Carbon Trading

The Kyoto Protocol,1992 in the UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change but adopted in 1997 established the basis of Carbon Trading, Carbon offsets.
192 nation agreed to reduce Carbon emissions, which Identifies the 6 GHG gasses as 1) CO2 2) methane, 3) N2O 4) hydrofluorocarbon  5) perfluorocarbon and 6) sulphur hex-fluorocarbon. All these gases are referred to as Carbon emission, Carbon dioxide is the weaker global warming effect but the amount of it is the largest amount. Before the Kyoto Convention 2 Convention were held to establish the basis of Carbon emission, what is was considered as Carbon emission etc.

Carbon Trading Price Fluctuations

carbon-trading graph

carbon-trading in Asia


The Carbon Trading has been defined in 3 conventions as follows:
a) Earth Summit-Conference on Environment and Development –UNCED, Rio 1992
b) United Nation Framework Conference on Climate Change UNFCCC( not binding due to no time limit was set by the UN
c) Kyoto Protocol, 1997
Carbon Trading is under the purview of the UN, Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 and therefore the Kyoto Protocol is a treaty
In Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Trade is in charge of CDM. In Malaysia, 100 tonnes were traded in 2008, at RM4.8 Billion. I ton of carbon was  sold at RM48. The price of carbon rallied from US 25 – US 12 over these years.

Ways to earn Carbon Credits for Carbon Trading

There are a few established legitimate ways of Carbon trading , which are:
a) using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets are made
b) using wind turbines as Carbon Offsets are made
c) designing Net Zero Carbon Emission buildings or Net Zero Energy Buildings
d) Managing a forest ( Tropical) or wetlands, as the soil and tree sequesters CO2 by using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets is made
e) Investing in a Carbon reducing projects such as Renewable energy projects, Geo-Thermal, Biomass, PV solar panels, micro turbine and wind turbines.
How much can you gain by Carbon Trading?
A typical building as in a 100,000 sq ft of gross built commercial space up area can offset carbon 390 tons of carbon per year.
The financial amount you can trade is 390 ton per year xRM48/ton=RM18,720
Carbon Emission for Combustion Fuels
Gasoline…………. 0.27kg CO2/kWh
Light Oil…………. 0.26kgCO2/kWh
Natural Gas………0.23kgCO2/kWh
Malaysian CO2 Emission Coefficient Rate is 0.631 kgCO2/kWh

Check out our Architect,Green Architect, House Plan relating to Net Zero Carbon designs

Carbon Trading

Green architect

Prepared by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam
Net Zero Emission Building Architect

What the basic Net Zero Energy Building Terms used in Design

Net Zero Green and sustainability

Photo Voltaic Panels

The main Net Zero Energy Building Terms  used in Designs are :

1,) Net Zero Energy Building Energy Models
are virtual e models of the building which is based on building physics and it uses a baseline model and compares the energy savings with the proposed model. Interpreting the results will make the difference. Read the 10 types of energy saving model in this blog

The Energy performances are to be controlled through-out the delivery process tracking for net zero energy performance?The entire design team should interface with the energy model for energy modeling to be successfully achieved as an end to the energy model.

Inputs such as OTTV, RTTV, air con loads, temperature set points , outside ambient temperatures, and details about systems will help the energy model to be accurate.A white box model/shoe box model helps to analyze the daylight and energy performances.  A white box model is a simple 3 d electronic model of a building without much details of the building.merely showing the overall shape of the building, and the insulation material will be shown.

These Net Zero Energy Building Energy Models can be created by Sketch up plug in such as  IES Virtual Environment and Energy Plus and Open Studio.This  model study is possible with VE( mass, window/wall ratios).In the future, the Thermal comfort models may be designed for designing purposes.Other Tools box that can be useful are–Weather Maker, sketch up, eQuest, IES Virtual Environment(VE), TRNSYS and THERM

The basic  Net Zero Energy Building Terms used in Designs

2.) Energy-energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
The types of Energy are – Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Mechanical Energy,Gravitational Energy, Nuclear Energy, Chemical Energy, Electricity Energy, Motion Energy, Thermal Energy, Radiant Energy and  Sound Energy.

3.) Law of Thermodynamics states that:
a)Energy cannot be created or destroyed, the sum energy of the universe is constant.
b)Law of Entropy, that energy flow from hot to cold

4.) Power is the rate of doing work or transfer of energy, P=W/t, SI for power is Joules per sec(Watt), a LED using 1watt diode uses 1-watt energy for 1hour

5.) Horse Power is to measure mechanical power,

6.) Btu is heat used to raise the temperature by 1 pound of water by 1 degree F.MBtu is the power to cool and heat water for air con.
Megawatt hour is electrical energy

7.) Photo-voltaic Solar panels convert radiant energy to electrical energy and thermal energy.
8.) pls read here Super Insulation,
9)   pls read here Solar Path
10) pls read here Renewable Energy
11) pls read here BAS Systems
12) pls read here Shading
13) pls read here Orientation of Building
14) pls read here  LED lighting
15.) pls read here Energy Bill
16,) pls read here Peak Loads
17.) pls read here  Conductance,Conductivity,Resistivity, Resistance

water fall House Floor Plan

Net Zero Energy house floor plans













check out our Net Zero Energy House Plans

check out our Seminar for Net Zero Energy and Net Zero Emission Building Seminar 

Carbon Trading

Green architect






Prepared by Green Architect Architect Perumal Nagapushnam,