. As the natural stones, and timbers need no cleaning but rather looks better in its natural existence.
See website for some brilliant ideas for log homes and cottages home at
Keep the small layout open floor plan that will make it cozy and comfortable.
Rule 10
The landscape is the most important feature-
i)the fence,
ii)the stones-cape,
iii) the foot paths
iv) the wine and its flowers

If you need to design homes call us at, check out our house floor plans

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

How do you design a beautiful Log house.

 Log house are so beautiful, that it captivates me and behold my imaginations. They come in many forms and colors with an enticement for welcome. Every time I design a Log house it gives me great satisfaction to look at it and gives me great contentment of a sense of accomplishment. Don’t believe my word visit my site for view at for Log house designs.

log mountain house

log mountain house

The 10 Rules in designing Log House and 10 things you need to know , read on below.

Rule 1:

Let your heart dictates the Log house floor plan and the layout.

Log house floor Plan, open plan House Floor Plan

Log house floor Plan, open plan House Floor Plan

Rule 2:

Let a great prominent Architect -Andrew Jackson Downing (writing in the Horticulturist, 1848) say what de designs best, “Do not build your dwelling like temples, churches or cathedrals. Let them be characteristically, dwelling house. Let the cottage be a cottage.”

Log house floor Plan, open plan House Floor Plan

Log house floor Plan, open plan House Floor Plan


 The Log house floor plan don’t have to be ornamented with architectural facades, special doors, window or architectural pediments features and lastly avoid church like features like high pitched roofs or Stain glass window. Make it simple and use the natural logs to come out best by using shapes & forms of a simple house.

small log mountain house

small log mountain house

Modern house floor plans are in opposite other end of Log House floor plans. The spaces in Log houses are limited to small spans (distances between walls) unlike conventional house. You could use big spans log house but only with an extra premium cost.

Rule 3
Use simple porches, verandas, simple bay window, and simple doors, as  it is most natural existence of these elements, that brings honesty to the cottage , a rustic feeling to the cottage and enhances value to your house.

Rule 4

Use a porch to lead to the main entrance, not directly leading into the house without a porch.

small log mountain house

small log mountain house

Rule 5

Step roofs allow the snow in the temperate and rain in the tropic to fall of naturally and this keeps the load of the roof and more ever gives aesthetics to the Log house.

Log house

Molly Log house

Rule 6

Place the kitchen in the primary position –In the Front of the house as this in keep to the traditions of the Log house cottage ambiance.

Thached Roof Log house

Thatched roof Log House

Rule 7

Your cottage may be located near a river, sea side, pond, mountain height, or by a simple brook. Use these features into your cottage house plan aggressively integrating then into your architectural layout.

Log house

Thatched Log house

Rule 8

Avoid rich colors, use plain white where necessary or use stains where the material in its most natural colors are seen to keep iwth the traditions of a Log house, any departure would make the Log house as a modern ambiance .


Rule 9

Avoid large homes to keep the maintenance low and the ambiance of the cottage recreated with little upkeep. As the natural stones, and timbers need no cleaning but rather looks better in its natural existence.

See my website for some brilliant ideas for log homes and cottages home-  Keep the small layout open floor plan that will make it cozy and comfortable.

Rule 10

The landscape is the most important feature-
i)the fence,
ii)the stones-cape,
iii) the foot paths,
iv) the wine and its flowers-A home integrated well with the Forest in the Forest Trail*
v) the integrating of trees landscape, soft landscape with the natural forest, mountain or even the rocks of the water flow with the Log house floor plan creates the best setting.

The natural setting will draw the little birds, the butterflies, and the squirrels to rest in your patios, terraces and the verandas.

Keeping to these rules will help to achieve the dream house plans for your cottages designs.check out other house floor plans  …

Look out for some great design of Log Houses at, enjoy! call them for Architect’s advice if you have need help.


Prepared by Green Architect  Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapu;shnam



1* pg 98 The New Cottage Home by Jim Tolphin

6 Things you need to know on How to Choose Paint Colors for your house floor plans

There are 4 simple but Golden rules that you need to follow in selection of the color schemes. And that you are not blundering in the selection or playing safe in your selection of schemes.  Without proper training you may be left dumb folded as you are asked to select the colors. These steps will help you in spite of the lack of training in color selections.

Rule 1  to Choose Paint Colors for Ambiance:

Choose the right colors for the right Ambiance.

Choice of right colors creates the right mood and the right sentiments that are associated with colors, the following instances relate this idea.

  • In a bed room you might want to use dark blue as a way to allow some one to sleep off, as they lie in bed.
  • some area where the colors need to be bright and brilliant and others may
  • Choosing earthy colors are generally safe and you do not go wrong with them.
  • You may want to have a brilliant cheerful color for the kitchen .This will brighten the dreary and stressful work that goes in the kitchen.
  • Children’s room may be brilliant use of Primary colors as these are the colors they are attracted to when they are young. Children’s eyes not fully developed ,the primary colors draws great attention to them.Children have an affinity to Primary colors. as for these reasons children tend to see or attracted to  Primary.
  • Young girls love pink, use colors which they are drawn too, so work around colors which they are comfortable with.

Rule 2  to Choose Paint Colors :

Choose the right  colors for the right purpose as nature does, Color serves a function.,for instance

  • Attention
    The flowers are red to draw the attention of the insects for pollination.,The naturally red lips of a girl draw attention of the best of the young man.The ripen red colors of fruits draws attention to attract bird

Nature colors calms the nerves

  • Calm down the senses
    The sky is blue as to calm the nerves, relax and settle the mind and a  scene effect is created to rest the mind and the body.
  • Warning
    What are the functions of color in building? colors serves a function to warn, draw attention or even to thwart dangers.
    Warning of danger, Red blood as a sign of danger or orange in fire, calling for immediate attention and action. As it draws much attention the Red is a good color to ward off dangers..Red colors draw much attention or creates alarm and if used in excess can cause stress to the eyes .
colors of a butterfly

colors of a butterfly

The beautiful colors in a butterfly serves as an beautiful and mind settling sight in the garden , but if you stretch out it wings you will see a NOT a beautiful colors is rather a face of an ugly MONSTER to threaten the birds ad predators. Hence you will note that colors serve a function to protect the animals and helps it survival ability.

From the above, use of red in wall ,ceilings or entrance of the house draws much attraction .The color selection for rest of the house could use a less radiant color. My architectural house design tends to be rich in colors as way to create comfort and balance with nature.




Rule 3  on how to Choose Paint Colors :

Colors in nature are good examples to study, observe and apply them into our homes,check out our house floor plans how we apply these principles.

color combination in trees
  • The combination of green and brown with a dash of red, yellow or purples is a color found in trees and nature, the proportion of these colors are a large amount of green with less of dark brown with a dash of the color of flowers. if this proportion is reversed as a lot of red with less of green, this combination can be uncomfortable combinations, These are fantastic color scheme even for homes but some time these strong colors may be good for children s spaces but not for interiors. but selecting these schemes for the exteriors may be good idea..
  • Look carefully at your own face, whether your are racial background you may be note that the no of colors  in your face, Eyes, lips are not merely one or two colors but a multitude of color , Let look at your lips for now, you will note the upper lip is darker than the lower, there is border around the lips, the is another range of abut 4 colors merely on the lips , let alone the eyes and the shades of the hair etc.This suggest that when selecting colors keep a wide range of colors, of varying shades to create an interest int he building. this is a good way of selecting colors for the building exteriors and the interiors.
  • In nature the colors don’t exist in primary colors(red, blue and yellow) ,but neither secondary colors(missing of any of the 3 primary colors arise the purple, green, orange) but rather in tertiary colors(Tertiary  colors  are  combinations  of  primary  and  secondary  colors.  There are six tertiary colors; red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, and red-violet.)therefore in selecting the colors schemes select a wide  ranges of shade not in the primary range but in the tertiary range of colors.
site analysis for Green building

view of Green nature

  • Another example of the tertiary range is the range of tertiary  green in nature does not exist in on plain green, it has many shades of green .Just look at your garden of picture of a forest. Check out the, greens in the trees and leaves, the shades of green and the hues of green.



stone house

stone house

The Golden Rule 4  on how to Choose Paint Colors ::

Choose colors by Copying nature’s color schemes, they don’t go wrong..Check out the color schemes in the Butterflies and the Birds, the trees and the flowers and follow the patterns in nature and copy the protions if colors as they exist in nature and you would not go wrong

colors in flowers

colors in flowers

Concluding Golden Rule 5:

Many acceptable colors from nature are red and blue, brown and blue, white and black. A natural lining within the acceptable colors of nature with white or alternatively with black will enhance the color selection.

colors in flowers

multitude shades of colors in flowers

colors in flowers

colors in flowers

Final Concluding Rule 6

brown and blue

brown and blue

The final advise in selecting colors that there are colors that are modern and traditional choice.A traditional selection of colors will be gold with navy blue, or navy blue with mahogany brown, which is an acceptable colors selection even for this day and age.

earthy colors

earthy colors




navy blue and brown wih silver lining

navy blue and brown wih silver lining








A modern color range would be a shade of a color with a silver*( or alternatively a white lining ) lining in between .Another color range will be white, black and any shades of a color will be a successful color selection.

shades of blue with white and grey

shades of blue with white and grey

To make it really easy for the mind, use shades of grey with any Paint Colors  of your favorite choice and you won’t go wrong. eg

  • dark black, with grey and white lining
  • dark black, with grey and red
  • dark black, with grey and sliver /chrome lining
  • dark black, with grey and blue
  • dark black, with grey and blue
  • whites with shades of grey
  • whites with shades of blue
  • whites with shades of red




In choosing a house plan choose well with the above consideration, you may want to check out – for some great selection of Paint Colors choices in house floor plans and architectural house design.

Finally have great fun with Paint Colors selection and you can have lots of satisfaction in choosing the right colors and if you still lost with colors get a good bungalow architect to help out.Contact us at http://www.sda-architect.coAutosave_final french house 5111ft model


Prepared by Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam


*1 pg 12 ,”Houses of the Founding Fathers “ by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus III


What the basic Net Zero Energy Building Terms used in Design

Net Zero Green and sustainability

Photo Voltaic Panels

The main Net Zero Energy Building Terms  used in Designs are :

1,) Net Zero Energy Building Energy Models
are virtual e models of the building which is based on building physics and it uses a baseline model and compares the energy savings with the proposed model. Interpreting the results will make the difference. Read the 10 types of energy saving model in this blog

The Energy performances are to be controlled through-out the delivery process tracking for net zero energy performance?The entire design team should interface with the energy model for energy modeling to be successfully achieved as an end to the energy model.

Inputs such as OTTV, RTTV, air con loads, temperature set points , outside ambient temperatures, and details about systems will help the energy model to be accurate.A white box model/shoe box model helps to analyze the daylight and energy performances.  A white box model is a simple 3 d electronic model of a building without much details of the building.merely showing the overall shape of the building, and the insulation material will be shown.

These Net Zero Energy Building Energy Models can be created by Sketch up plug in such as  IES Virtual Environment and Energy Plus and Open Studio.This  model study is possible with VE( mass, window/wall ratios).In the future, the Thermal comfort models may be designed for designing purposes.Other Tools box that can be useful are–Weather Maker, sketch up, eQuest, IES Virtual Environment(VE), TRNSYS and THERM

The basic  Net Zero Energy Building Terms used in Designs

2.) Energy-energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
The types of Energy are – Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Mechanical Energy,Gravitational Energy, Nuclear Energy, Chemical Energy, Electricity Energy, Motion Energy, Thermal Energy, Radiant Energy and  Sound Energy.

3.) Law of Thermodynamics states that:
a)Energy cannot be created or destroyed, the sum energy of the universe is constant.
b)Law of Entropy, that energy flow from hot to cold

4.) Power is the rate of doing work or transfer of energy, P=W/t, SI for power is Joules per sec(Watt), a LED using 1watt diode uses 1-watt energy for 1hour

5.) Horse Power is to measure mechanical power,

6.) Btu is heat used to raise the temperature by 1 pound of water by 1 degree F.MBtu is the power to cool and heat water for air con.
Megawatt hour is electrical energy

7.) Photo-voltaic Solar panels convert radiant energy to electrical energy and thermal energy.
8.) pls read here Super Insulation,
9)   pls read here Solar Path
10) pls read here Renewable Energy
11) pls read here BAS Systems
12) pls read here Shading
13) pls read here Orientation of Building
14) pls read here  LED lighting
15.) pls read here Energy Bill
16,) pls read here Peak Loads
17.) pls read here  Conductance,Conductivity,Resistivity, Resistance

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Prepared by Green Architect Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,