Interlocking retaining-wall

Garden Interlocking retaining-wall

Retaining walls

The basic function of retaining wall is to retain the earth slopes by 90 degrees “slope,”

whereas the earth natural has sloping sides naturally ,self retaining at 30 to 60 degrees, the slope depends on the property of the spoil.

reposing of slope and retaining walls principles

reposing of slope and retaining walls

Principles and Terminology

The function of the retaining wall is to retain the earth vertically rather than let the earth lie in its natural slope ranging from 0 degrees slope to 60 degrees. If the profile of slope is created by cutting the slopes of the earth the slopes angles may even be about 60 degrees. If the ground are hard the profile may be even 90 degree vertical, but unfortunately not all ground are made of solid rock, there for a retaining wall serves the purposes of creating a vertical wall.

*For slopes that are created by filling of the earth, the slope may be 45 degrees to 30 degrees. Again this slope has to do with the character and properties of the earth.

Retaining wall

Typical Retaining wall

 retaining wall details

concrete retaining wall details

Design Considerations

The retaining walls helps to resist the overturning, slipping of the earth. In designing the retaining walls, the following considerations will have to be considered:

  1. Nature and type of soil
  2. Height of the retaining walls
  3. The type of material the retaining wall is constructed off( eg concrete, timber shoring, steel shoring, stone walls, brick walls , keystone walls, etc
  4. The amount of water flow, or water content in the soil. The water table height is necessary as this will increase lateral pressure on the retaining walls

Types of retaining walls

There are about 5 types of retaining walls, namely:

1.Brick retaining walls

Wall constructed using brick wall, such as drainage, or wall which are cement rendered with stucco or rough finishes to create a special effect externally.

2.Concrete walls

Walls that are constructed using concrete, the height of these wall can be high, the only set back using this walls are the cost of construction and the spaces needed for shoring when constructing these walls is much as it goes higher,

3.Timber walls

The walls are usually used for gardens and is restricted to low walls only and if the ground conditions has a high water table the water may not be good for the wall durability.

Garden timber retaining wall

Timber retaining wall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Pre-cast crib retaining walls

crib retaining-wall

crib retaining-wall details

Crib wall are easy to construct and as it is pre-cast, there is no curing time and constructed with great speed and great heights. The low crib walls are also some time decorative and useful for gardens.

structural walls Gabion retaining wall

Gabion retaining walls

4. Gab-ion walls

Walls that are constructed with a foundation, and gab-ion cages made of gi mesh is filled with rubble stones, and for garden walls the colored stones are filled within the cages and hence it become decorative in nature.

 

 

 

 

 

Gabion retaining wall green w

Green Gabion wall

5.Steel wall, sheet piling walls

shoring earth

Sheet Pile for shoring earth

Sheet pile are driven into the ground to shore up the earth, usually used temporarily for construction of concrete wall or trenches, laying pipes etc, in some instances the sheet piles may be left as a permanent feature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.Geo-textile walls

Wall are constructed using the geo textile materials, the wall is created by wrapping the earth by the edges of the wall in layers and the geo-textiles sheets while holding the edges of the wall, also anchors the earth from slipping.

Geo- textile walls by Tencate

Tencate Geo- textile walls

These wall can get to 20 to 60 feet high or even more if it is staggered, and these wall can be hydro seeding with grass to create a green wall. The geo textile material are anchored into the earth as to anchor the slope from slipping.

7.Green walls ,architectural designs

These walls are decorative in nature but may be used as thermal insulating wall on buildings, where the theme is eco green buildings or eco green homes.

green walls

beautiful green wall

green images

green images

interior green wall

green wall

green walls 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

block retaining wall
Garden block retaining wall details

 

What is Architecture ?

The question -What is Architecture ? is often discussed among students of Architecture endlessly. Students of Architecture spend a no of years trying to get the grips of the meaning of Architecture. In the early years the students of Architecture are confused trying to get a grips of it. In this article I wish to reduce this gap of bewildering students.

Architecture  is designing the building space in which we live in. Some define it too broadly as “Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music “. While there is  truth in this definitions, the space we live in and work in , are our Architectural spaces and as such, it is every thing about us- the Environment.

Net Zero Energy buildings

Traditional Malay House,

Architectural design is putting and making a composition of  the space in a logical meaningful way that makes sense. Thereby there is a indirect correlation ship with how music notes are composed. whereas in building the notes are features and elements borrowed from the past or created anew fulfilling a functional need. You can design spaces that are awful and it is poor taste. Good designs have the following intrinsic attributes:

  • Comfortable and Functional
  • Durable with time
  • Sustainable design with eco biodiversity green ecoconsiderations
  • High energy efficient buildings- read-NZEB
  • Creates an ambiance of the space that it was meant to be
  • A space that creates an emotional experience that leaves traces of memorable experience otherwise it is a shell.
  • Reasonable Costed and not flagrant, buildings of exorbitant cost can achieve anything that you want. A insensibly costly building is a sin.
  • Beautiful with the visually, makes the hears hears sound that are pleasing, allow light to flow and thereby making the space an memorable experience.
  • Defect Free, buildings may look wonderful in the beginning but may result in leakage, cracks and uninhabitable conditions is not good architecture, the right material not the right construction is not used.

    small log mountain house

    small log mountain house

If any of those above is not found in your Architectural designs, it may be due to a deliberate omission. As to achieve all may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building with great interiors has terrible structural design and high unreasonable cost. So good Architectural design -is all about making compromises along the way with cost, comforts, durability and other contending elements.

History of Architecture

Architecture is as old as History .When we talk of history of the past civilization, we talk of the architecture of the buildings. And buildings are the only remnants of the past. most record, evidences of the cultural activity is studied by the functional spaces of the buildings.the spaces such as baptismal fonts, altars of worship, temples of ancients, places of sacrifice, inscriptions of words on temple walls. Buildings of the past are mostly temples or buildings of worships. the remnants of homes are generally destroyed except for the remnants of the foundations such as in the Indus Civilizations. The civilizations of the past are :

  • Egyptian, Indian, Chinese
  •  Assyrian Period (before Babylon)*1
  • Mesopotamia (Babylon and Before), Ancient Americas (Mayan       …etc)
  • Persian Period
  • Greek Period
  • Roman Period*1
  • French(Gothic )*1
  • Georgian Architecture-The George Whyte’s House *2
  • England(Georgian, Tudor, Victorian)
  • Industrial
  • Modern
    Today buildings are high influenced by one another. For instance:
  1. the White House was patterned after the grandeur of the Roman Capitol
  2. The high rise buildings, in our cities are influenced by the new material manufactured during these periods after.
  3. The Gothic building followed after the Roman, whereas the Gothic (French) improvised from the Roman Arches and post & beam system to heavy arches(flying buttress) which supported higher and magnificent cathedrals.
  4. Chinese, Japanese Architecture while were developed independently but were not influence by the others neither influenced the world as we know of today. Except the Indian influenced spread to Angkor Watt, Malaysia, and Bali Indonesia, which is now the Bali architecture.
  • Post Modern Era
  • Green Sustainability and Net Zero Energy Buildings Movement
  • Zero Carbon emission designs, Carbon neutrality,ZeroCarbon
Carbon Trading

Green architect

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

Appendix:
*1 pg 538-566, volume A, World Book Encyclopedia

*2.pg 13 Houses of the Founding Fathers by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus 111

*3 pg 30 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*4 pg 73 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*5 pg.47 “The Swimming Pool” by Marta Baker

baths

baths with earth colored finishes

How to design bath?

 In designing floor plan for houses, bath rooms are the places of mediation and comfort even at the times of troubles and trials. The baths design should endeavor to create a peaceful ambiance for contemplation. And to settle the troubled mind, should there be one.These are the steps to design baths .

toliet with green

toilet with green

 

 

 

Step 1 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans


Get a plan of your Bath
.
Check the room sizes .Is it ,big enough to for the ambiance you are creating. For a master suite the size should be 8’x10’ or above. Any lesser dimension like 5’ x 7’will make the architectural design  look small .Good luxurious sizes of toilet may be as big as the master bed room -perhaps anything bigger that 14 ‘ft x 16 ft Get a grid paper over it and start planning your bath design.

 

Step 2 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans


Decide what you would like to place in the bath
What would you like to have a in a bath for fittings:

  • shower cubicle,
  • bath tub,
  • spa pool,
  • water closet,
  • bidet,
  • hand basin,
  • mirror, plants, and
  • all accessories and artifacts
  • cabinets
choose toilet fittings

choose toilet fittings

Step 3 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans


Now you have made up your mind, make a template of these fittings, start placing them around to get a feel for the space. If you feel the space a little squeezed up, get the Architect to correct the architectural design .Most Architects would have no clue as to your needs and wants. This is the time to be explicit with the architect. Select compatile warm earthy colored tiles or stones finishes for baths.

Step 4 to design bath for my new architectural floor plans


Some tips for designing the layout.

  • Design for great visual of toilet fittings as you make your entry from the bath door. Toilet fitting look good .The fitting against the backdrop of tiles will make the bath look wonderful
designed for viefws of the fitting from the entrance

designed for viefws of the fitting from the entrance

  • Good ventilation is essential. How much time, have we noticed that after we have taken a hot shower and the bath mirror is full of vapor condensation moist? Is that not irritating!
  • Have sufficient hooks for clothes change when going to bath etc.
  • Makes sure the bath is spacious for comfort.
  • Light color fitting match with wonderful elegance with light colored tiles. White fitting against dark colored tiles make a great combination.
  • Don’t forget the shaver point for men, soiled cloth baskets and waste disposal for waste to be included into the bath design.
  • Good lightnings will make the bath wonderful, wall lights will make it radiant
  • Additional features like view to the garden, or a small garden in the toilet or plant decoration will be a great pleasantry in bath designs. This will enhance values of your new architectural floor plan designs.
  • Curtains will be great idea to make Bath design have a cozy look.
  • Use files with great colors,tiles with textures

 

  • Design for greenery in the toilet as the green helps to de-stresses the minds and recovery of the soul
good window view for baths

good window view for baths

  • A good looking Mirror and with a marble table tops with glass to support toiletries may be pleasant.
  • Hide all stop cock, and taps behind flower vase or curtains or placed inside cabinets.
  • Lastly use proper floor finishes or else it will be slippery when wet.

Step 5 to design bath for my new architectural floor plan


In designing a toilet, you are check with NBKA, National Bath and Kitchen Association, for guide lines of bath room designs in the US. for the codes that it should be in compliance with the recommendations.For those living outside of the US, you are required to check with your local authorities that regulate the toilet designs requirements.

Check out our great House Floor plans design …they the best in the world wide websites

 

 

 

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Appendix:
*1 pg.165…”The new smart approach to bath design “.Creative Homeowner by Susan Maney
*2 pg.116…”The new smart approach to bath design “.Creative Homeowner by Susan Maney

How to use House Architecture in designing your dream home plan

 

An Architect is one who designs your house but an Architect unless he has a great burning passion about his work , then and only then can he realize the dream house plan into a dream home plan. This creation of a home unless worked with love .A house architecture are the principles an Architect to create a dream home .The house architecture constitutes of the following aspects of architectural styles.

 

 Architectural Styles

The architectural house style adopted today have a story to tell of the historical trends of the past. Some of our homes are influenced by the styles of the past movements and revivals of past architectural movements. The classical movement, Gothic, Neo-Classical, Gothic revival movement, Victorian, Tudor etc. and then the Modern, Post Modern and descontructivsm to today Green and Sustainable movement and the Net Zero Energy movement.

If you take time to look of the styles of the homes, you could see how the present home has the tell tales of the architectural movements of the past. The pediments, elements of the building which continues=d to be used even today, is a reflections of these past movements. The White House was built during the times when the Classical revival was current world over.Even as of today some of these features of the White House are copied into our bungalows .

Therefore houses today is telling of  the evolution of styles and end result of technological changes that has brought changes in our society -that is the development of new material and of construction have had a tremendous effect on the styles and design of our dream home plan today. The technogical invention of glass , iron technology and siicone technology has vastly infuenced the kind of office buildings of today.


The architectural house styles available for selection are :

  1. Colonial styles
  2. Classical styles
  3. Spanish styles
  4. Mediterranean styles
  5. French styles
  6. Ranch styles
  7. cottage styles
  8. Log homes styles
  9. Georgians styles
  10. Victorian styles
  11. Tudor styles
  12. Post-modern styles
  13. Modern styles
  14. organic styles
  15. Green architecture and sustainable building style
  16. Net Zero Energy building type
  • In choosing a style, for your dream home plan, you may want to choose from the past as they were and modernize the architectural layouts. you may need to suite architectural layout based on the availability of material locally and type of skilled craftsman. In some regions timber crafts men are available and in others mason workers are found in abundance and thereby you need to adapt accordingly otherwise the cost of the home will not within the affordable cost range.
  • Any attempt to recreate the buildings of the past to its exactness, may be  cost prohibitive. For instances the windows of building of the past are highly ornamented but present day houses are simplified to a great degree.
  • An interesting point is with regards to homes recreating homes of the past to make your dream home plan. has its problems with changes that have happened since such as– The houses of the Founding Fathers in the America had water-wells outside the home. The slaves  fetched water from the well for them to take cold showers.*1 This was so due to the situation of the times. Modifying the homes to suite for the modern day will requires the skills of an Bungalow Architect, do contact us if you need help with this regards at http://www.sda-architect.com

Today’s design is less simplified during the industrial revolution which warranted mass productions. New motto “Less is more” to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a …”by Architect Ludwig Mies

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Net Energy Building for Office Tower

Models for Net Zero Energy Buildings are used by  Net Zero Architects to calculate the amount of energy saving in the schematic stages of the design, which then are  used as a basis of energy  design control through out the design implementation stages.The model is a 3-D electronic model of a building, it is also a simplified model without much details of the building, which will help calculate the calculation intentions. It is refereed as a shoe box model. There are many types of models used in designing a Net Zero Energy Building design.There are 11 types of Energy Model, which are:

1.) Heat Transfer model for Net Zero Energy Buildings in House Floor Plans
Model show that show how the heat is transferred from the outside to the interiors of the building architectural floor plans.
2.) Lighting model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
Model showing how the day light penetrates top the interiors of the building and it helps Architect to design the light fittings in the building architectural layout outs.
The study of a the lighting levels through out the day would show the amount of light derived from the sun into the building and it helps the Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to design the additional lighting need ed to make the building sufficiently lighted up.
The amount of light that can be daylight harvested can also be studied, note the amount of light lux derived from the sun is about 100,000-140,000 lux in comparison to what is needed in the office space is only a merger 400lux, the potentials of day light harvesting has to be considered seriously in the light of the current worldwide needs.
3.) BIM Model-Building Information Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
A digital computerized model, which has information about clashes of the architectural and engineering elements, it provides information about costing, and when plug-in with time project management time line program, we are able to produce the physical model developing over the time line of the builder. The model can be used to study the thermal heat, energy model and total embodied energy of the building architectural plans. This is a great tool for architects and project management consultants.
4.) Energy Model  for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
–A simple model used for computerized computation of the energy usage in the building for every month or per year based on the climate conditions, and the building insulation and orientation for buildings. A designing tool, which is helpful to Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects in  choosing the mass proportion and selection of materials.
5.) Wind Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
– A simple model used for computerized computation of the direction of the wind into the building based on the openings of the buildings. It will help Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to decide where openings shall be created to enable wind to be harvested.
6.) CFD-for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
Computerized Fluid Dynamics is a study of the flow of air in  a  building, where the direction is established and the comfort is designed and it is a tool for Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to remove impediments to comfort. It helps the architects to design buildings of how the heated air flows, how the ventilation of air flows throughout the building.
7.) Massing and Study Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
-a model used by Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to evaluate the proportion, the shape , bulk , form aesthetics and how the form affects the environment.
8.) Thermal Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
– a model which reveal the sides of the building, where is heated up during the day. With the Thermal model the building designer may be able to decide how the building may be treated or insulated to keep the thermal heat from entering in to the building.
9.) Solar Path Model– for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
The path of the sun through out the year, and how it affects the building’s shadow and how it affects the sun’s rays into the window openings and show how the sun’s ray falls on the building and the building’s shadows is cast and how the neighboring building’s shadow affect the building that is being designed.
10.) Ventilation Model– for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
The study of wind and movement of air within the building

Contact us for your NZEB designs..we will be able to help you in the interest to secure the building in being less independent to the energy utility companies.check out our house floor plans.

Prepared by Net Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, Green Architect of http://www.sda-architect.com/