sdaarchi SDA Architect Green Architecure,Green Architect

Green Architecture,Green city,Low carbon economy,net zero cities, net zero country,,Green Architect,Architect, Net Zero building, net  zero, Zero Net, Net Zero Energy Buildings,NZEB

Green vertical walls

Green Architecture

Green Architecture-a misunderstood word

Green Architecture is probably misunderstood and misrepresented ie the Green certification program make a building Green.Neither is it that  merely planting of green plants in building does not represent Green Architecture. Existing Green Certification programs exists but the focus is skirting the topic and issues at large.

But rather ,the planting of Green plants must have a purpose, which ought to be, to provide benefits of eco biodiversity, reap the benefits of health as  type of home affects your health and improves the Biodiversity of the surrounding environment.
And it ought to saves the eco system and our future depends on it. Our future and sustainability depends on it on how we teat the Climate system, which we all share..Global temperatures are rising and it is said that the most conservative calculation indicates a temperature increase by 2-6 degrees C by the year 2100. The climate systems are being aquandered.Our Eco Biodiversity is being lost rapidly. The Loss of biodiversity ought to be the primary reason for Green Architecture. Buildings and Infrastructures are to design the strcutures with a restoration of biodiversity –Restorative Biodiversity design Biodiversity design,otherwise our future sustainability will be affected to the brink of disaster of out civilisation.

Vertical green architecture

green vertical wall

Loss of biodiversity

What is biodiversity? Read on biodiversity.
The design of the  The loss of biodiversity is to be the primary focus  in designing our buildings and it comes with many names-some call it:
1.Hyper Green designs
2.Green Architectural design
3.State of Art Green design
4.Ecological green
5.Eco green design
6.Restorative environmental designs
7.Bio-diversity designs

Green Architecture Designs
It is planting of a vierty of plants( fauna) to encourage the viriety of animals( fauna) and the ground should be rich( habitats) for these growth.The planting of trees should be a combined effort of Landscape Architect and a Ecologist to produce diversity of plants , animals and habitats for its survival. Biodiversity should be further enhanced by incorporating EM-Effective Microbes. Effective Microbes which kills the bad bacteria and help the flaura and fauna to live in a healthier environment.

Benefits of Loss of well being factor etc

Improving the biodiversity of the environment helps to improves healthier people, cleaner water,cleaner air and well being of people. It reduces energy consumption, reduces water footprint, energy footprint and ecological footprint.

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Certifying Bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings

The certifying bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the US A are :
A) Department of Energy
, DOE, an equivalent to the Malaysian Ministry of Energy
B) Zero Energy Commercial Building consortium
C) New Building Institute. NBI
A nonprofit organization that provides research and improved energy performance in commercial buildings
D)International Living Future Institute

The Programs surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings are :
1)2030 Challenge
The top 80% of 10 Architectural firms and 70% of the top 20 Architectural firms use The Challenge 2030.whereby all developments, new buildings and major renovation shall be carbon neutral by 2030 in the US and thereby reducing the temperature by 2 degree below the pre-industrial times.Net Zero Energy Buildings are also refereed too as Zero Energy Buildings.

2)Ashrae Vision 2020
Ashrae is a strong supporter of NZEB, and where Ashrae Vision 2020 was developed to promote energy Efficiency. NZE is defined as uses as much energy as it produces as measured at the site.

The Industry Codes and Regulations  surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the world are: 
1)Security Act of 2007
2)Energy Independence and Security Act( Malaysian Renewable Energy Act)
3)California Public Utilities Commission
4)Massachusetts Zero Energy Building Task Force

5)European Union
The parliament passed a directive to achieve NZE by 2019 but focused on residential buildings and not commercial buildings: UK-Zero Carbon Hub to be carbon neutral by 2016, Germany-Passivhaus, Netherlands-energy neutral by 2020, France to be Energy positive by 2020.

The Building Codes surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:  
1)IgCC– International Green Construction Code
This code is developed in conjunction with AIA,USGBC (MGBC-a Malaysian equivalent body –Malaysian Green Building Council) , 2)ASHRAE,ASTM,IES
3)CalGreen, California Green Building
4)Standard 189.1

The Building rating and Energy Labelling Systems surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:

1) Energy Star
Is an energy labelling program of EPA( Environmental Protection Agency) and DOE( Department of Energy) It labels energy efficient products, homes, and commercial buildings. It scores on a table of 1 to 100.100 is a top performer. Energy Star does not recognize NZEBs. But the NZEB would score 90 in this program.
2) Leed/Green Building Index
The energy efficiency is the first and primary focus of the certification, one cannot obtain a platinum certification without designing for a high performance building. Incidentally the Net Zero building would easily obtain the Platinum with a marginal additional cost
3) Living Building Challenge by International Living Future Institute
Defines Imperatives for Net Zero Energy:

  • Net Zero Energy-if this imperative is not achieved it will not be qualified for the Living Building Challenge. The definition of NZEB are on: renewable energy, photo voltaic, wind turbines, water powered micro turbines, direct geo thermal. Biomass or combustion of any kind is not allowed. Hydrogen cell is allowed if energy is fueled by Hydrogen. Off grid connection is a must.
  • Site Imperatives-Site is restricted for gray fields and brownfields
  • Equity Imperatives-fresh air, sunlight and natural waterways
  • Beauty Imperatives-Beauty, spirit, inspiration and education


Hyper Green architect

Green architect Net Zero Energy Buildings Architect




check out our Green and Sustainable House Floor Plans, click here
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Prepared by Ar. Perumal Nagapushnam

What is Net Zero Energy Building design?

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

The Malaysian  Cultural City , Bentong in Malaysia  is the first of its kind in the world for Net Zero Energy Resort pioneering  in Net Zero Energy Building design for large scale projects. The challenges to achieve (NZEB) designs are real, as Resorts are energy guzzlers and achieving Zero Energy is difficult endeavor. This resort will be used a one stop destination for tourist all over the world. It is estimated that about 3000 tourist will visit the Cultural City per day. The Malaysian Cultural City shall been slated as an Iconic tourist destination as it show cases to the world the cultural diversity, that has successfully  prevailed  in Malaysia among 3 majors racial enclaves. The resort has a 680beded Hotel,33 chalets and a traditional Indian Village, traditional Chinese Village and a traditional Malay Village (kampung)which shall show case the diversity of Malaysian cultures.
Among other reasons for the project to be slated as a top Iconic tourist destination site due to  the Net Zero Energy Building design and  Hyper Green considerations.

Net Zero Energy Resort

Bentong Cultural Village, Malaysia designed as Net Zero Energy Village with a 680 bed room Hotels, chalets &Indian Villages













What are NZEB,Net Zero Energy Building designs?

Net Zero Energy Building design also called Net Zero Carbon building is an attempt to reduce the electrical bill to zero cost every year.  In this article we attempt to describe what constitutes a Net Zero Energy Building designs. There are about 4 definitions of Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB): by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA.

  1. Net Zero Source Energy Building-A building that purchases or produces as much energy for a year by accounting the energy produced at the source
  2. Net Zero Energy Cost Building-The electric bill is covered every year by virtue of design, and production of energy at the site.
  3. Net Zero Energy Emission Building-The Carbon neutrality is achieved by optimizing the energy consumption and neutrality is obtained by offsetting using renewable energy.
  4. Net Zero Site Energy Building-A building site that produces at least as much renewable energy as it uses the energy, over the course of a year.

When we speak of (Net Zero Energy Building design), there is a general misconception that solar panels are used to produce all the energy required or others preconceive that there is a major reduction on the consumption of energy. In fact this misnomer, to depend entirely on Photo voltaic panels entirely, is not true as the cost of photo voltaic panels are so cost exorbitant that the cost of Photo voltaic may cost more than the building cost. And neither is the amount of consumption reduced. The above definitions by NREL, clearly speaks defies these misnomers as flawed.

There are much fears that Net Zero Energy is exclusively for small buildings and System Design Architect ( see ) is committed to pioneer this latest technology in the frontiers of Energy Efficient buildings. The need to save energy is an application of a want to improve the reduction of energy. The world that is groping, floundering and flirting with the Green movement as a way to save the world without substantial scientific basis, Net Zero Energy movement has a direct saving impact to the environment by reducing energy, carbon emission etc. The Green movement reduces a nominal energy consumption but in NZEB, the energy savings are drastically reduced by 100%.

How does  Net Zero Energy Building design (NZEB) works

3R Doctrine .The methodology to produce Net Zero Energy Building design, is basically strategies centered around the 3R doctrine ie reduce, reuse and recycle. The wastage is systematically reduced either passively or actively .Recycling of energy is done by placing equipment such as recycling wheel where energy is reused and not wasted. In nature there is no wastage and we should learn from the Bio-metrics of nature. In nature wastage from one is a food source to another in the ecological food chain, unlike the case with human beings. Much of our energy is rather wasted and we are flaunting our resources away.

Soft-wares. We employ the latest computer energy simulations, in System Design Architect , using the software we will be able to identify the sources of energy consuming elements and eliminate it at the preliminary stages. Using a shoe box model with soft-wares as Ecotect, Vasari, Design studio, Therm and other personally developed software that instantly reveals the weakness of areas where energy guzzling is identified and eliminated. Each of these soft wares will serve a purpose and I will discuss them in detail in the forthcoming article.

Passive Design. By using passive design consideration techniques, the total heat gain (tropical heat /summer) or loss (winters) heat gain or loss reduced. The orientation of the building will realize heat savings by 15%. Other passive strategies are such as window shading, type of glass to be used in curtain walls, shading of building from the sun using smart landscaping will improve the energy savings tremendously. This includes insulation of the buildings where heat is gain into the building for summers or heat loss, in summers, are reduced. Using soft-ware that calculates the material to be used for insulation, whereby we minimize the loss of energy via conduction, convention, and radiation. This will be systematically be analyzed and energy saved. Please read more about Net Zero Energy Building design in the System Design’s  Website at

Active Design. This is where the high performance mechanical system is used to reduce the power usages. Equipment certified star rated as energy savings, are  to be selected based on actual performances and guarantees and not by virtues of these certifications. There is much fraudulent certification that has been exposed even in the US.

There are numerous other strategies such as LED, high performances air conditioning units, refrigerant types, heat recycle wheels and reduction of the electrical cyclical spikes. This will be dealt with in details in the future articles  as article on its own.

BAS, Building Automation System, There are much need for BAS systems to be designed in Buildings, as they reduce the consumption of energy and wastage. This is especially so in large projects where equipment such as air con  chillers, lift controls, lighting fitting sensors, motion sensors in escalators and light fittings cannot be monitored manually.

active designs

active designs

Renewable Energy. Each site has its prevailing characteristic for generating renewable energy, such as wind , solar, geo thermal and mini hydro. The type of renewable energy used to generate energy will depend on the availability of energy at the site.

renewable energy

wind turbine

Photo voltaic has it advantages of cost but in the tropics, the no of hours of cloud free hours per day, may not make photo voltaic as viable option. The viability of a wind turbine is not determined by no of hours there are sufficient wind to generate power, but the availability is day and night. Whereas, mini turbines and geo thermal systems may be produce energy for the whole day continuously and are not affected by the availability of the sun or wind. Each of the sources has their own weakness and strengths. The site is analyses for which option is the best option.

Why design for Net Zero Energy Building design?

There is much weakness in the present Green movement certified by Green bodies( Marks -Singapore, Leeds-US, GBI Malaysia) results in costlier building cost where the end users do not see the benefits of the Green buildings. For instance tenants of office space may not see the need to pay additional rentals, typically charged in Green Buildings. The tangible benefits are not realized by the tenants.Net Zero Energy is a Gold standard for Green and Sustainable movement.However, in NZEB, the tenants enjoy free electric bill and the Land Lords enjoy lower maintenance cost.

The Landlord may even generate revenue if he is able to surplus supply energy to the Grid and receive financial returns.

The benefits are marginal and more of a social contribution to the environment a response to the call to save the environment which case has not been scientifically founded. Read for 8 reasons for why to go for Green and sustainability and the weakness in the present Green movement.

In NZEB, places such as Bali, Indonesia the live-hood of people has been disconnected with the Government public utility. In situations of a disaster, their resilience is greater in the event of a disastrous tragedy, as they are self-reliant and independent of on external environment. And their ability to survive a disaster is greater. Unlike in the case of 2011,Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan, that hit the national grid brought the country’s economic to its knees. The economy was dependent on the national grid and the economy was brought o a halt because of power shortage. If Japan’s Buildings  were Net Zero Energy Building design unlike Bali, their ability to recover would have been easier. In fact, places remote from the disaster could have had power and resume a normal lifer.

In fact, my call in this article is for building to have Net Zero Energy Building design, NZEB to be self-reliant and be organically dependent on nature and not dependent on the public utility companies. I underscore the need to tend towards organic architecture as being self-reliant and independence from the utility companies, generating power, water supply, water disposal, waste disposal (domestic and sewerage and industrial) and communication and living with nature within the site.

Net Zero Energy Building design is to the path to quick recovery and reconciliation and resilience from calamities that threatens to strike our nations to desolation and destitution.

waterfall H25

Green and Sustainable House Floor Plan

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Carbon Trading

Green architect

Prepared by Architect Perumal 
System Design Architect


Indian House in Goa

Indian House in Goa

It is hard to put in a nut shell that what and which constitutes Indian house design. India has been ruled by the British, Afghans moguls, that Indian house designs character has not been defined by these colonial master. or rather the British learn much words from the Indian culture( words such as shampoo, lantern, bungalow, cantonment, canoe, cyber,etc)

The houses in the North of India is not different from the houses in  South neither  were they any different form homes in the East – nor the West. However some enclaves in Goa and Pondicheery had remarkable difference because of the Portuguese and French influences for a much longer period of time than rest if India.

The Royals(refereed to as the Raj) lived in huge palaces where their wives and nuclear family lived in. In most places there were a large central courtyard where royal functions took places , where guards paraded with the elephants and a place of ceremony for the Raj. It was heavily guarded with one main entrance and with secret passages for Princely families to exit during wars. Water supply was secretly duct-ed underground to from the mountains for consumption at the Palaces .These water were designed for fountains in the gardens and dropped along window openings to allow the wind to pass through creating a cool breeze into the courtyards. the Net Zero Energy Architects should note that the passive designs were traditional used in the ancient architecture of India with respect to cooling with water and massive walls were good insulator of heat during he summers.


Indian house floor plan, Goa India

Indian house floor plan, Goa India

While in the courtyards held functions, the children and the wives were not to be seen in public spaces, they watched the function form hidden rooms from above the courtyards. The word Bungalow, is an Indian word adapted by the British for single storey house in large compounds.Landlord lived in Bungalow whereas peasants lived in Villages. These Bungalows were places where the rich landlords lived in.

Traditionally this bungalow , Indian House Design patterned after the palaces of the Princely palaces-courtyard house were common. The bungalow was elevated above the ground which led to an central hall which led to the master suite on one side, and to the visitor’s room on the other and the main dining hall.

Check out for some great design of Indian houses at http// The dinning hall had view of the central courtyard which was visible form the master suite, and all the other bed rooms. The maids quarters and the kitchen were at the end of the courtyard. A corridor led to the kitchen that butted the courtyard.

indian courtyard

Indian House with a courtyard ,Another great courtyard design of Indian House Plan

 Indian had a great love for their Gods and devoted to their gods in Temples ,and housed their gods in Indian design Temples. The palaces had temples and offered sacrifices to the god before going to war. They offered gold, precious stones, diamond, jade etc to their God when they were victorious in the wars and business ventures. These offering were held in Temple

Treasuries chest vaults.

The Temples were built in granite stones, sometimes mountains en block were carved and chiseled out to form the temples in the South of India. Use of precious stones in the temples were quite normal in their devotions.Marble for surface treatment was also common as it was found abundantly eg the Taj Mahal.


 places of worhip

stone work on Indian places of worhip

Houses in the villages were usually had a front terrace where the folks sat out in the evening for a yarn.On entrance it lead to a common hall which was like Living room and Dinning room combines. There were rooms in the rear for the privacy of living.

In the Mohenjo-daro the civilization it was known to have been built in grid lines and the houses were known to have public sewer lines and common utilities. But with the advent of rapid modernization  and urban migration   during the British rule the  these urban planning once in greatness was  lost.where the focus was not exploiting the industries of India rather than planning the cities for urban living.

Net Energy Building for Office Tower

Models for Net Zero Energy Buildings are used by  Net Zero Architects to calculate the amount of energy saving in the schematic stages of the design, which then are  used as a basis of energy  design control through out the design implementation stages.The model is a 3-D electronic model of a building, it is also a simplified model without much details of the building, which will help calculate the calculation intentions. It is refereed as a shoe box model. There are many types of models used in designing a Net Zero Energy Building design.There are 11 types of Energy Model, which are:

1.) Heat Transfer model for Net Zero Energy Buildings in House Floor Plans
Model show that show how the heat is transferred from the outside to the interiors of the building architectural floor plans.
2.) Lighting model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
Model showing how the day light penetrates top the interiors of the building and it helps Architect to design the light fittings in the building architectural layout outs.
The study of a the lighting levels through out the day would show the amount of light derived from the sun into the building and it helps the Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to design the additional lighting need ed to make the building sufficiently lighted up.
The amount of light that can be daylight harvested can also be studied, note the amount of light lux derived from the sun is about 100,000-140,000 lux in comparison to what is needed in the office space is only a merger 400lux, the potentials of day light harvesting has to be considered seriously in the light of the current worldwide needs.
3.) BIM Model-Building Information Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
A digital computerized model, which has information about clashes of the architectural and engineering elements, it provides information about costing, and when plug-in with time project management time line program, we are able to produce the physical model developing over the time line of the builder. The model can be used to study the thermal heat, energy model and total embodied energy of the building architectural plans. This is a great tool for architects and project management consultants.
4.) Energy Model  for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
–A simple model used for computerized computation of the energy usage in the building for every month or per year based on the climate conditions, and the building insulation and orientation for buildings. A designing tool, which is helpful to Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects in  choosing the mass proportion and selection of materials.
5.) Wind Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
– A simple model used for computerized computation of the direction of the wind into the building based on the openings of the buildings. It will help Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to decide where openings shall be created to enable wind to be harvested.
6.) CFD-for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
Computerized Fluid Dynamics is a study of the flow of air in  a  building, where the direction is established and the comfort is designed and it is a tool for Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to remove impediments to comfort. It helps the architects to design buildings of how the heated air flows, how the ventilation of air flows throughout the building.
7.) Massing and Study Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
-a model used by Net Zero Energy Buildings Architects to evaluate the proportion, the shape , bulk , form aesthetics and how the form affects the environment.
8.) Thermal Model for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
– a model which reveal the sides of the building, where is heated up during the day. With the Thermal model the building designer may be able to decide how the building may be treated or insulated to keep the thermal heat from entering in to the building.
9.) Solar Path Model– for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
The path of the sun through out the year, and how it affects the building’s shadow and how it affects the sun’s rays into the window openings and show how the sun’s ray falls on the building and the building’s shadows is cast and how the neighboring building’s shadow affect the building that is being designed.
10.) Ventilation Model– for Net Zero Energy Buildings  in House Floor Plans
The study of wind and movement of air within the building

Contact us for your NZEB designs..we will be able to help you in the interest to secure the building in being less independent to the energy utility companies.check out our house floor plans.

Prepared by Net Energy Architect Perumal Nagapushnam, Green Architect of