So you want to be an Architect

Architect

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

 Duties of Architects

An Architect is a professional who designs building plans. These plans are called schematic or conceptual drawings
 He will further go to seek the approval from the local authorities. By doing this, he will seek to comply with the Local By-laws
or the Building Codes. He will then produce tender drawings for the building.

Production of Drawing by Architects

The tender drawings are drawing which the tenderer  (contractors) are called in to bid for the project. The successful
bidder is awarded the construction of the building. The successful bidders or tenderer is called the contractor.

Architects produce the construction drawings. which may differ from the tender drawing. The construction
drawings are used by the contractor to construct the buildings.

Supervision of Construction by Architects

The Architects (architecht) supervises the construction of the building by the Contractor.He ensures the building
is built to the standard Codes of Practices in the country, In the US the AS(American Standards) are used. In the UK the
BS( British Standards) are used. In Japan , JAS(Japanese Standards) are used. These standards establish the quality
and workmanship standards the contractor is to abide in. These standards are specified by the Architect(archetec)
in the Tender document. The tender documents during the construction are called contract documents. He administers
the contract document during the construction. On completion of the construction. he issues certificates for completion of the
building. The accounts are settled called final accounts. The Final certificate and many other certificates are issued by the
Architect during the construction to the contractor.

During the construction. the Architect (architecs) instructs the Contractor to construct the building and administers
the contract.On completion. he seeks the consent of the Local authorities for issue of the Certificate of Fitness or
Certificate of Completion and compliance
.
The  Architect (archite) is bound by the jurisdictions of the contract.

Responsibility of Construction

The Architect’s responsibility for the building is until his death. If the building collapses or fails, he will be called upon,
is answerable for the collapse or failures.He uses consultants such as a Structural engineer, civil engineer, mechanical
engineer, electrical engineer, Quantity Surveyor, landscape architect,town planner or any specialist consultants to
help him complete the design and construction of the building. Other specialist consultants may be anEcologist
for biodiversity design, an Energy consultant for Net Zero Advice, an Acoustic consultant, a Geotechnical specialist,
Environmental Engineer, Traffic engineer,Surveyor, External lighting consultant, a Facade consultant , Interior designer etc.

Origin of the word “Architect”

 The word architect derives from the Latin architectus, a Greek  derivative for (arkhi-, chief +tekton, builder),
which means chief builder.
The builder and the designer were one and all which were some times referred to the Master
Builder or Master Architect.

Use of the word” Architect” by other professions

The terms architect  are used in other disciplines such as Landscape Architects, Naval architects and in
IT network architects  or software architects.The uses of the terms “architect”[3] and “landscape architect” are
legally protected for building purposes and  not for IT. However the concept of one who organizes the spaces
within the “IT world of spaces” is a derivative from Building Architect
.

Challenges of  Architects

When Architects says that he is practicing, he is providing the above services in a professional
capacity. He does not mean he is employed by another but rather that he is running his own company which is an
Architectural entity.Architecture or Architect has to be specially trained in many areas that he is usually more
useful only with time and not when he is out from the academic training from his university. A fresh engineer is
rather useful when he graduates, a medical doctor is able to prescribe medication to a patient when he is a fresh
graduate, but  not for an Architect. He is in his prime at a late age of his career.

Recent Trends of Architecture

The above duties are rather the rudiments of an Architect but a good architect is one who provides not merely
the design of buildings, but goes one step further to encompass the needs of the building owner and creates
an ambiance which is felt. The ambiance may be a feeling of emotions of the spaces. The feelings and emotions
are created by being in the space. Sounds of running water or falling water created. The natural lighting may be
reflected within the spaces to create a spiritual feeling of reverence. Textures of materials are used to denote
character of the spaces, or cultures. Eg the Rustic Balinese architecture uses materials in it most natural forms,
which is characteristic of the Balinese architecture. In recent years the Efficient use of Energy is a call for
the global weather changes to reduce the CO2 emission in the air. The loss of many hot spots biodiversity is called
for biodiversity in designs to save the heating planet.

  • Origin of Architects

Much have not been recorded in history about the original use of the word.It is Greek/Roman word for a builder.
But the design concept of building evolved with time.Initially building were built and often copied relentlessly
without much consideration to the environment or locality. But in more recent year much of the repetitive nature of
doing thing have been vigorously questioned . This was in line with the changes that took place in the West. In the
East, building was expensive and the construction was built for a purpose.Passive designs were incorporated in
Forts , water was used to cool and mitigate the  hot summers.The first Architects built the Pyramids, the temples
of India,the Great walls of China, ancient cities were planned in Grid lines in Mohen-Daro & Harrapa of the Indus
valley, the sunken Krishna City of India and the Incas of ancients Americas. Someone put together these buildings,
cities and structures .It would be inconceivable that it arose without some plans and designs.

  • Architecture

An Architect creates the Architecture,. The character of Architecture of the Roman, Indians,Chinese,Japanese,
Egyptian are different but they all use block work.This was the common materials that were used to create structures
for the purposes of its times. Most building were built as monuments to the deities of worship.The Chinese had during
the Sung Dynasty, volumes written about timber constructions and specifications.The Indus civilization came to an
abrupt end with remains tells the story of a great civilization that perished.
The Roman  world of Architecture derived from the Sumerian Architecture,which evolved from the Babylonian
architectures. The Babylonian Architecture influenced the Persian Architectures which influenced the Greek Architectures .
The Greeks civilization  influenced the Roman Architectures and Roman cultures.The Roman Architecture was called
the Classical Period.Roman architectural principles are adopted even in today’s world of Architecture. Read about the
Famous Architects Alive.

1)The Roman Classical Period

The first Architect of the Roman emperor was Vitruvius– he contribution was the design principles which influenced
the architectural principles we used today.The Romans discovered concrete and it was the technology of the times,
Much of the Roman building’s pillars and columns  were made of concrete.The re-bar was discovered by the American
merely 200 years ago. Therefore the limitation of concrete reduced the majesty of building built as of today.
Read History of Architectures,note the time line with a  comparison to other civilizations.

2)The Romanesque Period

3) Gothic Period

The Gothic Architecture bloomed soon after the Roman Classical Periods. The Father of the Gothic Architecture
was Abbot Suger was a principal person to lead the Architectural building of the times.The Gothic  structures were
used for church with aspired to the sky resembling worship to the God.

In a nutshell, the following were the Architectural movements that brought us, the Architecture today

4)  Baroque Period
5)  Classical Revival
6)  Gothic Revival
7)  Beaux-Arts
8)  Art Nouveau
9)  Modern Architecture
10)Art Deco
11) International Architecture
12)Deconstructionist Architecture

  • Practice of Architect

The Architect role is to design, provide estimates of the cost to construct the building, He may provide a Feasibility study,
showing the profitability of the building project. He may employ a QS to provide such information.He works with a team
of consultants to establish his design or specialism teams to complete the building.The client ( building owner)employs
the Architect to complete the task.His office is called the Architectural Patrice. Or he is said to be practicing architecture.

  • Design Role of Architect

The Architect designs the building from the Inception stage, to the Conceptual stage. These are the design stages that
proceed form here to the following Phases of Design:
1) Schematic Design Phase
2) Design Development Phase
3) Contract Documentation Phase
4) Contract Implementation and Management Phase 
At the Schematic Phase, the design and cost is produced and if the client is content with the design and the cost, he would
proceed to the Design Development Phase. Here he may submit the design to the local authorities for approval. On approval
he will week to the Contract Documentation Phases .During the Documentation Phase. all drawing are somewhat finalized
for the tender bidding. Lastly. the Contract Implementation Phase is when the contractor builds the design initially designed
by the Architect.

Architect may provide Supplementary Services in addition to the Basic Design Role. Such services may to in helping
the Client to select a suitable site.For instance. an Airport is large ndertaking and involves much cost. In this instance. the

options of selecting a suitable location shall be done by a team of Airport architects, Airport planners, Airport  engineers etc
to complete which location is the best option.

  • Means of Design

The means of design traditionally were to make a produce drawing in sketches or perspectives and sometimes a scaled model was
made, to produced to illustrate the concepts. The manual approach is replaced by computer-aided tools.The  Softwares used  to
design are Google Sketch up,Archicad, Revit,Rhinoceros,3-D Max, lumion etc.
The drafting boards, with T squares,Set squares and pens are have replaced with the drafting Softwares such as Autocad etc

  • Environmental role

Building are emit about 40% of the CO2 in the atmosphere . Architects now play an important role to reduce the CO2 emission in the air.
Building, cities and countries are called upon to reduce CO2 in the air by the UN. This will help to reduce the rapid deterioration of Global
warming.Green and Sustainable design or energy efficient buildings are now the call for Architects in this Environmental role. The
following are the environmental concerns for architects: Loss of Biodiversity,Zero Carbon Emissions,Green and Sustainability designs.

  • Construction Role

The Architect ensure the building he designed is built as per his plans.He is responsible until the building is built and handed over and
his responsibility remains with him until he dies.

  • Alternative Practice and Specializations

An architect has many options to work as a Project Manger for the client or contractor, He has options to be an Arbitrator ,adviser for buildings to a council, editor for magazines, write articles for newspaper on architectural matters, be a lecturer as an Architect.He may be employed by banks, City councils,Contractors, Developers or PWD ( Public Works Departments).

He may specialize in areas such as Architect Planner, Architect with Legal experience,Net Zero Energy Architect, Green Architect and  Architect cum Interior Designer.

  • Professional Requirements

An Architect professional requirement varying from country to country. Generally. a degree in Architecture may not be sufficient,
He may have to complete a post graduate studies till he is proficient in the business of Architecture.The accepted universities are listed by the Board of Architects in the country. He registers as a graduate Architect with the Board and he would be required to sit for an examination after 2-3 years as a graduate architect. On passing the examinations he then would be eligible to practice architecture in that country.With the TPPA is in place soon, a profession architect from one country is allowed to practice in the TPPA nations without inhibitions. For now most nations protect the architect from practicing in another nation.In the US, the architects register with AIA,American Institute of Architects to practice . In Australia they register with the AIA, Australian Institute of Architects and in Malaysia architects register with LAM, Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia to practice as Architects.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

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cracks in homes

cracks in buildings,http://sandra-markle.blogspot.my/2011/03/writing-docudramaspart-one-i-survived.html

How to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Cracks are common in buildings, one should not be alarmed to see cracks on the walls but sit back get the help by following these steps.

Cracks can be classified as  active or dormant.  Active cracks tend to get larger and changes with time.  Dormant cracks are those have settled and need no alarm , are of no danger, but should be not left not repaired as  moisture penetration may cause further  damages.

Cracks may be classified as structural cracks or non structural crack. If it is structural cracks, one has to take immediate actions to rectify the cracks and if it non structural cracks, you need to touch up the cracks. On may recognize the structural crack by the direction of the cracks.

Cracks can also be classified by  1) direction 2) width, and 3) depth of the crack.  They may be longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random.  They may range in size from less than 1 mm (fine) to between 1 and 2 mm (medium) to over 2 mm (wide).

The following are some of the types of crack occurring in concrete:

1. Pattern Cracks:  Fine openings in regular arrangements which due to inconsistent volume of concrete which is lower near the surface.

2. Checking cracks:  Small openings which are  closely and  irregular direction and space .

3. D-Cracks:  Fine cracks at close intervals in a progression with  random pattern.

4. Shrinkage cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, which are straight lines parallel to each other.

5.Plastic cracking:  Crack in unhardened concrete, appearing as diagonal lines in the top of a slab, caused by rapid drying of the concrete surface when curing additives are added.

6.Settlement cracksCaused by local restraining  around re-bar.

7.Structural cracks:Cracks that are a result of corrosion of the re-bar or structural over stressing or due to under designing of load.

8. Tension cracks:  Cracks which appear in concrete which are  caused by the stretching  of the reinforcement which are subjected to tension.

9.Rust cracks:  A serious cause of  structural cracks caused by insufficient rebar cover. The cover may crack off and the exposed rebar are subjected to rust.

10.Thermally-induced cracks:  Cracks appearing from stresses created by the diurnal of temperature changes over the day or seasonal.

11.Hairline Cracks:  Small cracks and fine crack lines that are randomly placed.

 

serious structural cracks

structural cracks that needs to be resolved

Cracks in brick walls(CP 111)

Cracks found in 215mm thick brick walls   by more than 25mm wide in a stepped or slanting cracks are not a concern as invariably it is deem to carry the load, as shown in test at the Building Research Establishment in England( provided it was not accompanied by considerable transverse movement). Also note the strength of a cavity wall is approximately 20% less that that of a 215mm brick wall.

The reasons for cracks in brick walls may be:
changes in ground conditions,
inadequate consolidation of ground,
shrinkage-able clay,
fast growing trees,
unsound materials(brick, mortar joints)
frost
|corrosion of iron and steel,
shringakage and expansion of walls during cold and hot seasons,
climbers, ivy , climbing rose, morning glory,etc., may cause damage to the walls,
mining subsidence of the foundations.

Cracks, of 1.5 to3.5mm wide are called fine cracks and need to be repaired but has not structural impairment, the repair may be replace the brick or fill it with mortar(1:1:6)pointing and refinish with wall paper or paint etc.

Structural cracks

Structural cracks are large cracks and will be either vertical lines or 45 degrees line cracks or any cracks that runs between the vertical lines to the 45 degree line. Structural cracks are further characterized by the cracks where you can place your finger (when you can insert a large coin) within the crack lines. Further more these cracks would crack the structural member of the building, such as the beams, columns, lintels etc

 

serious cracks

Diagonal cracks- almost always are structural in nature

 

Minor cracks are hairline cracks which are superficial that have no structural members are affected by the cracks. A quick check can be done by hacking the plastered surfaces or the rendered surfaces and check if the cracks are merely superficial on the plaster or rendered surfaces or it has affected the walls within and the structural members, if the structural members are cracked, than you need to find out if it a hair line crack or deep cracks that affects the structural integrity of the structure has been affected.

Hairline cracks in structure and on finished surfaces are acceptable and sometimes beyond the means to control them. Hairline cracks on structural members are considered normal, it may be caused by the heat that is caused by concrete when it is curing at  the construction stages.

Hairline cracks on finishes may be due to the cooling ( air conditioning)and heating during the mid day may causes it, and fissure cracks appear is considered quite normal. It may be caused by an incorrect mix of cement and sand in the plastering and rendering during constructions  or excessive exposure to the hot sun, in case the walls should have been constructed with expansion joints and movement joints to reduce these cracks

Hairline cracks

The mere size of the crack as described in the above para will decide the seriousness of the problems.

hairline cracks

hairline cracks, a minor concern

Minor cracks should be repaired and observed for further development of crack.

Step 1 in the Buildings

Identify the causation of crack to solve, this is necessary so as to avoid redundancy of rectification, and this will avoid a repetition of cracks even after the rectification of cracks were carried out.  Cracks and the following may be the causation or reasons  of the structural cracks.

  1.  The causes of structural cracks may be due to the foundation may have been under designing of the structure .
  2. The structure may have not been built structurally sound and the failures in the beams or columns may be the cause of the cracks. These may even so for cracks in drains, walls, roof slabs or ground floor slabs.The shoddy supervision of work or the lack of  materials compliance as per the specification may have been short changed
  3. There may be s sudden shifting in ground conditions such as shifting of underground streams, which may result in creating a vacuum, causing earth to collapse and thereby affecting the buildings ground structure.
  4. there may be due to vegetation or trees in the close neighborhood which roots may cause the house to be lifted up or the absorption of water by the roots may cause building lift
  5. The supervision of the ground compaction may have not been done correctly; this may results in cracks in the ground, beams and roads.Poor compaction of ground or earth sub grade or sub grade of the road may cause cracking, the sub grade should be compacted to 90-95% FDT( Field Density Test). non suspended ground floor slabs may also cracks due to lack of sufficient compaction, often the apron of a building may be seen to cracking cos of lack of sufficient defective compaction.

 

cracks on the road

cracks on the road winter quakes

The cracks may appear due to differential compression and expansion of the building m such as walls or road, the wall need to provided with expansion joints to allow for the expansions so that cracks are minimized, in colder countries such as Wisconsin the roads are often cracked due to these reason, Provisions for expansion should be provided to reduce these cracks during the winter seasonal quakes.

measuring and monitoring thecracks

measuring cracks for increasing width of crack size

Step 2 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Monitor the increase of the crack size, and  note the changes in the crack width. if the crack width is increasing. if it increasing in size , call the engineers to review the conditions. if the crack size is constant and you are safe to conclude the night mare is over and you can rectify it and sleep soundly.

 

 

Step 3 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

If the cracks are large and getting serious large and looks dangerous, get the advice of engineersA structural Engineer need to be called in, for inspection and for his advice should be sought on the nature of cracks and advice on the course of rectification action.Take the follow steps to resolve the cracks in your home.

Step 4 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Repair the major cracks and minor cracksThe existing cracks are be grooved widen along the crack line and filled up with a suitable sealant and closed up with fabrics mesh and plastered and repainted. A simpler method to repair hairline cracks is to fill it up with a filler and repaint the surfaces or redo the finishes of possible.

Step 5 to solve the Cracks in the Buildings

Watch out for the re occurrence of cracks, if the cracks appears, you need to evaluate the situation for reasons for these phenomenon.On repairing the cracks should be monitored for any cracks redeveloping in the future.

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,Eco Green Architect & Net Zero Energy Architect

http://www.sda-architect.com/

How to use House Architecture in designing your dream house plans

 

An Architect is one who designs your house but an Architect unless he has a great burning passion and a great love for his work and the people he designs for, can he realize the house into a home. This creation of a home from with love is refereed to as  house architecture. The house architecture constitutes of the following aspects of architectural design

  1. A) Styles

The architectural house style adopted today have a storey to tell of the past. It tells the evolution of styles with time due to changes in our society such as development of new material and sciences of construction for instance:

  • The architectural house style available for selection are of the
  • In choosing a style you may want to choose from the past as they were and modernize the styles and layouts, to suite the availability of material and skilled craftsman that may have long lost.
  • The houses of the Founding Fathers in the America had water-wells outside the home. The slaves will fetch water from the well for them to take cold showers.*1
  • Any attempt to recreate the buildings of the past may be skilled labor cost prohibitive. For instances the windows of building of the past are highly ornamented but present day houses are simplified to a great degree.
  • Today’s design is less simplified during the industrial revolution which warranted mass productions. New motto “Less is more” to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a …”by Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. As such houses are designed with less pediments and ornaments on the facades of building as they did in the past.
  • Buildings today are built with a purpose, rather than to copy fully from the standard building of the past
  1. B) Layout – Cultural and Lifestyle for house architecture
  • A good layout is one that best suites your lifestyle and what you can afford.
  • If you love the river views, than design your architectural house styles to optimize the views from the Living, Master suite, etc.
  • If you love the summer heat provide a patio, balcony or terrace to sun bathing.
  • If you love to party outside have a great BBQ set with a large indoor and out door dinning space.

The house layout is best described by your love for life and your taste.

  1. C) Comfort for house architecture
  • Home and the Cottage –two words most suggestive of comfort in the English language…
  • Comfort is not relative and fleeting. Homes, well designed can be comfortable and removal of stressing with the sound of birds, the water fall, the ruffles of the winds should be employed to distress the stressed mind.
  • Design your dream house for comfort, read on..
  1. D) Landscape for house architecture
  • The landscape well done, weathers comfort and even a sense of comfort to the eyes.
  • As Andrew Jackson Downing, a cottage prominent American architect said. “… no architectural decoration however beautiful or costly can give the same charm of truthful decoration to a cottage as flowering vines and creepers…vine on a rural cottage always express domesticity and of the heart”.
  • It reduces the perceived scale of the house, it reduces the heighten effect to a comfortable on.*3
  • smart landscaping reduces energy consumption in homes and buildings.

In choosing a house plan choose well with the above consideration, you may want to check out – by http://www.sda-architect.com/

for some great house floor plans and house architecture.

Check our some great house architectures we have created within our web site at: log house floor plans, cottage house floor plans, Modern house plans, Malay house floor plan, log house floor plans, etc…

 

Appendix

*1 pg. 20 ,”Houses of the Founding Fathers “ by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus III

*2 Willian H Rantett( writing in The Architect “, 1851)

*3 pg. 228 “The New Cottage homes “by Jim Tolpin”

 

Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

http://www.sda-architect.com/

Neo classical

Neo Classical Architecture

Neo Classical Architecture, Photo taken from Wikipedia-the free encyclopedia

 

What is Neo Classical Architecture?

It evolved during the 18th Century .Much of its influence has been felt in America and world over. The following are some of the buildings of distinction that were remarkably been influenced by this period:

  • Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • White House (Washington, D.C.) read on
  • Massachusetts State House (Boston, Massachusetts} read on
  • Washington Arch (New York, New York) read on
  • Beacon Hill Memorial Column (Boston, Massachusetts) read on
  • Second Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Bank of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Philadelphia Stock Exchange (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) read on
  • Monumental Church (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Virginia State Penitentiary (Richmond, Virginia) read on
  • Baltimore Basilica (Baltimore) read on

The characteristics  of Neo Classical Architecture is:

  • its planar qualities
  • Projections and recessions
  • sculptural bas-reliefs
  • Tablets or panels.

 

Prepared by: http://www.sda-architect.com/   Net Zero Architect Perumal

What are the Characteristics of  houses in Tudor Architecture?
The Tudor Architecture was beautiful and elegant with the impressions of the  black and white structural lattice framing on the facade. The semi exposed beams and vertical structural members accentuated the beauty of the house.This style has been popular among the modern homes where the elements have been modified to suite the modern times. In is very popular in Asia to which vividly symbolizes English homes.

  • the In Tudor Architecture the houses are made from a wooden framework of beams.
  • The timber beams in Tudor Architecture are uneven because they were cut by hand rather than by machine.
What is Tudor Architecture?

Tudor architecture

The  above Building mimics  the Tudor Architecture styles  where the timber works are replaced with cement or timber external lining to resemble Tudor architecture. It is treated to look akin to the Tudor Architecture, whereas during the times of Tudor the beam were serves as a structural member.

Today the architects , even the famous living Architect, continue to use the above features in recreating the architecture of old.

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

 

It was period during the time of King George’s Rule in England from 1720 to1840. It is during the rule of George I , George II , George III , and George IV.

What are the characteristics of houses styles and building in the Georgian Architecture?

  • Pillars in the front of the house.
  • Square symmetrical
  • A paneled front door in the center
  • Tiled hipped roofs (A roof which slopes upward from all the sides of a building.)
  • The roof was often hidden behind a parapet
  • low wall built around the edge of the roof
  • Fan light above the door. ,Paired chimneys
Georgian Architecture

Sash Windows of the Georgian Architecture

 

  • Sash windows (windows which slide up and down)
  • Panel front door centered, topped with rectangular windows (in door or as a transom) and capped with an elaborate crown/ entablature supported by decorative pilasters
  • Cornice with decorative moldings,
  • Multi-pane windows were symmetrically vertical or horizontal
  • Roof: are Side-gabled roof , Gambrel roof and Hipped roof
  • Chimneys on both sides of the home
  • A portico in the middle of the roof with a window in the middle
  • Small 6-paned sash windows ,dormer windows in the upper floors,
  • Large windows with 9 or 12 panes on the main ground floor

 

Prepared by Net Zero Architect Perumal

The Victorian Architecture is refereed to the architecture during the reign of Queen Victoria.

potrait of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria

The Victorian period is the time when Queen Victoria ruled Britain from 1837 to 1901.During this period new inventions in Railway and manufacturing process made building materials manufactured available more abundantly every where in England because of cheaper cost of transport..

This helps industries develop, due to rising demands and building material were    made available cheaply, to all over England, such as timber, bricks and slate. This is the era which Charles Dickens describes the city of London with vivid details in the Tale of two cities ( London and Paris) and in The Great Expectation.

The working population in the countryside was still living in tiny cottages, hovels and shacks .. In urban area, the poor people lived in terraced houses.Terraced Houses were made of brick walls  and simple brick sills and chimneys with window that constituted the  architecture of that  time.

 

Victorian Architecture
Terrace housing during the Victorian era

 

the Victorian Architecture
Villa reflecting the Victorian Architecture

 Victorian Architecture

public housing in town reflecting the Victorian Architecture

 

The wealthy people in Victorians preferred villas ( not the same as Roman villas), The middle classes lived in superior terraces with gardens in the rear of the house and in the front of the houses. What where the character tic features of Victorian Houses, Villa.

The Terrace House which was propagated widely as an acceptable  mode of housing  in the countries ,which Britain were ruled all over the world were a derivative of the Victorian era.  It constituted the following character:

  • Red face Brick
  • High window with stone borders
  • Pediments over the window
  • Arched doors ways

It should be noted it was during the Victorian Era the British empire expanded all over the world and the inhabitants of the British empire imbibe the Victorian education, which help to spread the knowledge of laws, English, Christianity,sciences, geography, engineering,land surveying, town planning, public administration. etc which educated the world at large. Roads and railway Infrastructures  were constructed which helped to develop the nations such as Singapore, Israel, Middle East, India and Africa. After the World War II it retracted from governing the Empire and Independence given to all the Commonwealth nations, it had shrunk being a super power.

The Gothic period lasted from the 12th to the 16th Century. It started in the late Medieval and

ended at the beginning of the Renaissance.

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture

Its architecture evolved from Romanesque, of Roman Influences of architecture.

 

It was characterized by:

  • Ribbed pointed arches,
  • ribbed vaults, and
  • High buttress.
  • High windows permeating light inside building
  • Tall building with greater span and any other period of time
During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

This allowed the building unlike the Roman building to be larger and taller. The span of building were greater and the spaces inside auspicious. Lights were allowed in at high window an allowed the bright special divine radiance inside the buildings.

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

During the Gothic revival the Salt Lake temple was built

 The houses are traditionally timber house plans. Some of oldest houses dated from the 16th Century. These houses are now in museums which is an object of study by craftsman and builders.

The plan of the house and how it is used also remain traditional. Only the kitchen and sometimes the place for eating meals are modern; the other rooms, for working, sleeping and social intercourse, remain true to tradition. The floor is covered with straw mats (tatami); the family kneels at low tables to eat and drink, and they sleep on the floor as from time immemorial. <4>

Thus living in the Japanese style broadly implies adherence to tradition, just as we would do if we dwelt in modified chalets in our central European cities. The architect, as a ‘creative’ designer, has no part to play in the traditional housing of Japan. The craftsman designs the house according to ancient traditional rules, as was the case for centuries in our mountain valleys.

The Design of The Traditional Japanese House
The Traditional Japanese House has view into the garden, the house is flexible , the strength  of the house and the beauty of the house is amazingly well built all together that creates a wonderful and comfortable ambiance as one enters into the The Traditional Japanese House. The comfortable feeling is what Architects try to create, a feeling that put you to ease as you are inside the home.

 a)Views into the garden

The houses are design for views in to the garden, balconies are surrounded with cuts the sun and the harsh weather in the homes. Balconies are essentially a major feature of the Japanese House.

b) Flexibility

The partition made of light material to allow flexibility of the use of room. A living room could be the dining, or even a common family area. Sliding Shoji Screens are common.

 c)Strength of structured

The structure of the timber that is used of extra strength to endure the weathering and the earthquakes that Japan is so frequently subjected too. While the structure is robust the internal materials are light weight using paper, bamboo, straw and timber.

d)Beauty

The elegance and grace of the house is aesthetically designed to bring a simplistic view of the house with little furniture which helps the mind to likewise be simple and functional in thinking and living.This helps to think straight and live straight disciplining the mind and the body.

The Japanese House Plans
As you enter into the house, the shoes are removed at the Genkan( Hall way) and slippers are worn .

 Architectural Insights
Economy and brief of material used is maintained and the use of light passing into spaces via translucent material is common.

The perfect proportions of squares are used relating to the tatami mats.

Haiku timber House
Haiku is a type of poetry, which means each poem contains seventeen syllables–frequently in the order of 5, 7, 5 syllables .The theme of haiku poetry is the relationship and interaction between nature and humankind.Haiku says that form and function are one. This philosophy was adopted by Frank Lloyd Wright. Haiku Houses have many of the features of their Bungalows.It is elegant and beautiful, priceless in its inherent peace, tranquility and harmony.

The Traditional Japanese House were in many way designed for Net Zero Energy Building, firstly  the house were made of timber which was a naturally abundant and the veranda  were thermal zones which kept the heat away during the summers the smart landscaping  kept the heat  away during summer and the homes were lifted above the ground to keep the heat away from the ground which air below the floor was a good form of insulation, the interiors were made of paper which was an excellent material which insulated the interiors form gaining heat nor losing heat during winters, with respect to Green sustainability the choice of timber could never get better.

Before leaving the site, please check out for our boutique designs for Japanese floor plans at : http://www.sda-architect.com/

And enjoy.

Thank you

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam: http://www.sda-architect.com/

Salary of Architect is pittancewhat is Architect’s Salary all over the world, on browsing the website and listening to architects, I have listed their salary in a table for ease of comparison. And an interesting revelation is found that the world’s economy is some what  is depressed except in a few growth centers and the growing feeling, which  is they are not paid well.

Salaries of Architect’s Around the world per month in USD
The Salaries of Architect’s Around the world including the US  is summaries here below,  this info is  derived from a survey  into the web, which I put it together as a matter of interest.I have come to know that the work the Architects engage in a laborious and a extremely stressful work and yet the salaries  around the world is not a positive one. It seems after many years of studies and after many years of hard work the Architects are paid much below the average salaries of other professions.Please see below the facts :

Salaries Around the world per month in USD

Country Graduate Architect Experienced Architect
USA{Albuquerque} 3600 8000
Ireland 1500 4000
Kosovo 450 900
Malaysia 800 4000
Bangladesh 300 750
Kenya 450
Mexico 500 1000
Germany 2300
Croatia 200
Japan 5000
Saudi 1500 4700
Canada 2800
Hong Kong 2800 5000
India 350 1000
Singapore 2500 6000
South Africa 1200
Israel 2000 4000
Serbia Belgrade 500
Indonesia 350
Brazil 1150 4000
Vienna 2200
Argentina 500
Poland 450 2200
China {Shenzhen} 1200 3000
Colombia 2200
Russia 1800
UAE 1500 4500
Kuwait 10,600
Qatar 4600

What is Architecture ?

The question -What is Architecture ? is often discussed among students of Architecture endlessly. Students of Architecture spend a no of years trying to get the grips of the meaning of Architecture. In the early years the students of Architecture are confused trying to get a grips of it. In this article I wish to reduce this gap of bewildering students.

Architecture  is designing the building space in which we live in. Some define it too broadly as “Architecture is “, others define it as “Architecture is Frozen music “. While there is  truth in this definitions, the space we live in and work in , are our Architectural spaces and as such, it is every thing about us- the Environment.

Net Zero Energy buildings

Traditional Malay House,

Architectural design is putting and making a composition of  the space in a logical meaningful way that makes sense. Thereby there is a indirect correlation ship with how music notes are composed. whereas in building the notes are features and elements borrowed from the past or created anew fulfilling a functional need. You can design spaces that are awful and it is poor taste. Good designs have the following intrinsic attributes:

  • Comfortable and Functional
  • Durable with time
  • Sustainable design with eco biodiversity green ecoconsiderations
  • High energy efficient buildings- read-NZEB
  • Creates an ambiance of the space that it was meant to be
  • A space that creates an emotional experience that leaves traces of memorable experience otherwise it is a shell.
  • Reasonable Costed and not flagrant, buildings of exorbitant cost can achieve anything that you want. A insensibly costly building is a sin.
  • Beautiful with the visually, makes the hears hears sound that are pleasing, allow light to flow and thereby making the space an memorable experience.
  • Defect Free, buildings may look wonderful in the beginning but may result in leakage, cracks and uninhabitable conditions is not good architecture, the right material not the right construction is not used.

    small log mountain house

    small log mountain house

If any of those above is not found in your Architectural designs, it may be due to a deliberate omission. As to achieve all may be difficult and some times impossible. For instance the most beautiful building with great interiors has terrible structural design and high unreasonable cost. So good Architectural design -is all about making compromises along the way with cost, comforts, durability and other contending elements.

History of Architecture

Architecture is as old as History .When we talk of history of the past civilization, we talk of the architecture of the buildings. And buildings are the only remnants of the past. most record, evidences of the cultural activity is studied by the functional spaces of the buildings.the spaces such as baptismal fonts, altars of worship, temples of ancients, places of sacrifice, inscriptions of words on temple walls. Buildings of the past are mostly temples or buildings of worships. the remnants of homes are generally destroyed except for the remnants of the foundations such as in the Indus Civilizations. The civilizations of the past are :

  • Egyptian, Indian, Chinese
  •  Assyrian Period (before Babylon)*1
  • Mesopotamia (Babylon and Before), Ancient Americas (Mayan       …etc)
  • Persian Period
  • Greek Period
  • Roman Period*1
  • French(Gothic )*1
  • Georgian Architecture-The George Whyte’s House *2
  • England(Georgian, Tudor, Victorian)
  • Industrial
  • Modern
    Today buildings are high influenced by one another. For instance:
  1. the White House was patterned after the grandeur of the Roman Capitol
  2. The high rise buildings, in our cities are influenced by the new material manufactured during these periods after.
  3. The Gothic building followed after the Roman, whereas the Gothic (French) improvised from the Roman Arches and post & beam system to heavy arches(flying buttress) which supported higher and magnificent cathedrals.
  4. Chinese, Japanese Architecture while were developed independently but were not influence by the others neither influenced the world as we know of today. Except the Indian influenced spread to Angkor Watt, Malaysia, and Bali Indonesia, which is now the Bali architecture.
  • Post Modern Era
  • Green Sustainability and Net Zero Energy Buildings Movement
  • Zero Carbon emission designs, Carbon neutrality,ZeroCarbon
Carbon Trading

Green architect

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

 

Appendix:
*1 pg 538-566, volume A, World Book Encyclopedia

*2.pg 13 Houses of the Founding Fathers by Hugh Howard and Roger Straus 111

*3 pg 30 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*4 pg 73 Foster and Partners by te Neues

*5 pg.47 “The Swimming Pool” by Marta Baker

How to use House Architecture in designing your dream home plan

 

An Architect is one who designs your house but an Architect unless he has a great burning passion about his work , then and only then can he realize the dream house plan into a dream home plan. This creation of a home unless worked with love .A house architecture are the principles an Architect to create a dream home .The house architecture constitutes of the following aspects of architectural styles.

 

 Architectural Styles

The architectural house style adopted today have a story to tell of the historical trends of the past. Some of our homes are influenced by the styles of the past movements and revivals of past architectural movements. The classical movement, Gothic, Neo-Classical, Gothic revival movement, Victorian, Tudor etc. and then the Modern, Post Modern and descontructivsm to today Green and Sustainable movement and the Net Zero Energy movement.

If you take time to look of the styles of the homes, you could see how the present home has the tell tales of the architectural movements of the past. The pediments, elements of the building which continues=d to be used even today, is a reflections of these past movements. The White House was built during the times when the Classical revival was current world over.Even as of today some of these features of the White House are copied into our bungalows .

Therefore houses today is telling of  the evolution of styles and end result of technological changes that has brought changes in our society -that is the development of new material and of construction have had a tremendous effect on the styles and design of our dream home plan today. The technogical invention of glass , iron technology and siicone technology has vastly infuenced the kind of office buildings of today.


The architectural house styles available for selection are :

  1. Colonial styles
  2. Classical styles
  3. Spanish styles
  4. Mediterranean styles
  5. French styles
  6. Ranch styles
  7. cottage styles
  8. Log homes styles
  9. Georgians styles
  10. Victorian styles
  11. Tudor styles
  12. Post-modern styles
  13. Modern styles
  14. organic styles
  15. Green architecture and sustainable building style
  16. Net Zero Energy building type
  • In choosing a style, for your dream home plan, you may want to choose from the past as they were and modernize the architectural layouts. you may need to suite architectural layout based on the availability of material locally and type of skilled craftsman. In some regions timber crafts men are available and in others mason workers are found in abundance and thereby you need to adapt accordingly otherwise the cost of the home will not within the affordable cost range.
  • Any attempt to recreate the buildings of the past to its exactness, may be  cost prohibitive. For instances the windows of building of the past are highly ornamented but present day houses are simplified to a great degree.
  • An interesting point is with regards to homes recreating homes of the past to make your dream home plan. has its problems with changes that have happened since such as– The houses of the Founding Fathers in the America had water-wells outside the home. The slaves  fetched water from the well for them to take cold showers.*1 This was so due to the situation of the times. Modifying the homes to suite for the modern day will requires the skills of an Bungalow Architect, do contact us if you need help with this regards at http://www.sda-architect.com

Today’s design is less simplified during the industrial revolution which warranted mass productions. New motto “Less is more” to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a …”by Architect Ludwig Mies

Prepared by Eco Green Architect and Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam