Preview on the Book “Managing the Transition
to Low Carbon Economy”

The book has a good review of the policies that promotes and motivates the development of a Low Carbon society.
It covers the failures of Carbon Trading and how it could be restored.It has much good to offer in Policies and problems in the world of Carbon. It delves in the intrigues of Carbon trading and its failings.It also deals with matters relating to UN’s Financing Loans they provides to help developing nations to be Low Carbon nation. Overall it serves the purpose to introduce the subject.

This book forewarn clearly the issues at hand and delves in areas of Macro economy and down right to help and engaging the poor. that they may be in the receiving end . That the poor are not marginalized and receive nothing in the transition to Low Carbon Economy.

Managing Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

Managing Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

Policies for Low Carbon Economy

It deals with the aspects of macro economies and policies that motives the public, private and semi
private sector and the structural reforms to enhance the development of Low Carbon Economy.
It draws examples from Indonesia and Japan as model nations to follow. But Japan’s economy
is some what in a stagnant situation and Indonesia is still in a poverty stricken nation. But the
correlation ship between Indonesia’s growth and Low Carbon Economy is connected.
Japanese Government has  placed emphasis on the Low Carbon policies as a basis of growth for
the economy ,but in a real sense the logic of Japan economy developing because of the Low Carbon
emphasis does not hold water, as it has not proven to have produced substantial growth.
Perhaps authors contributing to the book, should have been from a building background
such as Architects,Planners or Landscape to give a balanced view point. As buildings contributes
to a massive 45% of the carbon emission. Architect, Urban Planner or even ecologist would
have done much justice to the idea of transition to a Low Carbon Economy. The reason are
simply 50% of the world population will live in the Urban areas by 2016, And building create
more than 50% of the carbon emission.

Policies on Carbon trading, Green Bonds, Green Financing, global cooperation with regards to
financing of Carbon Trading and how the Carbon Trading can be revived.

Fore warnings a high Carbon Global Economy

The dangers of failure to address the problem by the global communities would result in weather changes
–flooding, droughts, rising sea-water levels, melting of glaciers, increase of global temperatures.

Municipal and Industrial wastage for Low Carbon Economy

It deals with global wastage that are creating water pollution, GHG emissions etc.The reduction of wastage
will help in the reduction of carbon emission. But what are the solution for wastage reduction. It does not deal
with issues such as How do we address the wastage reduction. Richer nation have higher wastage not eh poorer
nations and does not deal with Wastage from the municipal wastage can be converted to energy and industrial
wastage can be recycled.

 Bhutan’s- the first Carbon negative country

He fails of draw example from Bhutan’s- the first Carbon negative country in the world. Using green alone in Bhutan and
using the green Hydro electric power to generate power and this power is given free to citizens so that they would not burn wood for cooking etc. He fails to see the simple solution in the Net Zero Energy by planting trees which sequesters the Carbon. Carbon sinks are created in the forest covers.Realistic approaches to Net Zero Carbon has not been addressed but great discussion are held on polices, funding, trading etc to motivate the economy.

Biodiversity for a Low Carbon Economy

It deals with loss of global biodiversity which in turn will affect the sustainability of human beings in the future.
Bhutan’s experience was to use Green Biodiversity such as creating a massive interconnected jungle for Tigers to
roam from one end to the other end by 4000 km of forest.This is to preserve the biodiversity. Using Biodiversity is
cheapest ways to transit to a Low Carbon Economy and even so the Best. Therefore the ideas from Town Planner,
Archtitect,Ecologist and Engineers were nopt engaged.

Japanese Carbon Policies on Low Carbon Economy

It make an example of Japan’s successful policies as a reference model. But is Japan a good show case model.It economy has relegated to below India after the Tsunami disaster . Perhaps the policies are eccentric and not bent on surviving  a disaster. In fact Bali has a better model to follow with regards to surviving a disaster and sustainability.

Helping the “Poor Centrist”

However the center of focus seems to be helping the poor centrist. The authors missed the point that Low Carbon needs is to be implanted for the poor and the rich. The attempt is often diverted to aid the poor through the transition seems to Low Carbon Society.a Low carbon will support the poor and support the rich.Finally no real solution are proposed on how to help the poor, but this theme is  replete throughout the book.

Readability of Book

The readability of content is not made for the ordinary; most people will be exhausted by reading a chapter or two, as it
requires much energy to get through the chapter.The readability need improvement to help the excellent ideas presented
for the masses and the busy executives and the policy makers who we are trying the reach.

Not an Introduction but a Mid Level Book

It is nevertheless a great book but not at a introductory level. Its does not define Low Carbon or terms that are generally
uses such as GHG emission, ecological footprints etc. it should have made  a great introductory to the subject for the simple and completed it with a depth articles on the subjects to reach all the sector to the general masses, the e poor, the educated, the busy and the man with little time.

Some Interesting Graphs for Low Carbon Economy

Many graphs have been used and this is useful to explain a point.Some of which has been illustrated here.
these graphs show the dangerous circumstances we are in and show the great urgency to thwart the
calamities, we heading towards too.

asian-c asian carbon-dependency-of-gobal-and-region

Carbon-emissions data of Asian Countries

Carbon-emissions-of-Asian-countries

carbon-emssion-by-major-emitters carbon-trading changes-in-carbon-emissions-of-asian-countries-2 energy-related-emission-in-aseanindia-and-china energy-useemissions-and-economic-growth global-municpal-waste japanese-experience-with-carbon-reduction-and-growth life-cycle-energy-use-in-buildings summary-of-indicators-for-emission-and-energy

Some Very Interesting Points discussed in the Book are:

  1. Even the most conservative prediction of future climate change foresees that the average global temperature
    at the end of this century will rise by 1.8o C– 6.0o C from the average at the end of the 20th century (IPCC 2007).
    The climate system is a shared resource and its stability is affected by emissions of carbon dioxide and other
    greenhouse gases. The average temperature of the earth’s surface has risen by 0.74 degrees Celsius (C)since
    the late 1800s and is expected to increase by another 1.8°C to 4°C by the year 2100 with massive environmental
    and socioeconomic implications for all of humanity (Solomon et al. 2007).
  2. The year 2007 marked the first time in history that over one-half of the world’s population lived in urban
    places
    . By 2030, 60% of the world’s population—almost 5 billion people—will live in cities. By mid-century
    the forecast is for two of every three people to be living in urban places. In Asia alone, 1 billion more people will
    live in cities in 2030 than in 2005. By 2015, there will be 22 mega-cities with populations of 10 million or more;
    12 of these will be in Asia.
  3. Ecosystems supporting current urban areas are already under stress.Infrastructure is one of the defining
    features of urban life and landscapes, and plays a critical role in shaping social resilience as well as the economic
    dynamism of cities. Infrastructure reflects the choices that governments make, both economically and socially,
    and provides insight into issues of equity, governance, and the strength of local institutions. Fast paced growth,
    both in terms of spatial area and resource demands, will outstrip the capacity of existing infrastructure to provide
    water,sanitation, and transportation, and will strain the carrying capacity of ecosystem services.
  4. The lack of climate-smart infrastructure is not just a problem in the global South—it is endemic in the
    industrialized countries as well. New York, for example, is struggling to adapt current infrastructure to the
    future effects of floods and storms, and to better plan future infrastructure projects. The transit, water supply,
    and sanitation infrastructure, among others, are all extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change and

    the city is ill-equipped to handle even today’s severe weather events, let alone increased severity and frequency
    of storms and sea level rise in the future.
  5. Effects of Global warming:An increase in temperature has the potential to disrupt rainfall patterns,cause
    sea levels to rise, and produce significant changes 12 Managing the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy in
    agricultural production.Other expected impacts include changes in crop yields,modifications to shipping lines,
    glacier melt,biodiversity loss, and an increase in diseases because of vector mutations.These events have the
    capacity to destroy lives, force vulnerable people to migrate, and contribute to food and water shortages.
  6. About 40 million people are exposed to coastal flooding events and by the 2050s the population exposed could
    rise to 150 million (Nicholls et al. 2007).
  7. Collectively, these climate challenges will severely constrain the ability of developing Asia to sustain its recent
    economic prosperity.
  8. Today Japan is a leader in energy conservation and has developed an industrial system that continuously
    improves its energy efficiency. They imposed taxes and encouraged energy efficient systems in buildings.
    A energy conservation law enacted in 1979. This energy conservation law stipulates the need to
    (i) identify energy intensive sectors;
    (ii) appoint licensed energy managers for energy-intensive industries; and
    (iii) buy and use products that meet mandatory energy performance standards
  9. The carbon intensity of developing Asia remains 1.4–4 times greater than that of the G7 industrialized
    countries.Asian economies aiming to reach a target of 20% of total supply from clean energy sources by 2020
    would require an investment of almost $1 trillion by 2030 (IPCC 2007).
  10. The IEA has estimated that $20 trillion worldwide is required by 2030. Of this, more than 60% will have to
    be invested in developing Asia.
  11. Most developing countries in Asia—with the exception of the PRC and India—spend little on research and
    development (R&D) on low-carbon technologies and have a chronic shortage of competent scientists,
    engineers, and managers with the skills needed to develop and apply low-carbon technologies. Toward a
    Low-Carbon Asia: Challenges of Economic Development 23 Instead, these countries rely on imported
    technologies and skills originating in developed countries.
    • instigating fiscal incentives to harness market forces;
    • creating safety nets for socially vulnerable people;
    • improving energy efficiency for high impact sectors;
    • avoiding carbon leakages; and
    • using public funding for low-carbon technologies.Realizing a low-carbon society hinges on the
      following key policy choices:
  12. Coal remains the major source of energy for the PRC (70%) and India (37%).
  13. Extensive deployment of technology-based policies in developing Asia reflects a range of factors.
    First and foremost, governments have acted on the more immediate motivations discussed in Section
    4.2 (i.e., energy security, local environmental problems, and technological advantage) by setting the targets
    shown in Table 4.4. As discussed further below, carbon pricing remains largely a prospective activity in
    developing Asia; therefore technology instruments are the only real means to pursue these targets at present.

    • Feed-in tariffs
    • Renewable energy certificates
    • Subsidies, Tax Incentives, and Lending for Deployment and Creating Market Demand
    • Public Finance for Research, Development, and Deployment (RD&D)
    • Technology Transfer
    • Carbon Pricing

    15.)Challenges in Policy
    a)If patent protection limits the ability of domestic manufacturers in 128 Managing the Transition to a Low-
    Carbon Economy Asia to adapt externally developed technologies, then, of course, their dissemination is
    ikely to be more limited. In order to mitigate this obstacle, Mathur (2011) proposes that developing countries
    be involved in international collaborative partnerships from the research and development stage
    b)Carbon Pricing-to ensure that carbon pricing is a realistic policy option as soon as possible.
    c) Energy Policy
    -Rapid rate of energy growth
    -Presence of energy subsidies
    – Politicization of energy pricing
    – Presence of energy rationing
    – Reliance on captive power
    – Constraints on flexibility in dispatch

    – Reliance on central planning in the electricity sector

    – Divergence from commercial orientation
    – Political difficulty of reform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Check out with us on how to design a Low Carbon home or Low Carbon Building or village, or factory.
We are Net Zero Carbon Architect.

Preview of Book Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam.
Key words: Managing the Transition to Low Carbon Economy, Helping the Poor Centric, Bhutan’s-
the first Carbon negative country, first Carbon negative country,Carbon negative country,Carbon negative
Zero Carbon Emission country, Carbon Emission economy,Net Zero Carbon Emission country,
Net Zero Architect, Net Zero Emsiion,Architect,Green Architect, Biodiversity, Japanese Carbon Policies

 

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Why pay for Eco Biodiversity in building design and city planning? controlling Zika  and air pollution control

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
website: http://www.sda-architect.com/

The loss of Eco Biodiversity at an alarming rate all over the world ,was of a major concern in the Convention on Biodiversity, held in  Nagoya, Japan 2010.Most countries have signed an agreement to comply with the Nagoya biodiversity agreement , which was intended to help reduce the global weather changes that are rapidly occurring. But less that 10% of the countries that have signed to protect the flora and fauna has kept the promises.

Free Disaster house

Eco Biodiversity in our environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is Eco Biodiversity? It is the diversity of flora, fauna and its habitats in the vegetation of our forest, rural and urban environment, in which we live  constitutes Eco Biodiversity. This diversity in the green spaces or soft landscape  is often found missing in the urban development, all that we see is the Mountain Cliff  type of buildings and the green in the urban  parks are in the likes of the green of the Savannah of Africa. The homogenous type of trees and grass is affecting the well-being of our environment and in this article, we are addressing the benefits for Eco Biodiversity of these greens in the urban area:

  • Psychological well-being- the overall well-being of occupants are tremendously improved in an environment that has biodiversity in design consideration.
  • Property values .There is an increase in the Property values as shown in studies  conducted in the UK , that water features, well-landscaped areas , ponds or view of landscaped areas, contributed to an increase of property values from 5%-34%. (CABE Space 2005).In Singaporean case where the city planners decide to go for Greening, the city experienced a notable hike in property values. At a building level apartments such as the Kampung Warisan Condominium, Jalan Jeletek was landscaped in a vernacular traditional village style noted an increase of rentable apartments.
  • Air Purification  .The air bore pollution is filtered and neutralized. Air is scrubbed off the pollutants such as Nitrogen dioxides, sulfur dioxide , Carbon mono dioxide by the trees, shrubs where the air is freshened. The dirt dozens -air pollutants are sequestered, referred to a gaseous sequestration. The dust is removed from the air is by ionizing the air with clean air. The air bore particles are ionized and are brought down to the ground, thereby cleaning the air. The UN reports that the air pollution is a leading killer.one in 8 persons in the world will die of premature death. The air pollution cost US250billion due to premature deaths in the world. Trees scrub the air clean. Bio diversity is a solution to keeping the environment clean.
  • More oxygen .More oxygen is introduced into the air , which is suitable for growth, speedy recovery of the stressed mind and helps the resilience of the injured mind and body. It was found in research that the lack of oxygen in the air increases the tendency to commit suicide. Certain shrubs such as bamboo are said to produce more oxygen into the air that other plants are considered very healthy and good for the environment.
  • Water Purification. The rainwater runoffs are purified. Rainwater is run off into bios-vales, Bio SUDS or eco cells and eco-stairs where rainwater is purified before discharging into the water streams, ponds or below the ground water tables.Water that gets to the underground water tables is cleansed by vegetation grown in the bio swales and eco cells before emitting them into the grounds.
  • Heat island effect .The elimination of Heat island effect, which affect the microclimate amelioration through direct shading and evaporative cooling. The air is warmer by the lack of vegetation by the removal of trees or turned grounds. The objects such as concrete, road pavements absorb heat and radiate heat it at night. This effect alone to an increase of temperatures by 4 degrees C according to research done in some areas. The emitters of waste heat to the environment are: Humans metabolism contributes to 8% of the waste heat, buildings contribute to 60% and the motor vehicles contribute to 32% of the waste heat to the environment.(Smith et al 2009)
  • Controlling the Zika Pest .Control of Pest species, such as bats feed on the mosquitoes, owls eating the rats. The ecological cycle of animals should be maintained. The removal of birds and bats as they may seem to be a pest for urban areas will cause the increase of mosquitoes and rat infestation. The presence of owls helps to stop the proliferation of rats, but in the first place owls need an ecological environment to live in, in some countries owls were let out to the trees but they soon died out as the habitat for owls were not suitable. In Singapore the attempt to green the city was somewhat a good attempt to save the city but the fruits and flower that draws birds were limited to discourage the presence of birds because of  their droppings and nesting of birds in the urban areas. But this led to an increase of mosquitos and pests which then has to be countered by spraying chemicals which affects the waterways and quality of water.Singapore in recent years has been Singaporeans again inflicted with dangerous Zika virus carried by Mosquitoes. The spread of Zika in Singapore was exceptionally fast and caused fear and discouragement among Singaporeans. The control of Zika would have been a lot easier if the Bats, birds did the job of controlling the Zika Pest. Again Singapore once again proves to the world the need for biodiversity against the fight of Zika.Pu
  • Air quality- As the air quality is improved, as a direct consequence of improved health. As most illness related to respiratory illness are reduced and have an increase health conditions of occupants as vegetation scrubs the air of the dirty dozens and air particles. Air particulates causes health issues such as lung problems and its related health problems.
  • Productivity and reduced Absenteeism- According to findings in a research such as (Elzeyadi, 2011). This increases and improves productivity by the decrease sick leaves when potted plants were located with the workspace and it had a direct relationship to improved productivity and reduced absenteeism (Elzeyadi, 2011).
  • Stress Resilience- It has been found in research that beds in hospitals that had the good view of scenic view had patients recovered by 30% faster and thereby decreasing 30% intake of medication. Well landscaped view have an effect of our general health conditions with respect to stress recovery that we are subjected too, in the modern workplace.
  • Education -The education of the local species to the local communities by demonstrating the planting of local species in the local areas. The awareness of plants and benefits are preserved with bio diversity.
  • Energy BILL LOW-A green living roof, will insulates the building by reducing the diurnal temperatures from a typically non green roof from 50deg C to 3 deg C during winters. And during summers the roof will insulate the heat into the building. By smart landscaping the temperatures will be reduce the temperatures  by a great range of 50%. Read smart landscaping.
  • Carbon Negative– As we plant more trees and vegetation increasing the( increasing the diversity of the flaura , fauna and habitat) biodiversity, we help to improve the carbon footprint and tends to carbon negative as in the case of Bhutan. The vegetation help to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and gasses{methane} that destroy the environment by sequestering them within the vegetation. And thereby helping to reduce the carbon emitted to the atmosphere and thereby improving the Carbon Footprint. As tree are grown the carbon is sequestered by the trees and the soil, for instance an acre of forest sequesters about 110metric tonnes of CO2 per year. The Wetlands sequesters 300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The world emits  a 2.6  Giga tonnes of CO2 every year which is causing the unabated flooding , global warming and weather change that is affecting lives all over the world. The carbon footprint can be offset by eco biodiversity and neutrality in the world can be obtained by planting diverse trees. the world can be restored to its natural state. The world average temperature is to be brought down to 2 degrees C- to restored to the temperatures of the pre-industrial days. Visit our seminar on Net Zero Carbon Emission which delves more on this aspect with respect to designing building for Net Zero Emissions. Building are one of the major contributors to Carbon emission in the air.

This is where we there is an application for biodiversity and green designs in buildings and cities by using ecological considerations in design, the biometrics of nature are to be incorporated into our environments, such as in nature there is no waste. Unlike nature, we Humans are wasteful ,we dispose of domestic waste by tons every day, into nature destroying the water. The spider eats its own web as a way to minimize waste, the humans dispose of much of construction waste into the environment that in some countries there are no more spaces left to dispose of the domestic waste in the landfills.

We as Architects are designers for the safe environment using ecological design consideration, biometrics, bio grids,ecological cycles. Call us a discussion into how we may be of help to you to save the environment in your site plans or building designs.

Attend our seminar of Net Zero Carbon Emission, see how eco bio-diversity helps the environment by sequestering the Carbon and scrubs the air of pollution and Green house gases from the air. It helps achieve Net Zero Emission status for development.

CLICK HERE TO Book online for seminar of Net Zero Carbon Emission, See you there in KL.

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 Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Eco Biodiversity, ecological considerations . eco-diversity in city planning, ecological imperatives, Green architect, Green Sustainability Architect, Hyper Green, urban planning