Homes affects your Health

Green and Sustainable House Floor Plan

The type of Homes affects your Health

Green and sustainable home are a Homes with much landscaping within your home and
outside your homes helps you in so many ways. The type of home you live in affects
your well-being, your physical health, and your psychological well-being.

1)More Oxygen-Homes affects your Health

Firstly homes with Green plants tend to have more Oxygen inside your home.
The oxygen helps you with better health; Oxygen improves your immunity system, speedy recovery from illness, growth of cells.etc. Lack  of Oxygen, creates an incresed tendency to commit suicdes.

2)Faster Recovery from illness

Green homes  with good views of plants, helps you to recover from illness faster by 30%.Recent Research shows that you are better off faster. Therefore your medication is also reduced by 30%

3)Ionized the air-Homes affects your Health

Green homes ionized the air in your homes. There is less dust and your lungs
are healthier. UN reported that air pollution is the No 1 killer of the human being.
1 in 8 of dying human is due to polluted air.

4)Kills the bacteria

Green homes ionized the air. Ions kill the bacteria and viruses. Air is  free  of bad
bacteria and bad viruses keeps you healthier.Homes affects your Health. It noted that good bacteria shall
also be cultivated such as EM. Microbes helps to increase biodiversity, nutrients in the ground, removes odor,
cleans the grey waters, etc.It helps the good bacteria to fight the bad ones.

5)Productivity 

Research shows that Green homes make you more Productive and Productivity is improved.Architects are the best in
designing homes with green layout and efficient layouts.

6)Presenteeism

Research shows that Green homes make you more Presenteeism, more aware of happenings.
It makes one more attentive and improves cognitive responses.

7)Reduce the stressful

Green homes help to reduce the stressful and calms the nerves. Help speedy recovery from stresses.Homes or buildings designs using
straight edges and straight lines produces stresses people. Organic forms reduces the stress on th eyes.

8)Keeps you homes cool

Green homes keep your homes cool on a hot day and warm on a cold day.
The changes of temperatures of your homes are lesser. Temperature Diurnal
is 50 degrees C.

9)Lower your monthly electric bill

Green and sustainable homes lower your monthly electric bill, you pay
lesser and you feel better because it is cooler etc.It saves the heating and cooling bills.

10)Increases the property value

Green and sustainable homes increase the property value of your home.
Research shows that property values increased by 10 to 30% by Greening your homes.
Check out our Green and Sustainable house floor plans. BOOK a seat for Seminar on Net Zero Energy and Emission Building designs
Call us at +60172246801 ,on how we can help you in your homes.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Carbon Trading

The Kyoto Protocol,1992 in the UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change but adopted in 1997 established the basis of Carbon Trading, Carbon offsets.
192 nation agreed to reduce Carbon emissions, which Identifies the 6 GHG gasses as 1) CO2 2) methane, 3) N2O 4) hydrofluorocarbon  5) perfluorocarbon and 6) sulphur hex-fluorocarbon. All these gases are referred to as Carbon emission, Carbon dioxide is the weaker global warming effect but the amount of it is the largest amount. Before the Kyoto Convention 2 Convention were held to establish the basis of Carbon emission, what is was considered as Carbon emission etc.

Carbon Trading Price Fluctuations

carbon-trading graph

carbon-trading in Asia

Protocols

The Carbon Trading has been defined in 3 conventions as follows:
a) Earth Summit-Conference on Environment and Development –UNCED, Rio 1992
b) United Nation Framework Conference on Climate Change UNFCCC( not binding due to no time limit was set by the UN
c) Kyoto Protocol, 1997
Carbon Trading is under the purview of the UN, Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 and therefore the Kyoto Protocol is a treaty
In Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Trade is in charge of CDM. In Malaysia, 100 tonnes were traded in 2008, at RM4.8 Billion. I ton of carbon was  sold at RM48. The price of carbon rallied from US 25 – US 12 over these years.

Ways to earn Carbon Credits for Carbon Trading

There are a few established legitimate ways of Carbon trading , which are:
a) using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets are made
b) using wind turbines as Carbon Offsets are made
c) designing Net Zero Carbon Emission buildings or Net Zero Energy Buildings
d) Managing a forest ( Tropical) or wetlands, as the soil and tree sequesters CO2 by using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets is made
e) Investing in a Carbon reducing projects such as Renewable energy projects, Geo-Thermal, Biomass, PV solar panels, micro turbine and wind turbines.
How much can you gain by Carbon Trading?
A typical building as in a 100,000 sq ft of gross built commercial space up area can offset carbon 390 tons of carbon per year.
The financial amount you can trade is 390 ton per year xRM48/ton=RM18,720
Carbon Emission for Combustion Fuels
Coal…………………0,37kgCO2/kWh
Gasoline…………. 0.27kg CO2/kWh
Diesel………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Light Oil…………. 0.26kgCO2/kWh
Natural Gas………0.23kgCO2/kWh
LPG…………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Malaysian CO2 Emission Coefficient Rate is 0.631 kgCO2/kWh

Check out our Architect,Green Architect, House Plan relating to Net Zero Carbon designs

Carbon Trading

Green architect

Prepared by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam
Net Zero Emission Building Architect

Certifying Bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings

The certifying bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the US A are :
A) Department of Energy
, DOE, an equivalent to the Malaysian Ministry of Energy
B) Zero Energy Commercial Building consortium
C) New Building Institute. NBI
A nonprofit organization that provides research and improved energy performance in commercial buildings
D)International Living Future Institute

The Programs surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings are :
1)2030 Challenge
The top 80% of 10 Architectural firms and 70% of the top 20 Architectural firms use The Challenge 2030.whereby all developments, new buildings and major renovation shall be carbon neutral by 2030 in the US and thereby reducing the temperature by 2 degree below the pre-industrial times.Net Zero Energy Buildings are also refereed too as Zero Energy Buildings.

2)Ashrae Vision 2020
Ashrae is a strong supporter of NZEB, and where Ashrae Vision 2020 was developed to promote energy Efficiency. NZE is defined as uses as much energy as it produces as measured at the site.

The Industry Codes and Regulations  surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the world are: 
1)Security Act of 2007
2)Energy Independence and Security Act( Malaysian Renewable Energy Act)
3)California Public Utilities Commission
4)Massachusetts Zero Energy Building Task Force

5)European Union
The parliament passed a directive to achieve NZE by 2019 but focused on residential buildings and not commercial buildings: UK-Zero Carbon Hub to be carbon neutral by 2016, Germany-Passivhaus, Netherlands-energy neutral by 2020, France to be Energy positive by 2020.

The Building Codes surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:  
1)IgCC– International Green Construction Code
This code is developed in conjunction with AIA,USGBC (MGBC-a Malaysian equivalent body –Malaysian Green Building Council) , 2)ASHRAE,ASTM,IES
3)CalGreen, California Green Building
4)Standard 189.1

The Building rating and Energy Labelling Systems surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:

1) Energy Star
Is an energy labelling program of EPA( Environmental Protection Agency) and DOE( Department of Energy) It labels energy efficient products, homes, and commercial buildings. It scores on a table of 1 to 100.100 is a top performer. Energy Star does not recognize NZEBs. But the NZEB would score 90 in this program.
2) Leed/Green Building Index
The energy efficiency is the first and primary focus of the certification, one cannot obtain a platinum certification without designing for a high performance building. Incidentally the Net Zero building would easily obtain the Platinum with a marginal additional cost
3) Living Building Challenge by International Living Future Institute
Defines Imperatives for Net Zero Energy:

  • Net Zero Energy-if this imperative is not achieved it will not be qualified for the Living Building Challenge. The definition of NZEB are on: renewable energy, photo voltaic, wind turbines, water powered micro turbines, direct geo thermal. Biomass or combustion of any kind is not allowed. Hydrogen cell is allowed if energy is fueled by Hydrogen. Off grid connection is a must.
  • Site Imperatives-Site is restricted for gray fields and brownfields
  • Equity Imperatives-fresh air, sunlight and natural waterways
  • Beauty Imperatives-Beauty, spirit, inspiration and education

 

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check out our Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans, click here
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heck out our Architect, Green Architect, House Plan

 

Prepared by Ar. Perumal Nagapushnam

cladding pvdf coating

discoloration and chalking of pvdf coating

Painting and defects of painting

Prepared by Architect Perunal Nagaushnam

Paints contain three components: 1.)pigment (colour),2.) a binder (holds the paint together),3.) carrier (disperses the binder).

Why is it necessary to paint a building? The objective of painting is a dual purpose, that is:

  • General Protection
    to protect the painted parts of the building, making it more durable.For a maximum protection, the painting coating schemes  may differ pending on the a length of time of protection to harshest weather conditions.
  • Special protections
    such as protection against the harsh weather, air pollutions, salt spray environments such as the sea-shores. Steel frames, portal frames or shipping ports structures may require protection against the tendency to rust
  •  Decorative
    the final objective is aesthetics, which is to make the object to be painted to look attractive and presentable.
  • Green and sustainable effects
    Green paints are materials that do not use toxic chemicals in the paint.The harmful toxic chemicals found in modern paints are harmful to the environment and humans, containing  metals such as Cadmium, lead and chromium are found in pigments.
    Petrochemicals, solvents, benzene, formaldehyde and VOCs-volatile organic compounds  are also used in binders and carriers. Toxic, environmentally harmful, chemicals are used as preservatives, stabilisers and thickener.
  • Special functions
    Special purposed paints such antifungal, fire retardant, odourless, quick drying

read on painting why and how to choose the type of paint… the way to select the painting schemes are found in…6 things you need to know How to choose paint for your home.

There many types of paint:
a.)Emulsion water based paint
b.)Gloss paint
c.)Spray paint
d.)Acrylic paint

Gloss Paint

Gloss paints are oil-based which consist of  resins to giving them a hard wearing quality. Gloss paints are oil (solvent) based paints and also water based gloss paints . traditionally gloss paint was only oil solvent paints, which is to say that after painting the brushes are washed away using solvent( such as turpentine or oil) or the paint can be diluted only by using a solvent such as turpentine. Water base paints can be diluted with water or washed away with water when it is still wet.

  • Liquid gloss needs an undercoat but gives the more traditional high gloss finish and is extremely hard wearing and resistant to dirt.
  • Satinwood is a durable gloss paint that gives a more subtle sheen than the conventional shiny gloss effect, however, it is not usually as hard wearing.
  • Eggshell is a paint is with flatter matte finish, used for smaller pieces of decoration in timber architraves and skirting.
  • Polyurethane glosses an oil-based paint with a polyurethane resin, causing it be tough making it with a hard wearing surface and a greater abrasion than the usual paint.
  • Silane is a mix of silicone and polyurethane paints which make the paint with a stronger surface than polyurethane as the silicone, hence giving an extra protection.

Coating systems

As a rule, all painting schemes should be painted with a primer coat, an undercoat, and a finish coat. There is some exemption to this rule, such as weather shield or pu paint polyurethane paints which do not need a primer or sealer coat. The following are the coating system for the different base materials:

Cement base surfaces
Emulsion paints  coating system, for the internal wall, are the acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat. The Emulsion paints  coating system, for external walls, are an acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat or 2 coats of weather-resisting painting coat system.
Wood surfaces
All surfaces external or internal is primer coat(aluminum oxide ) with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.
Metal surfaces (steel)-gloss paint
All surfaces external or internal is red oxide primer coat with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.The surface preparation should be mechanical wire brushing, or sand grit blasting to SA standards of 1 to 2.5, as this process would eliminate all rust which will reappear at a later stage. In some standards after sand or grit blasting the surfaces are washed clean of salt and within a minute of preparation the painting coat is applied.
Metal surfaces (steel)-PU paint(polyurethane)
The surface preparation stated above is repeated with 2 coats of Pu paint, which referred to as 2 pack PU paint, which is mixed prior to application as they harden within minutes of application and thus giving excellent protection.
Metal surfaces (GI, aluminum, stainless steel, brass)-gloss paint
The surface preparation as stated above for steel, for the above metals are not necessary as these metals do not rust, but there a small amount of oxidation in aluminum. Nevertheless, the surface needs some treatment such as acid etching to cleans the surfaces of the metal.
1.Zinc chromate primer is necessary on surfaces such as galvanized iron as red oxide as primer will chemically react with the galvanized surface, whereas zinc chromate is a neutral material that stops the reactions.
2.under coat and finish coat of gloss paint

Surface Preparation
The importance of surface preparation can not be underestimated as the quality of painting durability and aesthetic depends primarily on the quality of surface preparation, as you could see from the above materials the surface preparation vary from material to material.

Defects of Painting

  1. Painting schemes
    The first defect of paint is the lack of provision of painting schemes such as undercoat or the primer coat, sometimes as a way to cut cost the painter applies the finish coat without the  undercoat  and  the primer.
  2.  see images of  Blistering
    this is a defect where water ingress from the rear background of the material causing the paint to explode with moister inside in blister forms. This may also due to the lack of waiting for the base to dry sufficiently prior to painting, the moisture in the base may result in water escaping eventually which causes the blistering formation.
  3. see images of  crazing 
  4.  defective cycle- the waiting time for drying of the surface is not sufficient and this causes the paint to be defective as the moisture attempt to surface.
  5. see images of Run/sagging
  6. see images of wrinkling
  7. Bloom– cloudy and patches on gloss surfaces
  8. The bleeding-background material is dissolving and causes discoloration.
  9. Cissing-smooth surfaces repelling the coating of paints
  10. see images of chalking
  11. see images of Flashing
  12. Fading as a result of color pigments fading due to the UV rays
  13. Flaking-as a result of poor adhesion of painting coats
  14. Grinning-as a result of background paint showing due to lack of opacity
  15. Saponification-results of chemical reaction such as alkali surfaces

Reasons for poor quality painting

Some of the reasons for poor quality may be:
a.)poor choice of painting coating schemes,
b.)application on a damp background,
c.)poor preparation works,
d.)poor quality paints types,
e.)poor workmanships
f) poor selection of the type of paint for the wrong purpose

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Prepared by System Design Architect, Architect Eco Green Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

How to Build a Log House-Part 1

Construction Lesson 1 (Sill Logs, Floor and Joints)

 

What are the Sill Logs?

Sill logs are the logs that rest directly on top of the foundation and its connected to it by the anchor bolts.

 

How to Choose Your Logs?

  • Just about any type of log can be used, as long as it’s relatively straight and it is around 8”-10” diameter.
  • It has only minor tapering no more than 2”. And the length for it is around 16 ft.
  • Conifers such as pine, fir, spruce and tamarack are preferred because these softwoods are workable, durable and relatively lightweight.
  • Hardwoods, particularly oak can also be used, though their sapwood is highly susceptible to infestation by borers and fungus.

 

Sill Logs:

  • After completing the foundation based on the house plan the work on the upper part of the house begins.
  • The first step in the house structure is to install the sill log on the floor plan
  • Note: this is an important part of the job because if the sills are not laid as mentioned in the house floor plan and if its not laid squarely and securely that might effect the whole structure.

 

Steps of Constructing the log house Sill Log.

  • If you don’t want a full basement, you must excavate the house plan dimension at least below the frost line, install footings and construct a wall up to 20 in. above grade level.
  • You must also install piers within the foundation walls as mentioned in the architecture plan to support the floor girder. Also, install anchor bolts along the top of the walls to attach the sill.
  • Begin floor construction by hewing or cutting flat the bottom of the sill logs.
  • Then make holes in the sill logs to fit in the anchor bolts and install sill sealer or a termite shield according to the local building code.
  • The corner joints are made by bottom notching the logs based on the house design.
  • Hew flat the top of the girder and install it over the support piers.
  • Join it to the sill with a mortise and tenon joint. Drive nails through the top of the tenon and into the mortise to complete the joint.

 

Steps of constructing the log house sill log and floor:

  • In a similar manner, hew or cut flat the top of the joists and install them between the girder and sill logs so they are flush with the top of the girder.
  • Install the sub flooring perpendicular to the direction of the joists. Now you’re ready to start on the walls as designed in the architecture plan.

Steps of constructing the log house wall joints:

  • Many different types of notches can be used to join the logs, but a good choice for the beginning log builder is the scribe, fit, round-notch method.
  • It features semicircular notches cut in the bottom of the logs to fit over adjacent logs. Also, a V-shaped groove is cut down the length of each log bottom so the entire length can sit flush on the log below.
  • Although this method is slower than others, the corner joints are self-draining-water running down the outside of the house hits the log tops and runs off, instead of being trapped in the notch.
  • The V-grooves also eliminate air drafts between the logs.
  • The joints between courses do not need chinking, so you can avoid one of the most chronic maintenance problems of log homes: repairing cracked chinking.

 

Prepared by: Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Check out our log house designs : http://www.sda-architect.com/

How to build a Log House-Part 3
Foundation Lesson 3 (Perimeter Foundation & Full Basement Foundation)

This  article on how to build a Log House-Part 3 is the last part of the session, which deals on the subject on how to build a Log House in totality from the foundation to the roof.

Perimeter Foundation:

  • It can be made of concrete, concrete blocks or concrete faced with stones.
  • If made of concrete it can be Single pour and Double Pour (footing and foundation).

Single Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • It’s not used as much as the separately poured footing and foundation.
  • However it simplifies the task and cut down on time.
  • Lay out the outside dimensions of the footings, the wall thickness and outside boundary of the wall on the batter boards using the house floor plan.
  • Then position the builder’s string to show the dimensions.
  • Excavate the footing and construct the forms.
  • Bring All Service pipes in below the footing and frost line before pouring the footing.
  • Make sure any low spots under the edge of the footing are filled with stones

Double Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • The footing is usually poured separately from the foundation.
  • If the soil is stable, the footing is poured directly in a trench dug without forms.
  • If the soil is less stable, forms must be constructed to hold the concrete in place.
  • The forms must be leveled by using the carpenter’s level and stones are used to fill up the holes around the form to keep the concrete from running out
  • If pouring without forms drive small wooden stakes into the soil at the bottom of the trench where their tops should be level with the height of the footing.
  • Pour the concrete and smooth more or less to the height of the stakes then pull the stakes out and fill the holes with concrete and smooth over.
  • Form a key in the footing to help hold the concrete foundation in place and it can be done by using a beveled 2”x4”. However in the tropical countries water stop is need to be added to prevent water seepage.
  • Reinforce the footing with two to three reinforcing bars spaced about 3”-4” off the bottom of the trench.
  • Make an inspection after the form for the footings are completed.

Pouring the Foundation for the House Plan:

  • After the footing has cured for 5-6 days the foundation can be formed.
  • Remove the footings forms and construct the form for the foundation.
  • Individual sections of forms should be nailed together from the outside.
  • Set up the outside forms first and level it by using the carpenter level and then do the same on the inside forms.
  • Higher and larger foundation walls should be poured slowly to allow the concrete enough time to set up.

Basement Foundation:

  • Basement foundation has the same fundamentals of the perimeter foundation however its has additional features such as:
    • Foundation drains.
    • Insulating the basement.
    • Basement floor.

Foundation Drain & Basement Insulation:

  • A drain should be placed around the foundation to help carry off excess water that collects at its base.
  • Put a 2” layer of gravel around the outside of the bottom edge of the footing.
  • Then put clay drainage tile or perforated plastic on top of this around the outside of the footing.
  • Throw from 2”-6” of gravel over the clay drainage to extend it up over the top edge of the footing by at least 2”.
  • If you need insulation for the basement, install 4” thick batts of rigid foam with moisture barrier below the concrete floor and on the gravel. It can be installed on the outside of the foundation wall as well.

Basement Foundation Floor:

  • Usually poured after the foundation forms are removed.
  • Before pouring the floor first position the drain as needed.
  • The floor drain should be ½” below the surface of the finished concrete floor.
  • Pouring basement floor should be done with a fast pace to prevent the concrete from setting up before you can get it all finished.
  • Check out for some great Log House Floor Plans at :

http://www.sda-architect.com