So you want to be an Architect

Architect

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

 Duties of Architects

An Architect is a professional who designs building plans. These plans are called schematic or conceptual drawings
 He will further go to seek the approval from the local authorities. By doing this, he will seek to comply with the Local By-laws
or the Building Codes. He will then produce tender drawings for the building.

Production of Drawing by Architects

The tender drawings are drawing which the tenderer  (contractors) are called in to bid for the project. The successful
bidder is awarded the construction of the building. The successful bidders or tenderer is called the contractor.

Architects produce the construction drawings. which may differ from the tender drawing. The construction
drawings are used by the contractor to construct the buildings.

Supervision of Construction by Architects

The Architects (architecht) supervises the construction of the building by the Contractor.He ensures the building
is built to the standard Codes of Practices in the country, In the US the AS(American Standards) are used. In the UK the
BS( British Standards) are used. In Japan , JAS(Japanese Standards) are used. These standards establish the quality
and workmanship standards the contractor is to abide in. These standards are specified by the Architect(archetec)
in the Tender document. The tender documents during the construction are called contract documents. He administers
the contract document during the construction. On completion of the construction. he issues certificates for completion of the
building. The accounts are settled called final accounts. The Final certificate and many other certificates are issued by the
Architect during the construction to the contractor.

During the construction. the Architect (architecs) instructs the Contractor to construct the building and administers
the contract.On completion. he seeks the consent of the Local authorities for issue of the Certificate of Fitness or
Certificate of Completion and compliance
.
The  Architect (archite) is bound by the jurisdictions of the contract.

Responsibility of Construction

The Architect’s responsibility for the building is until his death. If the building collapses or fails, he will be called upon,
is answerable for the collapse or failures.He uses consultants such as a Structural engineer, civil engineer, mechanical
engineer, electrical engineer, Quantity Surveyor, landscape architect,town planner or any specialist consultants to
help him complete the design and construction of the building. Other specialist consultants may be anEcologist
for biodiversity design, an Energy consultant for Net Zero Advice, an Acoustic consultant, a Geotechnical specialist,
Environmental Engineer, Traffic engineer,Surveyor, External lighting consultant, a Facade consultant , Interior designer etc.

Origin of the word “Architect”

 The word architect derives from the Latin architectus, a Greek  derivative for (arkhi-, chief +tekton, builder),
which means chief builder.
The builder and the designer were one and all which were some times referred to the Master
Builder or Master Architect.

Use of the word” Architect” by other professions

The terms architect  are used in other disciplines such as Landscape Architects, Naval architects and in
IT network architects  or software architects.The uses of the terms “architect”[3] and “landscape architect” are
legally protected for building purposes and  not for IT. However the concept of one who organizes the spaces
within the “IT world of spaces” is a derivative from Building Architect
.

Challenges of  Architects

When Architects says that he is practicing, he is providing the above services in a professional
capacity. He does not mean he is employed by another but rather that he is running his own company which is an
Architectural entity.Architecture or Architect has to be specially trained in many areas that he is usually more
useful only with time and not when he is out from the academic training from his university. A fresh engineer is
rather useful when he graduates, a medical doctor is able to prescribe medication to a patient when he is a fresh
graduate, but  not for an Architect. He is in his prime at a late age of his career.

Recent Trends of Architecture

The above duties are rather the rudiments of an Architect but a good architect is one who provides not merely
the design of buildings, but goes one step further to encompass the needs of the building owner and creates
an ambiance which is felt. The ambiance may be a feeling of emotions of the spaces. The feelings and emotions
are created by being in the space. Sounds of running water or falling water created. The natural lighting may be
reflected within the spaces to create a spiritual feeling of reverence. Textures of materials are used to denote
character of the spaces, or cultures. Eg the Rustic Balinese architecture uses materials in it most natural forms,
which is characteristic of the Balinese architecture. In recent years the Efficient use of Energy is a call for
the global weather changes to reduce the CO2 emission in the air. The loss of many hot spots biodiversity is called
for biodiversity in designs to save the heating planet.

  • Origin of Architects

Much have not been recorded in history about the original use of the word.It is Greek/Roman word for a builder.
But the design concept of building evolved with time.Initially building were built and often copied relentlessly
without much consideration to the environment or locality. But in more recent year much of the repetitive nature of
doing thing have been vigorously questioned . This was in line with the changes that took place in the West. In the
East, building was expensive and the construction was built for a purpose.Passive designs were incorporated in
Forts , water was used to cool and mitigate the  hot summers.The first Architects built the Pyramids, the temples
of India,the Great walls of China, ancient cities were planned in Grid lines in Mohen-Daro & Harrapa of the Indus
valley, the sunken Krishna City of India and the Incas of ancients Americas. Someone put together these buildings,
cities and structures .It would be inconceivable that it arose without some plans and designs.

  • Architecture

An Architect creates the Architecture,. The character of Architecture of the Roman, Indians,Chinese,Japanese,
Egyptian are different but they all use block work.This was the common materials that were used to create structures
for the purposes of its times. Most building were built as monuments to the deities of worship.The Chinese had during
the Sung Dynasty, volumes written about timber constructions and specifications.The Indus civilization came to an
abrupt end with remains tells the story of a great civilization that perished.
The Roman  world of Architecture derived from the Sumerian Architecture,which evolved from the Babylonian
architectures. The Babylonian Architecture influenced the Persian Architectures which influenced the Greek Architectures .
The Greeks civilization  influenced the Roman Architectures and Roman cultures.The Roman Architecture was called
the Classical Period.Roman architectural principles are adopted even in today’s world of Architecture. Read about the
Famous Architects Alive.

1)The Roman Classical Period

The first Architect of the Roman emperor was Vitruvius– he contribution was the design principles which influenced
the architectural principles we used today.The Romans discovered concrete and it was the technology of the times,
Much of the Roman building’s pillars and columns  were made of concrete.The re-bar was discovered by the American
merely 200 years ago. Therefore the limitation of concrete reduced the majesty of building built as of today.
Read History of Architectures,note the time line with a  comparison to other civilizations.

2)The Romanesque Period

3) Gothic Period

The Gothic Architecture bloomed soon after the Roman Classical Periods. The Father of the Gothic Architecture
was Abbot Suger was a principal person to lead the Architectural building of the times.The Gothic  structures were
used for church with aspired to the sky resembling worship to the God.

In a nutshell, the following were the Architectural movements that brought us, the Architecture today

4)  Baroque Period
5)  Classical Revival
6)  Gothic Revival
7)  Beaux-Arts
8)  Art Nouveau
9)  Modern Architecture
10)Art Deco
11) International Architecture
12)Deconstructionist Architecture

  • Practice of Architect

The Architect role is to design, provide estimates of the cost to construct the building, He may provide a Feasibility study,
showing the profitability of the building project. He may employ a QS to provide such information.He works with a team
of consultants to establish his design or specialism teams to complete the building.The client ( building owner)employs
the Architect to complete the task.His office is called the Architectural Patrice. Or he is said to be practicing architecture.

  • Design Role of Architect

The Architect designs the building from the Inception stage, to the Conceptual stage. These are the design stages that
proceed form here to the following Phases of Design:
1) Schematic Design Phase
2) Design Development Phase
3) Contract Documentation Phase
4) Contract Implementation and Management Phase 
At the Schematic Phase, the design and cost is produced and if the client is content with the design and the cost, he would
proceed to the Design Development Phase. Here he may submit the design to the local authorities for approval. On approval
he will week to the Contract Documentation Phases .During the Documentation Phase. all drawing are somewhat finalized
for the tender bidding. Lastly. the Contract Implementation Phase is when the contractor builds the design initially designed
by the Architect.

Architect may provide Supplementary Services in addition to the Basic Design Role. Such services may to in helping
the Client to select a suitable site.For instance. an Airport is large ndertaking and involves much cost. In this instance. the

options of selecting a suitable location shall be done by a team of Airport architects, Airport planners, Airport  engineers etc
to complete which location is the best option.

  • Means of Design

The means of design traditionally were to make a produce drawing in sketches or perspectives and sometimes a scaled model was
made, to produced to illustrate the concepts. The manual approach is replaced by computer-aided tools.The  Softwares used  to
design are Google Sketch up,Archicad, Revit,Rhinoceros,3-D Max, lumion etc.
The drafting boards, with T squares,Set squares and pens are have replaced with the drafting Softwares such as Autocad etc

  • Environmental role

Building are emit about 40% of the CO2 in the atmosphere . Architects now play an important role to reduce the CO2 emission in the air.
Building, cities and countries are called upon to reduce CO2 in the air by the UN. This will help to reduce the rapid deterioration of Global
warming.Green and Sustainable design or energy efficient buildings are now the call for Architects in this Environmental role. The
following are the environmental concerns for architects: Loss of Biodiversity,Zero Carbon Emissions,Green and Sustainability designs.

  • Construction Role

The Architect ensure the building he designed is built as per his plans.He is responsible until the building is built and handed over and
his responsibility remains with him until he dies.

  • Alternative Practice and Specializations

An architect has many options to work as a Project Manger for the client or contractor, He has options to be an Arbitrator ,adviser for buildings to a council, editor for magazines, write articles for newspaper on architectural matters, be a lecturer as an Architect.He may be employed by banks, City councils,Contractors, Developers or PWD ( Public Works Departments).

He may specialize in areas such as Architect Planner, Architect with Legal experience,Net Zero Energy Architect, Green Architect and  Architect cum Interior Designer.

  • Professional Requirements

An Architect professional requirement varying from country to country. Generally. a degree in Architecture may not be sufficient,
He may have to complete a post graduate studies till he is proficient in the business of Architecture.The accepted universities are listed by the Board of Architects in the country. He registers as a graduate Architect with the Board and he would be required to sit for an examination after 2-3 years as a graduate architect. On passing the examinations he then would be eligible to practice architecture in that country.With the TPPA is in place soon, a profession architect from one country is allowed to practice in the TPPA nations without inhibitions. For now most nations protect the architect from practicing in another nation.In the US, the architects register with AIA,American Institute of Architects to practice . In Australia they register with the AIA, Australian Institute of Architects and in Malaysia architects register with LAM, Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia to practice as Architects.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

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Benefits of Biodiversity in Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans

Green ecohouse floor plans

Benefits of Biodiversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is a moral duty to protect life, nature and take good care of our environment. There is no value to life and value to nature . Once we lose the biodiversity, we lose nature  and  life itself. Therefore the stewardship of nature and vegetation  is necessary  and  it accrues these  benefits. The benefits listed here ranges from:

-energy savings,
-improved carbon footprint,
-improved water footprint,
-better health,
-speedy recovery,
-less stressed mind,
-improved productivity,
-cleaner air and cleaner water,
-better control of pest such as mosquitoes,rodents & lowers maintenance.

These are the 20 Benefits of Biodiversity  that an Architect can incorporate in home designs elaborated here below:

1.Energy Saving Benefits

According to recent research,the Living Roof’s diurnal temperature is about 3 deg C. It was found the conventional roof diurnal temperature is 50 deg C for Green roof ( Living Roof). Furthermore if the facades is shaded with landscape the temperature fluctuation can be reduced by 50%.

 2. Reduce Carbon Emission Benefits

In a Green Development rich with Biodiversity, the  portable water consumption is reduced .Less consumption of portable water directly reduces the carbon footprint. In the UK,the carbon footprint for production of portable water is 2 million tons .Interestingly, 60% of water consumption is from the commercial development. The Green house Gasses are sequestered by the natural vegetation. The Pine forest and the tropical forest and every plants and trees sequesters the CO2. Green vegetation helps to reduce Carbon footprint. The world carbon budget is 500-1000 billion tons of CO2. Every year we are consuming and we are in a deficit .We are emitting too much of CO2. If we exceed the budget limit, the average temperature will be 2 deg more that the pre-industrial period.Until our ecological footprint is decreased, the budget will be busted. It is time to increase and manage the ecological forestation. It is time to increase of biodiversity of flora and fauna and habitats. This will help to save the planet earth.

3.Resilience to Drought

The environment in Biodiversity is more adaptive and more tolerance to drought conditions. In an adverse drought the diverse field are less affected as they support one another in adversity.They reserve water for resilience to harsh weather conditions.

4. Resilience to Diseases

The environment in Biodiversity increases the Resilience to Diseases. The vegetation,fauna and habitats are more tolerant, resistant to pest and virus attacks.Stronger protection against Pest Attacks  then as in a Mono-cultures such as in plantations. vegetable gardens, animal farms. The forest and nature does not need pesticides nor insecticides to fend itself against the persistent attacks by insects and pest. The Pest maintenance cost is reduced.

5.Increase Sustainability

 Fertilizers consumption in bio-diverse environment is less. Infact it may not be used at all. There is an increase in its Sustainability in compared to mono culture. In nature they are not watered, they are not treated with  pesticides or insecticides. They are self-sustaining and are more towards self-reliance.

6.Reduce Urban Heat

In a Bio diverse urban space, the overall temperature of the space is lesser. This phenomenon is obvious as one visit Singapore which is planned as green city and then visiting Malaysia. Although Singapore is closer to the equator than Malaysia. It will have a direct impact on the Energy consumption when the temperatures are lower. This is attributed to the heat island effect.

7.Psychological well being

 One of the definition of well being in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is  by increase of connectivity to nature. Connectivity with nature such as cats, dogs, animals and nature calms the minds, reduces stress and helps the psychological well being. A Fishes in the aquarium help the calm the stressed mind .Likewise birds, dogs and butterflies does something to the human psychological well being.

8.Physical well being

Physical well being is improved as the air is cleaner with lesser dust and dirty gases such as SO2,CO,NO2 etc. Biodiversity reduce the air particles and bring about cleaner air, which according to UN report- the air Pollution is a no 1 killer. Air pollution kills   1 in 8 of the deaths globally . Our lungs are choked with dust and pollutants which is a major cost to human lives.

9.Reduce the water footprint

In a bio-diverse environment the blue infrastructure is introduced and the water footprint is reduces. Grey water is converted to Green water by bio diverse SUDs.

 10.Recovery from illness

Faster Recovery from illness – Hospital Patients in rooms which had views to nature. Green infrastructure and Blue infrastructure helps in Patient’s recovery by 30% faster .Patients uses 30% lesser of medication. Therefore bio phallic designs in homes, offices and workplaces will have a like recuperative effect. The stresses, pressures of works and good health is associated with biodiversity.

11.Reduce incidence of illness

12.Reduction of Stress

Plants, natural forms, fishes in the home of a heart patients has a faster recovery when in a bio diverse environment. The natural movement of Fishes in bowl or a dog in the house brings a certain calmness and in connection with nature. It helps the nerves to calm down tremendously. And so does it does the same for butterflies, birds, sound of the bees in our gardens to enhance our stress reduction.Organic forms in nature is less stressful than squares , rectangles and cubes.

13 Suicidal Tendencies

The healthy air will have a direct effect of our health. Vegetation removes CO2 and introduces Oxygen. The lack of oxygen in the air has a higher tendency to commit suicide, This is the same for those living in high mountains. Vegetation will help to decrease this tendencies.Vegetation increases the oxygen in the air. Oxygen helps our body function well with regard to improved memory and speedier recovery.

14.Tolerance to pain

Greater tolerance to pain. those living in environment with diversity of environment has a greater tolerance to pain.

15. Reduced medicine

Reduced medicine intake is reduced.

16.Productivity

People sitting next to window views of vegetation has a greater enthusiasm to work, productivity. In an bio-philic approach to design of a new office, the exercise proof that the occupants increase in productivity by 20%.

17.Cognitive Tranquility

Potted plant placed in office spaces, view of beautiful scenes and siting by the windows helps are likely to  improves their  Cognitive Tranquility.-20% increased Reaction time to a task and reduction of blood pressures.Those sitting with views to plants or landscape scene , response faster to a situation.

18.Reduce Urban Heat

 In the Singaporean experience, Mr. Lee Kuan Yee stated that Singapore had an edge over it neighbors and competitors as the Green city Model. It was a more attractive proposition.The property has an Increase edge  over it competitors.

19.Corporate Image

Furthermore it may be noteworthy that corporate image is at stake if Green and sustainability issues are not addressed in their developments as they may be under the scrutiny of the public eye, which may surmount to boycotts and anti-campaigns, fines by Governments and may cause their license to be revoked, which disrupts the chain supply and damage to brand image. The Benefits of Biodiversity cannot be numerated economically in numbers but the well being of humanity is our responsibility.

20. Increase in Value of Property

It was noted that property which was Green Bio-diverse had more greater value than those that were not green bio-diverse.

Benefits of BiodiversityRichness in Eco-Biodiversity, the benefits are simply abundant

 Green and Sustainable House  Plans can reap these benefits of Biodiversity if design of Green are contrived well into the design.

Check out our Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans , Click here which has been designed for benefits of Biodiversity

Check out our Green Architect, House Floor Plan, http://www.sda-architect.com/contact-us/
Abridged and enhanced by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam from the  Notes Designing for biodiversity: Productivity and Profit  by the British Council