So you want to be an Architect

Architect

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

Architect-Famous Architects ALIVE

 Duties of Architects

An Architect is a professional who designs building plans. These plans are called schematic or conceptual drawings
 He will further go to seek the approval from the local authorities. By doing this, he will seek to comply with the Local By-laws
or the Building Codes. He will then produce tender drawings for the building.

Production of Drawing by Architects

The tender drawings are drawing which the tenderer  (contractors) are called in to bid for the project. The successful
bidder is awarded the construction of the building. The successful bidders or tenderer is called the contractor.

Architects produce the construction drawings. which may differ from the tender drawing. The construction
drawings are used by the contractor to construct the buildings.

Supervision of Construction by Architects

The Architects (architecht) supervises the construction of the building by the Contractor.He ensures the building
is built to the standard Codes of Practices in the country, In the US the AS(American Standards) are used. In the UK the
BS( British Standards) are used. In Japan , JAS(Japanese Standards) are used. These standards establish the quality
and workmanship standards the contractor is to abide in. These standards are specified by the Architect(archetec)
in the Tender document. The tender documents during the construction are called contract documents. He administers
the contract document during the construction. On completion of the construction. he issues certificates for completion of the
building. The accounts are settled called final accounts. The Final certificate and many other certificates are issued by the
Architect during the construction to the contractor.

During the construction. the Architect (architecs) instructs the Contractor to construct the building and administers
the contract.On completion. he seeks the consent of the Local authorities for issue of the Certificate of Fitness or
Certificate of Completion and compliance
.
The  Architect (archite) is bound by the jurisdictions of the contract.

Responsibility of Construction

The Architect’s responsibility for the building is until his death. If the building collapses or fails, he will be called upon,
is answerable for the collapse or failures.He uses consultants such as a Structural engineer, civil engineer, mechanical
engineer, electrical engineer, Quantity Surveyor, landscape architect,town planner or any specialist consultants to
help him complete the design and construction of the building. Other specialist consultants may be anEcologist
for biodiversity design, an Energy consultant for Net Zero Advice, an Acoustic consultant, a Geotechnical specialist,
Environmental Engineer, Traffic engineer,Surveyor, External lighting consultant, a Facade consultant , Interior designer etc.

Origin of the word “Architect”

 The word architect derives from the Latin architectus, a Greek  derivative for (arkhi-, chief +tekton, builder),
which means chief builder.
The builder and the designer were one and all which were some times referred to the Master
Builder or Master Architect.

Use of the word” Architect” by other professions

The terms architect  are used in other disciplines such as Landscape Architects, Naval architects and in
IT network architects  or software architects.The uses of the terms “architect”[3] and “landscape architect” are
legally protected for building purposes and  not for IT. However the concept of one who organizes the spaces
within the “IT world of spaces” is a derivative from Building Architect
.

Challenges of  Architects

When Architects says that he is practicing, he is providing the above services in a professional
capacity. He does not mean he is employed by another but rather that he is running his own company which is an
Architectural entity.Architecture or Architect has to be specially trained in many areas that he is usually more
useful only with time and not when he is out from the academic training from his university. A fresh engineer is
rather useful when he graduates, a medical doctor is able to prescribe medication to a patient when he is a fresh
graduate, but  not for an Architect. He is in his prime at a late age of his career.

Recent Trends of Architecture

The above duties are rather the rudiments of an Architect but a good architect is one who provides not merely
the design of buildings, but goes one step further to encompass the needs of the building owner and creates
an ambiance which is felt. The ambiance may be a feeling of emotions of the spaces. The feelings and emotions
are created by being in the space. Sounds of running water or falling water created. The natural lighting may be
reflected within the spaces to create a spiritual feeling of reverence. Textures of materials are used to denote
character of the spaces, or cultures. Eg the Rustic Balinese architecture uses materials in it most natural forms,
which is characteristic of the Balinese architecture. In recent years the Efficient use of Energy is a call for
the global weather changes to reduce the CO2 emission in the air. The loss of many hot spots biodiversity is called
for biodiversity in designs to save the heating planet.

  • Origin of Architects

Much have not been recorded in history about the original use of the word.It is Greek/Roman word for a builder.
But the design concept of building evolved with time.Initially building were built and often copied relentlessly
without much consideration to the environment or locality. But in more recent year much of the repetitive nature of
doing thing have been vigorously questioned . This was in line with the changes that took place in the West. In the
East, building was expensive and the construction was built for a purpose.Passive designs were incorporated in
Forts , water was used to cool and mitigate the  hot summers.The first Architects built the Pyramids, the temples
of India,the Great walls of China, ancient cities were planned in Grid lines in Mohen-Daro & Harrapa of the Indus
valley, the sunken Krishna City of India and the Incas of ancients Americas. Someone put together these buildings,
cities and structures .It would be inconceivable that it arose without some plans and designs.

  • Architecture

An Architect creates the Architecture,. The character of Architecture of the Roman, Indians,Chinese,Japanese,
Egyptian are different but they all use block work.This was the common materials that were used to create structures
for the purposes of its times. Most building were built as monuments to the deities of worship.The Chinese had during
the Sung Dynasty, volumes written about timber constructions and specifications.The Indus civilization came to an
abrupt end with remains tells the story of a great civilization that perished.
The Roman  world of Architecture derived from the Sumerian Architecture,which evolved from the Babylonian
architectures. The Babylonian Architecture influenced the Persian Architectures which influenced the Greek Architectures .
The Greeks civilization  influenced the Roman Architectures and Roman cultures.The Roman Architecture was called
the Classical Period.Roman architectural principles are adopted even in today’s world of Architecture. Read about the
Famous Architects Alive.

1)The Roman Classical Period

The first Architect of the Roman emperor was Vitruvius– he contribution was the design principles which influenced
the architectural principles we used today.The Romans discovered concrete and it was the technology of the times,
Much of the Roman building’s pillars and columns  were made of concrete.The re-bar was discovered by the American
merely 200 years ago. Therefore the limitation of concrete reduced the majesty of building built as of today.
Read History of Architectures,note the time line with a  comparison to other civilizations.

2)The Romanesque Period

3) Gothic Period

The Gothic Architecture bloomed soon after the Roman Classical Periods. The Father of the Gothic Architecture
was Abbot Suger was a principal person to lead the Architectural building of the times.The Gothic  structures were
used for church with aspired to the sky resembling worship to the God.

In a nutshell, the following were the Architectural movements that brought us, the Architecture today

4)  Baroque Period
5)  Classical Revival
6)  Gothic Revival
7)  Beaux-Arts
8)  Art Nouveau
9)  Modern Architecture
10)Art Deco
11) International Architecture
12)Deconstructionist Architecture

  • Practice of Architect

The Architect role is to design, provide estimates of the cost to construct the building, He may provide a Feasibility study,
showing the profitability of the building project. He may employ a QS to provide such information.He works with a team
of consultants to establish his design or specialism teams to complete the building.The client ( building owner)employs
the Architect to complete the task.His office is called the Architectural Patrice. Or he is said to be practicing architecture.

  • Design Role of Architect

The Architect designs the building from the Inception stage, to the Conceptual stage. These are the design stages that
proceed form here to the following Phases of Design:
1) Schematic Design Phase
2) Design Development Phase
3) Contract Documentation Phase
4) Contract Implementation and Management Phase 
At the Schematic Phase, the design and cost is produced and if the client is content with the design and the cost, he would
proceed to the Design Development Phase. Here he may submit the design to the local authorities for approval. On approval
he will week to the Contract Documentation Phases .During the Documentation Phase. all drawing are somewhat finalized
for the tender bidding. Lastly. the Contract Implementation Phase is when the contractor builds the design initially designed
by the Architect.

Architect may provide Supplementary Services in addition to the Basic Design Role. Such services may to in helping
the Client to select a suitable site.For instance. an Airport is large ndertaking and involves much cost. In this instance. the

options of selecting a suitable location shall be done by a team of Airport architects, Airport planners, Airport  engineers etc
to complete which location is the best option.

  • Means of Design

The means of design traditionally were to make a produce drawing in sketches or perspectives and sometimes a scaled model was
made, to produced to illustrate the concepts. The manual approach is replaced by computer-aided tools.The  Softwares used  to
design are Google Sketch up,Archicad, Revit,Rhinoceros,3-D Max, lumion etc.
The drafting boards, with T squares,Set squares and pens are have replaced with the drafting Softwares such as Autocad etc

  • Environmental role

Building are emit about 40% of the CO2 in the atmosphere . Architects now play an important role to reduce the CO2 emission in the air.
Building, cities and countries are called upon to reduce CO2 in the air by the UN. This will help to reduce the rapid deterioration of Global
warming.Green and Sustainable design or energy efficient buildings are now the call for Architects in this Environmental role. The
following are the environmental concerns for architects: Loss of Biodiversity,Zero Carbon Emissions,Green and Sustainability designs.

  • Construction Role

The Architect ensure the building he designed is built as per his plans.He is responsible until the building is built and handed over and
his responsibility remains with him until he dies.

  • Alternative Practice and Specializations

An architect has many options to work as a Project Manger for the client or contractor, He has options to be an Arbitrator ,adviser for buildings to a council, editor for magazines, write articles for newspaper on architectural matters, be a lecturer as an Architect.He may be employed by banks, City councils,Contractors, Developers or PWD ( Public Works Departments).

He may specialize in areas such as Architect Planner, Architect with Legal experience,Net Zero Energy Architect, Green Architect and  Architect cum Interior Designer.

  • Professional Requirements

An Architect professional requirement varying from country to country. Generally. a degree in Architecture may not be sufficient,
He may have to complete a post graduate studies till he is proficient in the business of Architecture.The accepted universities are listed by the Board of Architects in the country. He registers as a graduate Architect with the Board and he would be required to sit for an examination after 2-3 years as a graduate architect. On passing the examinations he then would be eligible to practice architecture in that country.With the TPPA is in place soon, a profession architect from one country is allowed to practice in the TPPA nations without inhibitions. For now most nations protect the architect from practicing in another nation.In the US, the architects register with AIA,American Institute of Architects to practice . In Australia they register with the AIA, Australian Institute of Architects and in Malaysia architects register with LAM, Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia to practice as Architects.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

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The different Types of Architects and what they do?

key words: Project Architects,Resident Architects,Design Architects,Bungalow Architects,Shopping center specialist Architects,Interior designing,Hotels Architects Architects,Hospital Architects, Architect Arbitrator ,Commercial Office Architects,Architect Planners,Landscape Architects,Timber building Architects,Resident Architects. arkitek

There are many Types of Architects  listed below are some of them and what they do:
Many types of Architects are covered in these website such as Green Architect,Net Zero Energy Architect, Eco Green Architect.

Principal Architect

He is runs the Architectural company, he may be the founder, owner of the company

Project Architects

What does a Project Architects do?
The Project Architect  manages a team of Architectural office staff consisting of Resident Architects , Design Architects and a team of draftsman .He ensure the project is managed contractually ( contract administration. A Project Architect is  used for a large project  or he would be required to deal with many smaller projects.

He reports firstky to the Pricipal Architect of the comapny and he may report to the Owners of the building ( or a Project Management Team). He rports on the overall progress of works,manages changes that occurs which may arise from time to time ,manages the Program or any issues that may arrise at the site. He also manages a consultant teams of Civil & Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Urban Town Planner, the Cost consultants( called the QS), and Landscape Architect, Interior Designers, Specialist Consultants such as –Acoustic consultants, Lighting consultants, Façade consultants and Green Sustainability, Net Zero Energy Consultants and Ecologist. The contractor or the builder reports to him on the progress regularly

Design Architects

What does a Design Architects do?
A Design Architect designs the building, by complying with the client’s design brief and local building code and  bye law requirements. He report to the Project Architect or to the Pricipal Architect. 

He submits the plans to the local authorities for approval and coordinating the approvals of the engineer’s plans to the local authorities as well. The design architect during the construction will ensure the design aspects of the building are attained and reviews the approvals of materials submitted by the Contractor and ensure it is compliant with the specifications of the contract.

Bungalow Architects

What does a Bungalow Architects do?
An Architect that specializes in designing of Bungalows as the design and construction of Bungalow is a rather confine to a very specialized area of work. The difficulty of putting up a Bungalow cannot be underestimated. He  meets the needs of the owner of homes both at a macro level and at a micro level of details. Every nook and corner of the bungalow is subjected to review by the house owner . This Architect ought to be rather knowledgeable about the details of material, construction and aesthetics of the buildings. He should be familiar with the different types of house plans,history of house architecture, the types of houses, large homes and small homes, timber materials , log houses, cottage houses, beach houses, 2 bed room houses, 3 bed room houses, duplex houses, southern living homes, Asian homes and Green Homes, modern house plans, Open house floor plans, Japanese house floor plans etc, It is varied form place to place and region to region. He  designs homes according to the need of the owner and it meeting with the local market value systems to maintain value of the homes.

Shopping CenterSpecialist Architects

What does a Shopping center specialist Architects do?
The shopping specialist architect , deasl with large shopping centers, hyper markets and supermarket. It might seem like a simple thing , which is not true otherwise; in fact a mistake  undertaken in the design of a shopping centers, may result in a gargantuan tragedy. It may resulting in a white elephant or a ghost shopping center. Therefore in selecting an Architect to design a shopping center one should evaluate his background of experiences in shopping centers designs. The strategies to capture the flow of traffic, direct the flow,captivating their interest,lighting levels and the latest trends in shopping is rather important for the success of the shopping center and creating a thriving shopping center.
The Architect will study the types of shops and how it will be laid out to create demand and reduce dead ends of circulation of traffic and is aware of the magic of working public traffic using anchor tenants.

Interior designing Architects

What does, a Interior designing Architects do?
An architect who is specialized in the interiors of the building and creates and transforms the interior spaces to a functional space or a space of beauty. The interior design should begin at the outset of design process making the spaces as an integral part of the building and not as a make over of the design as an after thought. There is a difference between an Interior designer and a interior decorator. A Interior decorator merely provides the make up of the building .

Hospital Architects

What does, a Hospital Architects do?
A Hospital architect deals with an area of specialization  with the internal planning of hospitals. These are medical and health requirements, which shall be complied. All aspects of the spaces are designed with the health of the patients in mind .For instances the lifts are specially  much slower that the conventional lifts it takes into consideration of patients with weak heart or high blood pressure who are susceptible to heart attacks. The rooms are designed for clean room conditions and the air will be designed for clean air to minimize the spread of air borne diseases.Room are subjected to view for quick recover.Planning of the services are necessary for Energy efficiency as Hospitals guzzles energy.

Hotel Architects

What does a Hotels Architects do?
Hotel Architects are specialist in designing the bed rooms, the commercial kitchen, ballrooms, restaurants, lounges, connectivity of service corridors to service lifts, loading, unloading area and the maintenance areas. There are many types of hotels. Some hotels that are  centered around golfing circuits, some are based on beaches fronts, some on ball rooms and seminars services and others dependent on visitors from the Air port or local retail centers etc .Operators of Hotels, such as Hilton  have their own manuals for designing hotels in keeping with their brands.Architect  design according Hotels Operator’s  guidelines stipulated in Operator’s manuals. This will  ensure the operations are efficient and profitable. All 5-6 star hotels will be designed with the Operators requirements at the outset. This will avoid design tragedies and mega failures in Hotels. If you need to know if Design matters, look around at Hotels that have failed in business other than  that “location matters”.

Commercial Office Architects

What does a Commercial Office Architects do?
The design of high rise office towers shall be designed with low maintenance free designs, efficient layout floor plans, high energy performance building, shaded well from the heating sun and conservation of heat during summer and cautiously with the safety of the end users during maintenance of building, design for easy management of the building. New concepts such as Net Zero Energy Building, which is our area of special focus.  Green and Sustainability concepts are introduced by certification bodies such as Living Challenge, LEEDS, Green Building Index,Green Marks etc.

Architect Arbitrator

What does a Architect Arbitrator do?
An architect that is familiar with the contractual relationship between the parties in the building industry and how the function and further more he is most familiar with the designing and the design process and the work that all parties are bound in the industry. And this makes him as a suitable candidate to arbiter the arguments that arise among the parties in the industry. In some countries where there is no Construction court, many lawyers and even Judges are not familiar with the terms of the contract, duties of the parties of the contract and the relationship between them and make the proceeding and the judgments to be miscarried. Therefore it is best to have architects who are legal based who are the best arbiter to conduct and make the best judgment in arbitration case.

Architect Planners

What does a Architect Planners do?
An Architect who is trained academically as an Architect and  as an Urban Town Planner.An architect is aware of what is happening within a building . Town Planner designs a collection of buildings in a Town or country settings. An Urban Planner designs the interrelationships between the buildings. He interconnects the buildings with open spaces, parks and garden etc. Building are designed by architect without any consideration to the buildings in the neighborhoods. It is said that building have to talk to each other and the design of park in relationship with the footpaths leading to one another is necessary to create an wonderful urban environment. Urban Town Planning fills in  these gaps and is a go in between Planning and Architects in urban areas.

Landscape Architects

What do Landscape Architects do?
A landscape architect, at a micro level, is one who designs the soft landscape (plants, lawns, shrubs etc) and the landscape (pavements, benches, footpaths, street lights bollard etc) .
At a macro level he may be a designer as a Town Planner. He may also design the country sides and be involved as Town and Country Planner does in Town and Country Planning.

Timber Building Architects

What does a Timber building Architects do?
An architect who is familiar with the architecture of  timber, the different type of timbers ,how to preserve timber, the art and crafting and beauty of timber . He has an appreciation of the fine timber quality, how to design rustically in some situation ,making a beauty out of the ruggedness of the house.He is a master of timber homes.

Resident Architects

What does a Resident Architects do?
Resident Architects are those who oversea the quality of materials used and overseas the workmanship,during the construction of the building. He will ensure where  standing supervision is required especially where concrete works are carried out.He is partly responsible for the works carried out by the contractor. He ensures the contractor uses materials , specified by the designer (Architects), He is engaged only during the construct of the works until the building is successfully handed over to the Owner of the building. The Owners of the building, may extend his engagement as A Residential Architect until the Building is certified fit for occupation (in some regions this is called the Certificate of Fitness in others it is called Certificate of Completion and Compliance.)
a) He should be able to study all drawings such as Architectural and Engineering . He identifies errors in drawings and missing details .He checks and conduct test on the material that is used by the contractor.There are times although the approved samples submitted are never used on the building during the construction by the contractor. The materials are short changed during the construction . This leaving the building with a massive maintenance problem ,during the life span of the building.
b) He may send the materials to the laboratory for testing to ensure compliance with the specifications.
c) He submits progress report to the building owner and the Principal Architect of the project. He reports the works is in progress and the no of workers at the site. He also report  the equipment used at the site.He reporst the weather conditions at the site.
d) He monitors the Health and Safety Manuals and enforces it at the site such as ensure the use of  Hard Hats, Safety boots, Safe erection of scaffolding , Safety cables, safety nets , safety platforms are in place, ensure no water-ponds are found at site to minimize the breeding of mosquitoes, healthy the living quarters for workers, the Electricity cables are elevated above the ground with proper switch outlets etc.
e) The Resident Architect endorses the correctness of the Contractor’s Progress report.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, contact us