How to Build Log Houses

In building a Log House, you need the a strong foundation,following that you need to build the Sill Logs and lastly ensure the Logs are anti-termite treated.

A)Foundation

On hard ground where bedrock is close to the surface, buildings usually require only a minimum foundation.Good rock base is a foundation by itself and poor ground conditions such as muddy ares make poor ground conditions and the foudnation need to increased. There are many types of foundations such as Per Foundation ,Slab Foundation,Perimeter Foundation,Basement Foundation,Perimter Foundations,Footing Foundations etc.

The  Types of foundation used in a Log house:

1– Pier foundation:

Its the simplest and least expensive, where concrete or flat stones are mortared or laid dry.

2– Slab Foundation:

The Slab Foundation for a home plan is a simple kinds of foundation where a concrete slab is used as the foundation.Slab foundations are like a raft that floats in the water. It is also called Raft foundation. The rafts foundation keep the house float in a soft ground.

3- Perimeter Foundation for a house floor :

It is made from concrete, concrete blocks, or sometimes stones. Follow the architectural Floor Plan very closely with respects to the dimensions as this will cause the finishes to look tardy, if it is not correctly followed. The ceiling lines, the tiles finishes and the wall straightness will appear tardy if the dimensions of the Log House floor plans are not strictly followed.

4- Full Basement Foundation:

This is the most complicated type of foundation, Its made of poured reinforced concrete or concrete blocks.
 Note: Regardless what type of foundation is chosen a proper footing is needed to be placed slightly below the frost levels.

How to make the foundation for a log house?

Step One: Establish the Boundaries.

1-Establish the exact outside boundaries of your home using a 2”x2” stakes, nails & a rope.

2- Make one end of each stick sharp to be able to drive it into the ground easily.

3-After placing the sticks hammer a nail into the upper center of each stake

4-Once the stakes are placed in position use a rope and connect it to the nails on top of each stake

5-Once three stakes are connected you will able to outline an approximate 90 degree between two walls.

6-Make sure that the angle between the two walls is a perfect 90 degree angle using a triangle with proportions of 3:4:5

Step Two: Erect Batter Boards:

1- The batter board is made by driving 2″x4″ stakes into the ground in an L shape around the corners

2- Nail, a 1”x4’ or 1”x6” batter board, to the stakes to create a right angle and it have to be set back at least 4 feet from the outline stakes and the height is minimum 18″

3- Make sure all batter boards have been installed on all corners at the correct height.

4- Tie weight to builder’s string and drop them over the tops of the batter boards and drop a plumb bob where the two strings cross.

5-Make sure the plumb bob falls exactly on the nail head in the corner stakes this locates the outside boundary of your foundation.

6- Use the same method to locate the inside boundary but by deducting the width of the proposed foundation.

B)How to Build Log Houses– Perimeter Foundation & Full Basement Foundation

Perimeter Foundation:

  • It can be made of concrete, concrete blocks or concrete faced with stones.
  • If made of concrete it can be Single pour and Double Pour (footing and foundation).

Single Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • It’s not used as much as the separately poured footing and foundation.
  • However it simplifies the task and cut down on time.
  • Lay out the outside dimensions of the footings, the wall thickness and outside boundary of the wall on the batter boards using the house floor plan.
  • Then position the builder’s string to show the dimensions.
  • Excavate the footing and construct the forms.
  • Bring All Service pipes in below the footing and frost line before pouring the footing.
  • Make sure any low spots under the edge of the footing are filled with stones

Double Pour Footing/Foundation:

  • The footing is usually poured separately from the foundation.
  • If the soil is stable, the footing is poured directly in a trench dug without forms.
  • If the soil is less stable, forms must be constructed to hold the concrete in place.
  • The forms must be leveled by using the carpenter’s level and stones are used to fill up the holes around the form to keep the concrete from running out
  • If pouring without forms drive small wooden stakes into the soil at the bottom of the trench where their tops should be level with the height of the footing.
  • Pour the concrete and smooth more or less to the height of the stakes then pull the stakes out and fill the holes with concrete and smooth over.
  • Form a key in the footing to help hold the concrete foundation in place and it can be done by using a beveled 2”x4”. However in the tropical countries water stop is need to be added to prevent water seepage.
  • Reinforce the footing with two to three reinforcing bars spaced about 3”-4” off the bottom of the trench.
  • Make an inspection after the form for the footings are completed.

Pouring the Foundation for the House Plan:

  • After the footing has cured for 5-6 days the foundation can be formed.
  • Remove the footings forms and construct the form for the foundation.
  • Individual sections of forms should be nailed together from the outside.
  • Set up the outside forms first and level it by using the carpenter level and then do the same on the inside forms.
  • Higher and larger foundation walls should be poured slowly to allow the concrete enough time to set up.

Basement Foundation:

  • Basement foundation has the same fundamentals of the perimeter foundation however its has additional features such as:
    • Foundation drains.
    • Insulating the basement.
    • Basement floor.

Foundation Drain & Basement Insulation:

  • A drain should be placed around the foundation to help carry off excess water that collects at its base.
  • Put a 2” layer of gravel around the outside of the bottom edge of the footing.
  • Then put clay drainage tile or perforated plastic on top of this around the outside of the footing.
  • Throw from 2”-6” of gravel over the clay drainage to extend it up over the top edge of the footing by at least 2”.
  • If you need insulation for the basement, install 4” thick batts of rigid foam with moisture barrier below the concrete floor and on the gravel. It can be installed on the outside of the foundation wall as well.

Basement Foundation Floor:

  • Usually poured after the foundation forms are removed.
  • Before pouring the floor first position the drain as needed.
  • The floor drain should be ½” below the surface of the finished concrete floor.
  • Pouring basement floor should be done with a fast pace to prevent the concrete from setting up before you can get it all finished.

C.)How to Build Log Houses –Construction Lesson 1 (Sill Logs, Floor and Joints)

What are the Sill Logs?

Sill logs are the logs that rest directly on top of the foundation and its connected to it by the anchor bolts.

How to Choose Your Logs?

  • Just about any type of log can be used, as long as it’s relatively straight and it is around 8”-10” diameter.
  • It has only minor tapering no more than 2”. And the length for it is around 16 ft.
  • Conifers such as pine, fir, spruce and tamarack are preferred because these softwoods are workable, durable and relatively lightweight.
  • Hardwoods, particularly oak can also be used, though their sapwood is highly susceptible to infestation by borers and fungus.

Sill Logs:

  • After completing the foundation based on the house plan the work on the upper part of the house begins.
  • The first step in the house structure is to install the sill log on the floor plan
  • Note: this is an important part of the job because if the sills are not laid as mentioned in the house floor plan and if its not laid squarely and securely that might effect the whole structure.

Steps of Constructing the log house Sill Log.

  • If you don’t want a full basement, you must excavate the house plan dimension at least below the frost line, install footings and construct a wall up to 20 in. above grade level.
  • You must also install piers within the foundation walls as mentioned in the architecture plan to support the floor girder. Also, install anchor bolts along the top of the walls to attach the sill.
  • Begin floor construction by hewing or cutting flat the bottom of the sill logs.
  • Then make holes in the sill logs to fit in the anchor bolts and install sill sealer or a termite shield according to the local building code.
  • The corner joints are made by bottom notching the logs based on the house design.
  • Hew flat the top of the girder and install it over the support piers.
  • Join it to the sill with a mortise and tenon joint. Drive nails through the top of the tenon and into the mortise to complete the joint.

Steps of constructing the log house sill log and floor:

  • In a similar manner, hew or cut flat the top of the joists and install them between the girder and sill logs so they are flush with the top of the girder.
  • Install the sub flooring perpendicular to the direction of the joists. Now you’re ready to start on the walls as designed in the architecture plan.

Steps of constructing the log house wall joints:

  • Many different types of notches can be used to join the logs, but a good choice for the beginning log builder is the scribe, fit, round-notch method.
  • It features semicircular notches cut in the bottom of the logs to fit over adjacent logs. Also, a V-shaped groove is cut down the length of each log bottom so the entire length can sit flush on the log below.
  • Although this method is slower than others, the corner joints are self-draining-water running down the outside of the house hits the log tops and runs off, instead of being trapped in the notch.
  • The V-grooves also eliminate air drafts between the logs.
  • The joints between courses do not need chinking, so you can avoid one of the most chronic maintenance problems of log homes: repairing cracked chinking.

D.How to do Termite Treatment

Hello there this article will be discussing about the termites treatment which is one of the important aspects in construction. Termites are small, pale soft-bodied insects that lives in large colonies with several different castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth. Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly destructive to trees and timber While each termite species thrives in different climates and eats different types of food, all termites require four things to survive: food, moisture, shelter and optimal temperature. Unfortunately, all homes, regardless of their construction type, can provide these ideal conditions for termite infestation.

Before Construction

Treating termite before construction can help you defend against possible claims in the future. Where construction specification for several projects requires the protection for termite in their finishing’s. To help you in dealing with this problem this article will provide you with some tips that you must incorporate in your construction activities. Food and moisture resources around and inside home should be eliminated because termites are attracted towards moisture.

Where Are The Termites?

Termites are frequently living where there is a high concentration of moisture and dampness. In old houses these are frequent problems because they tend to live in obstructed or block water supply and sewerage pipes. Also there is evidence that inside wood products or decaying wood surfaces are high probability areas for a termite to live in where they end up actually eating wood and wooden products inside your house.

Pre Construction Chemical Treatment

Termite treatment in pre-construction stages includes few steps that must be done to ensure an area of termite-free construction.

Treating the soil before any slab placement with insecticides is the most common method of termite treatment. This will form a chemical barrier between ground slab and masonry that will prevent the insects to approach the building. The chemical treatment can be done as follow:

  • Before making the foundation the bottom and sides of excavation must be treated with chemical products.
  • make holes in the earth where slabs on grade will be built and fill them with chemical products.
  • Be sure to use chemicals where walls and floors intersect.
  • Treat the perimeter of the construction by making holes filled with chemicals all around the structure.
  • In pipe beddings fill an area with chemical products to secure the future of the piping.
  • Use specific anti-termite chemical to treat the portion of the buildings were wooden products such as cabinets, doors, among others, will be placed.

Post-construction termite treatment

We can’t be acting in the pre-construction chemical treatment all the time. Sometime termites are found after construction, so what can we do?

Start with an assessment of the entire area before starting any kind of treatment. A deep investigation will determine the extent of the damage, if any damage is found then determine the location of the termite, the access points to the structure and their spread in the area. The following tips should be kept in mind during chemical treatment.

  • As in the pre-construction process, make holes and filled them with chemicals, to create a barrier around the house.
  • Treat the floors and walls by drilling holes and filling them with chemicals. All walls or the vast majority of the walls have to be treated to ensure that no more spreading will continue.
  • Apply chemicals on all points of contacts of wood with the ground or with any part of the building.
  • The voids in masonry can be used with anti-termite treatment.
  • Change and replace wood products or furniture that have high impact and presence of termites, beyond any limit of reparation.

Precautionary measures

When all measurement are taken, perform these simple steps to ensure that your area keeps free of termites.

  1. Keep drains and gutters clean to avoid leakage Make sure that there are no blockage, filtration nor broken pipes with excess of moisture around them.
  1. Eliminate sources of moisture Do not leave unattended areas where there is a high concentration level of humidity. Clean those areas constantly to asure that it wont face the same problem again.
  1. Destroy termites Apply chemicals as soon as you detect areas where termites are being reunited to avoid the spreading of it.
  1. Remove Wood Products.Remove wood products that have had the presence of moisture or have been in contact with water for a long period of time.
  1. Eliminate the wood contact with the ground.Do not bury direct pieces of wood in the ground for any use to avoid the moisture from getting in it.
  1. Fill junctions or voids.If you notice some voids of open space between the building and the ground, act quickly and fill those areas to avoid termites getting in the house.

The Chemicals Used for the Treatment:

There are currently several general kinds of termite chemicals registered for soil treatment. All termite chemicals are effective for their intended purpose but the choice often boils down to toxicity and odour versus longevity and resistance to leaching. The water based termite chemicals do not contain solvents and are odourless. Some of the water based termite chemicals include Premis, Biflex Aqua and Termadore. The Premis is a chloro-nicotinyl type termite chemical and has a toxicity rating of S5. Premis termite chemical remains effective for atleast two years. The Biflex Aqua is a synthetic pyrethroid water based termite chemical with a toxicity rating of S6. Where its recomennded to do a re-treatment of termite treatment with Biflex Aqua after five years for maximum effectiveness. The Biflex Aqua gets binded very quickly and strongly to the soil particles and provides a best option where moisture movement in the soil is a factor.

Prepared and desinged  by: Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

Check out our log house designs :

Check out for some great and handsome architectural floor plan for Log house at:

http://www.sda-architect.com

Whoever Pay for their Monthly Electric Bills, this days!-Net Zero Energy Resort

Net Zero Energy Building Designs Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

With the advent of technologies and special designs, the days when the electric bill stresses you up are of the far past. Whoever even pays for their Monthly Electric Bills this day! Not with Net Zero Energy Building Designs at your door steps. In this article, we will show that even large scaled projects such as Net Zero Energy Resort in Bentong have been designed for the Zero Net Energy.We will discuss the principles we used to achieve a Net Zero Energy Building for our resort.This Net Zero Energy Resort is the first of its kind in the world.

Net Zero Energy Building Technologies have made it possible to minimize paying the monthly bills. Yes! minimize electric bills to zero electrical bill. Yes, but what’s  the catch!It  is the averages sum of what you pay over the time of 1 year, is zero. There are months where you pay a small electric bill and there are months you produce more electricity that what you consume and you receive cash which brings your yearly average bill to zero.

A building owner pays an electric bill of USD200, 000 per month for one of his many outlets. If he was wise he could pay zero .Many like this building owner, feel that this is misnomer and a myth. Others think sure! all you have to do is to have spent a bomb on Photo voltaic panels and you are getting the zero bills. No!!!! That is not, what we mean…by Net Zero Energy Building Design. The principle is elucidated here, keep reading.

When you order for a cold chocolate drink in a food outlet. In most cases the chocolate, hot water, milk, sugar is mixed well enough and solid ice is added to chill up the drink. There is a sheer waste of energy  and in Net Zero Strategies in preparing for a cold drink with avoid using hot water see the diagram below. The wastage can amount to 75% in most cases.

Net Zero Energy Strategies

Net Zero Energy Design reduces the waste in our electric bill.

Net Zero Energy StrategiesNet Zero Energy Resort

The Net Energy Design strategy is making your building more energy efficient. Less wasteful and recycle the waste whenever possible.

  • Firstly by keeping the heat out of your building by orientating the building, minimizing the surface expose to direct heat and provide sufficient shading for the building. These wills reduce the electric cooling bill by 20%.
  • Smart landscaping will help reduce consumption, read https://www.firstenergycorp.com/content/customer/help/saving_energy/trees.html
  • Secondly by using energy saving systems, monitoring sensors and other systems the energy is reduced by 20% savings.of energy.
  • Thirdly the daylight harvesting we can reduce the energy bill by 15% of the bills, Imagine the amount of lighting levels needed for comfortable reading is 400lux, and in broad mid-day light, the amount light available is about 140,000lux . All we need to harvest a small light for consumption.Modern light fittings enable the light transfer from the external spaces to deep interiors to light up spaces
  • enabling control systems such as motions sensors, light sensors etc will further reduce energy bill.
  • Controls in the air conditions systems will help to reduce the energy bill bu 15% of the total bills
  • Electrical light fitting layouts will also reduce the energy consumption
  • High-performance systems and equipment will help reduce the consumption, such as pumps,
  • Sub-metering helps to review the energy consumption patterns and energy consumption is managed
  • Many other strategies on minimizing heat flow into the building and by effectively insulating the building from gaining heat are studied using software such as Ecotect, Vasari, Design studio, one is able to elevate the materials to be used to effective reduce the heat gain or heat loss and thereby reducing energy consumption.

Renewable Energy

Wind turbine

Wind turbine renewable energy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renewable energy that may be available in varied forms in the locality. The types will depend on the region:
1.)Where there is a waterfall ,
using a mini-hydro Hydro electricity may be tapped ,
2.)The wind energy may be tapped if the winds are strong in this region,
3.)The solar energy may be tapped if the sky is clear often by using PV panels.
4.)Biomass energy may be obtained if there were biomass waste in the region, such as sewerage waste, domestic waste,oil palm waste. these waste can be converted into renewable energy.
5.)Geothermal energy may be harvested, if the heat from the ground beneath, may be close to the surface of the site.
These renewable energies which are characteristic of the area will be created at the site  making the building energy efficient, This is how a building will finally become net zero in cost or consumption. The data of renewable energy for the most parts of the would are available from many climatic sources in the world wide web or sold by Climate and Weather Governmental Departments.These data will be imputed into computer software to calculate the amount of energy that is available from these renewable sources.

 

 

mono and poly PV Panels

All this sounds very simple but in the context of large buildings, one has to simulate the building in the computer(energy model) to evaluate the energy consumption for confirmation of the energy consumption before proceeding to the construction.

Net Zero Energy Resort

It is now becoming viable for projects of large scale to be designed for Net Zero Energy , such as Pertamina Tower , 99 levels building in Indonesia and Royal Bentong Cultural Resorts in Malaysia( of which we are the Net Zero Energy Architects). Previously it was envisaged that it is was viable only small scaled projects and this has been proven wrong with the advent of sophisticated software and technologies.

This also refereed to Zero Net Energy by the New York Times. Read and see how the future of Zero Net Energy is viable in the close  distant future even by the year 2020 in the cities of US.

Check our our Green and Sustainable House floor plans, click here.

Be in contact with us via our website for any clarification

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

Website address: http://www.sda-architect.com

Views of the  interior of Log house

living room of Log house

living room of Log house

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the interior of Log house with a old country style. it is a great setting, ambient and in keeping with the traditional interiors.The furnitures, the curtains and the carpet are rich with pattern much in keeping with the ornaments of the past interior of Log house.

 

Hall ways of Log house

Hall ways of Log house

This interior of Log house is a great setting,God is in the details.The interior of Log house has been modified with a recent trend to accentuate the details and create an rich ambiance with simplicity.

arctic of Log house

arctic of Log house

The interior of Log house is interesting and a great setting.It has the traditional setting of the interior but infused with it the rich views of the exterior.Large triangular windows with scenic views and the timber ceiling are rich embodiment of the recent thoughts of architecture.

bed room of Log house

bed room of Log house

The interior is an attempt o maintain the old outlook with rugged stone wall as a feature in the interior of Log house.It is again infused with large glass views to the exteriors which is a recent trend in interior of Log house.It is simple but much can be said of the interior as simply wonderful comfortable cottage.

bed room of Log house

bed room of Log house

deck of Log house

deck of Log house

dining

dining log house

fire place

fire place of Log house

garage

garage of Log house

kitchen

kitchen of Log house

porch

porch of Log house

store

store of Log house

study room

study of Log house

toilets of Log House

utility room

utility room of Log House

veranda

veranda of Log house

visitors room

visitors room for Log house

This article is about the  images of Views of the  interior of Log house,and my view of the interiors.I trust this the general opinion of other architects.As in architecture there are no fast and easy rules to dictates the aesthetic of interiors.

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

 

cladding pvdf coating

discoloration and chalking of pvdf coating

Painting and defects of painting

Prepared by Architect Perunal Nagaushnam

Paints contain three components: 1.)pigment (colour),2.) a binder (holds the paint together),3.) carrier (disperses the binder).

Why is it necessary to paint a building? The objective of painting is a dual purpose, that is:

  • General Protection
    to protect the painted parts of the building, making it more durable.For a maximum protection, the painting coating schemes  may differ pending on the a length of time of protection to harshest weather conditions.
  • Special protections
    such as protection against the harsh weather, air pollutions, salt spray environments such as the sea-shores. Steel frames, portal frames or shipping ports structures may require protection against the tendency to rust
  •  Decorative
    the final objective is aesthetics, which is to make the object to be painted to look attractive and presentable.
  • Green and sustainable effects
    Green paints are materials that do not use toxic chemicals in the paint.The harmful toxic chemicals found in modern paints are harmful to the environment and humans, containing  metals such as Cadmium, lead and chromium are found in pigments.
    Petrochemicals, solvents, benzene, formaldehyde and VOCs-volatile organic compounds  are also used in binders and carriers. Toxic, environmentally harmful, chemicals are used as preservatives, stabilisers and thickener.
  • Special functions
    Special purposed paints such antifungal, fire retardant, odourless, quick drying

read on painting why and how to choose the type of paint… the way to select the painting schemes are found in…6 things you need to know How to choose paint for your home.

There many types of paint:
a.)Emulsion water based paint
b.)Gloss paint
c.)Spray paint
d.)Acrylic paint

Gloss Paint

Gloss paints are oil-based which consist of  resins to giving them a hard wearing quality. Gloss paints are oil (solvent) based paints and also water based gloss paints . traditionally gloss paint was only oil solvent paints, which is to say that after painting the brushes are washed away using solvent( such as turpentine or oil) or the paint can be diluted only by using a solvent such as turpentine. Water base paints can be diluted with water or washed away with water when it is still wet.

  • Liquid gloss needs an undercoat but gives the more traditional high gloss finish and is extremely hard wearing and resistant to dirt.
  • Satinwood is a durable gloss paint that gives a more subtle sheen than the conventional shiny gloss effect, however, it is not usually as hard wearing.
  • Eggshell is a paint is with flatter matte finish, used for smaller pieces of decoration in timber architraves and skirting.
  • Polyurethane glosses an oil-based paint with a polyurethane resin, causing it be tough making it with a hard wearing surface and a greater abrasion than the usual paint.
  • Silane is a mix of silicone and polyurethane paints which make the paint with a stronger surface than polyurethane as the silicone, hence giving an extra protection.

Coating systems

As a rule, all painting schemes should be painted with a primer coat, an undercoat, and a finish coat. There is some exemption to this rule, such as weather shield or pu paint polyurethane paints which do not need a primer or sealer coat. The following are the coating system for the different base materials:

Cement base surfaces
Emulsion paints  coating system, for the internal wall, are the acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat. The Emulsion paints  coating system, for external walls, are an acrylic acid resisting coat, undercoat, and a finish coat or 2 coats of weather-resisting painting coat system.
Wood surfaces
All surfaces external or internal is primer coat(aluminum oxide ) with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.
Metal surfaces (steel)-gloss paint
All surfaces external or internal is red oxide primer coat with an undercoat of gloss paint and a gloss finish coat.The surface preparation should be mechanical wire brushing, or sand grit blasting to SA standards of 1 to 2.5, as this process would eliminate all rust which will reappear at a later stage. In some standards after sand or grit blasting the surfaces are washed clean of salt and within a minute of preparation the painting coat is applied.
Metal surfaces (steel)-PU paint(polyurethane)
The surface preparation stated above is repeated with 2 coats of Pu paint, which referred to as 2 pack PU paint, which is mixed prior to application as they harden within minutes of application and thus giving excellent protection.
Metal surfaces (GI, aluminum, stainless steel, brass)-gloss paint
The surface preparation as stated above for steel, for the above metals are not necessary as these metals do not rust, but there a small amount of oxidation in aluminum. Nevertheless, the surface needs some treatment such as acid etching to cleans the surfaces of the metal.
1.Zinc chromate primer is necessary on surfaces such as galvanized iron as red oxide as primer will chemically react with the galvanized surface, whereas zinc chromate is a neutral material that stops the reactions.
2.under coat and finish coat of gloss paint

Surface Preparation
The importance of surface preparation can not be underestimated as the quality of painting durability and aesthetic depends primarily on the quality of surface preparation, as you could see from the above materials the surface preparation vary from material to material.

Defects of Painting

  1. Painting schemes
    The first defect of paint is the lack of provision of painting schemes such as undercoat or the primer coat, sometimes as a way to cut cost the painter applies the finish coat without the  undercoat  and  the primer.
  2.  see images of  Blistering
    this is a defect where water ingress from the rear background of the material causing the paint to explode with moister inside in blister forms. This may also due to the lack of waiting for the base to dry sufficiently prior to painting, the moisture in the base may result in water escaping eventually which causes the blistering formation.
  3. see images of  crazing 
  4.  defective cycle- the waiting time for drying of the surface is not sufficient and this causes the paint to be defective as the moisture attempt to surface.
  5. see images of Run/sagging
  6. see images of wrinkling
  7. Bloom– cloudy and patches on gloss surfaces
  8. The bleeding-background material is dissolving and causes discoloration.
  9. Cissing-smooth surfaces repelling the coating of paints
  10. see images of chalking
  11. see images of Flashing
  12. Fading as a result of color pigments fading due to the UV rays
  13. Flaking-as a result of poor adhesion of painting coats
  14. Grinning-as a result of background paint showing due to lack of opacity
  15. Saponification-results of chemical reaction such as alkali surfaces

Reasons for poor quality painting

Some of the reasons for poor quality may be:
a.)poor choice of painting coating schemes,
b.)application on a damp background,
c.)poor preparation works,
d.)poor quality paints types,
e.)poor workmanships
f) poor selection of the type of paint for the wrong purpose

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by System Design Architect, Architect Eco Green Perumal Nagapushnam
http://www.sda-architect.com/
System Design Architect

Bio fuel

Biomass energy and Bio-Fuel

Biomass energy- Bio Fuel

Biomass Energy is derived from recycling the carbohydrates to liquids or gasses for energy.

Types of Biomass
– wood chips
– municipal solid waste
– municipal industrial waste
– forest waste
– animal waste
– agricultural waste

Disadvantages

The disadvantage of biomass energy is that when there is a demand for waste material the cost of waste escalates and the viability of installing a biomass plant becomes commercially NOT viable

Advantages of Biomass

Some waste  available in abundantly such as Industrial waste and Domestic waste.The waste produced in London is 8000 tons per day, New Delhi has a domestic waste about 9000 tomes, New York has 12,000 tons per day and KL: has 2000 tons per day.

Bio-Fuel saving as an Energy Efficient product and Net Zero Emission Product

As example of Bio-Fuel, an additive to diesel reduces the commission of co2 and other gasses and improvises the energy efficiency of diesel by 20%
Bio-fuel additive supplied by Bio-Fuel Sdn Bhd (M) has many advantages such as:
a) increased efficiency of diesel by 20% . it helps to reduce the diesel consumption by 20%.
b) The reduction of emission of the dirty dozen gasses such as Co2, N02, HC2 etc by 80% compared to diesel.
c) It increases the torque of the engine by 8%

Savings calculation of bio- fuel
Assumptions

  • Diesel price is RM7.80 per liters
  • The amount of diesel used is 1,000,000 liters
  • 1 Liter of Bio-Diesel B5 is RM2.50 per liter
  • 1aving in using Bio-Fuel Additive by Bio-Fuel Sdn Bhd (M)
  • 1 million liters of diesel(at RM7.80 per liters) used cost RM 7,700,000

1.)Saving  using Bio Fuel (20% savings)—RM1,540,000
Advantages( increase in torque, and 80% reduction in emission of Co2 and dirty dozens)

2.)Saving in using Bio-Diesel B5
1 million liters of diesel(at RM7.80 per liters) used cost RM 7,700,000
5% savings fuel—50,000litres are saved using B5
1 Liter of Bio-Diesel B5 is RM2.50 per liter, the Diesel price is RM7.80 per liters
and therefore the saving is RM7.80 minus RM2.50 equals RM5.30 and therefore the total saving for 50,000litres is RM 265,000

3.)Compare the saving is 1,435,000Million per 1000,000litres, RM1.435 per liter of diesel consumption. Contact us the supplier at 60172246801 for details or email at systemdesignarchitect@gmail.com

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Prepared by Net Zero Energy Architect , Perumal Nagapushnam
Green Architect, System Design Architect,

The amount of energy generated is a function of the type of Photo voltaic Panels, the tilt of the panels, the racking type of the PV System,the size of the panels, and the tracking of the sun’s by tilting the panels. This article advises on the types of Photo voltaic panel and related matter about its basis unit of construction and the calculation of the energy generated by panels.

Types of Photo voltaic Panels

Photo voltaic Panels makes use of energy from the sun  and the generated energy is called Renewable energy.Typically most of our energy that are generated by the burning fossil fuel. This energy is harmful to the environment. unlike Renewable energy. The use of renewable energy is good clean energy,no harmful by product are produced such as CO, NO 2, SO 2 and dioxin, Dioxin is a very poisonous gas that is detrimental to health. Dioxin is more poisonous that cyanide. Dioxin has a great affinity for animals and water.On in-taking of Dioxin, the Dioxin will remain in their bodies for a long time, as the chemical is a very stable compound.

Renewable energy is good for the environment because there are clean energy and does not foul the air. The total amount of energy that the world consumes per year is only about 0.015 % of the energy that is available in the earth from the sun.

Photo Voltaic system

Photo Voltaic system are Grid-Connected where the surplus energy is sent to the grid . The surplus energy is purchased by utility company and on a winter week where there were less energy produced by the system, you may be able to access electricity from the Grid.

There are 4 Types of Photo voltaic Panels(as per NREL of the US)

  • Crystalline Si Cells——————–24% efficiency is achievable
  • Multi junction Concentrators——-40%  efficiency is achievable
  • Thin Film Technologies————–18%  efficiency is achievable
  • Emerging PV————————–10%  efficiency is achievable

The attributes of Properties of Types of Photo voltaic Panels

  • Crystalline Si Cells

    There are 2 types of Crystalline Photo-voltaic panels-mono crystalline and poly-crystalline.Both of them are made of silicon crystalline cells. Mono Panels are more efficient than Poly Panels.Poly Panels are less expensive than Mono Panels.They are made of thinly sliced wafers. The types of Crystalline Si Cells are:Single Crystal,Multi crystalline.Thick Si film and Silicon Hetro-structure

  • Multi junction Concentrators

    a) Multijunction Concentrators, are more efficient because the wider spectrum of the light is used for generating energy.
    b) Hetrojunction Concentrators, are a hybrid of crystalline and thin film .It is more efficient as it reaps the benefits of crystalline and thin film technology. It is more efficient when the temperatures are high.
    c) Concentrating Photo voltaic, are concentrates the photo voltaic spectrum increasing the solar isolation and making the panels efficient.
    d) Photo voltaic Thermal, are panels that combines the thermal and photo voltaic energy of the sun to produce energy.
    e) The types of Multi junction concentrators are: 3 junction,2 Junction and Single Junction GAas

  • Thin Film Technologies

    It uses low heat and cost lower than crystalline panels.The thin film technology permit the panels to be flexible enough to be used on roofing material. glazing or wall panels. Thin films are more efficient with high temperatures.
    The types of Thin film technologies are :Multi-junction poly-crystalline,Nano poly-Si, Amorphous SiH(stabilized),CdHe and Cu(In GaSc2)

  • Emerging PV

    Some of the photo voltaic panels which are emerging and may make a difference and become a state of art panel are: organic cells,dye sensitized cells and inorganic cells

Best situations for the  Types of Photo voltaic Panels for Maximum Efficiency

  1. Panels should be tilted to face the sun, or facing south if you are located in the Northern Hemisphere and face north if you are in the Southern Hemisphere.
  2. Photo voltaic panels on Roofs tops,Car park Coverings and shading louvers reduces the cost of construction.The cost of Roof covering is reduced. The cost of shading devices reduce cost.The cost of roof cover on car parking covers are reduced. Covering of car parking structures help to reduce the heat island effect.
Types of Photo voltaic Panels

Types of photo voltaic efficiency by NREL

Efficiency of the  Types of Photo voltaic Panels

The Photo voltaic solar Panels efficiency ranges from about 20% to 45%, the more efficient the more costly it would be and may make the technology uneconomical or not affordable to use them. we soon found that the most important factor that influences the choice of PV panel is cost and area of space limitation.c) the tilting of the panels
Power generation will defend on the features such as :panels which track the sun,roof installation or open system and the type of the PV panels.

The STEPS for  calculation of PV panels sizes is

Following the steps if you are mathematically savvy, otherwise you could seek the help PVwatts supplied by NREL-check it at http://pvwatts.nrel.gov/. The PVwatts calculator assumes a Grid connected system, the Steps below assumes off Grid connection system. The PVwatts calculator will produce the comparative cost savings in the system( over the utility bills) and will consider the technology used (Thin film, Premium, Standard), Racking system used( Roof or Open Rack, axis tracking system,1 axis tracking system or 2 axis tracking system) and the Tilt of the panels.

Step 1 – Calculate the daily energy consumed by the light fitting.

Energy required= Lamp Wattage × Operating Hours per day
= 13 watts × 8 hrs/day
= 104 watt-hrs/day

Step 2 – Calculate the electric energy that the PV panels need to generate.

Assumptions: the battery is 80% efficient and the discharge efficiency is 60%
Energy PV generates = Energy required daily / (Electronics Efficiency × Battery Charge/Discharge Efficiency)
= 104 watt-hrs/day/ 80% × 60%
= 217 watt-hrs/day

Step 3 – Calculate the amount of solar radiation that the PV panels need to collect each day.

ESolar Radiation Needed = EPV Produced/PV panel conversion efficiency
= 217 watt-hrs/day/10%
= 2170 watt-hrs/day

Step 4 – Calculate the average. daily solar radiation at the location of lighting system for the season with the lowest amount of solar radiation

The 30-year-average of monthly solar radiation on a horizontal, flat panel is 2900 watt-hours/square meter/day. And on a flat panel tilted to an angle of latitude plus 15 degrees (facing south), it is 5000 watt-hours/square meter/day, San Diego in December.

Step 5 – Calculate the size of the PV panels required

If the PV panel is in a horizontal position:
Size ,PV Panel = ESolar Radiation Needed/Daily Solar Radiation
= (2170 watt-hrs/day) / (2900 watt-hrs/m2/day)
= 0.75 m2
= ~8.2 sq ft

Plus 15 degrees (facing south) for PV panel tilted at an angle of latitude :
Size ,PV Panels = ESolar Radiation Needed/Daily Solar Radiation
= (2170 watt-hrs/day) / (5000 watt-hrs/m2/day)
= 0.43 m2
= 4.6 sq ft

Guidance to selection of the PV Panels:

The factors one uses to select the panels depends on the following:
a) Space for the panels either on the roof or with the site such as car park sheds or other places, louvers, wall panels etc
b) The amount of energy to be generated
c) The tilting of the panel
d) The tracking system
e) Roof installation or open system
f)  The Type of the PV panels

Integration of PV Panels with the Building

The integration of the PV Panels with the building will have make reduce the optimum level of performance of the panels. The panels. Panels performance will depend on its tilt, orientation and the ability to rotate along the seasonal solar path .
PV Panels can be integrated with roof covering( but need to be cautious as working space by the side of the roof and the top has to allowed for future maintenance).Roof top installation of Net Zero Energy achieve the highest categories of Net Zero Classification. The PV panels may replace the Car parking roof covering.This has it advantages such as easy maintenance and accessibility for maintenance. Facades and the louvers of openings can be constructed by PV panels.

 

COST

Check out our supply cost of (CLICK HERE) PV solar panels

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

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Lead Glazing panels

stained glass

Glass panels for building

The glass technologies have abounded by heaps and bounds and so has the types of glass has increased to a wide range of types.

Types of glass

1.) Sheet glass
Sheet Glass were glasses that were manufactured traditionally by cutting the sheets of glass from large blocks of glass, which cutting produced less quality of glass in comparison to float glass.
2.)Float glass
The float glass process is also known as the Pilkington process, named after the British glass manufacturer Pilkington, which pioneered the technique (invented by Sir Alastair Pilkington) in the 1950s
3.) Clear glass
The glass that is used conventionally and most commonly used for windows etc, it is colorless and plain which has no special features.
4.) Stain glass
The stained glass is traditionally used in churches, also called the lead glazing, It is the glass window which portrayed the gospel stories to convey the message during the times where the gospel was not available to the masses, during the pre-printing era.
5.) Beveled edge glass
A glass that has the glass edge has been beveled to give a special decorative feature by reflecting light at the edges.
6.) Tinted glass
The glass which is colored to give an aesthetic feature but may have some thermal properties.

samples of tinted glass

tinted glass

7.) Tempered glass
The glass that has been strengthening to resist impact, generally used for glass curtain walls.
8.) Laminate glass
The laminate glass is constructed by laminating thin sheets of glass to create the laminate glass. The glass does not shatter when broken but remains intact without shattering to the floor. The strength of laminate glass is not as strong as the tempered glass.
9.) Skylight glass
A composite of Tempered and laminated glass, constructed in such a way and strong enough for a maintenance worker to walk on the top of the skylight for cleaning purposes etc.
10.) Energy Efficient glass- Low E Glass
Glass which is made to resist the infrared ray and allow the light component inside the building for comfort. As this also saves the cooling bill during summer and thereby called EE glass, as it saves energy. There many types of glasses with differing solar coefficients, the type of glass selected will depend on the heat load one is trying to achieve and the budget for construction. These glasses are generally very expensive.
http://educationcenter.ppg.com/glasstopics/how_lowe_works.aspx

11.) Chromogenic glass * Net Zero Energy Design by Tom Hootman
a) Electrochromic glass, responds to the voltage electrical charges
b) Gas-chromic glass, responds to the flow of hydrogen levels
c) Photochromic glass, glass that responds to exterior light levels
d) Thermochromic glass, glass that responds to exterior temperature changes

12.) Colored glass
Are glasses that are back painted glass which has a decorative effect as the painted back appears with a glass effect and are generally used for the interiors of the buildings.

Other Terminologies for glass

Soft Coat -a coating which helps to reduce the heat into the building

Effect of soft coat on glass [amels

soft coat glass

Hard Coat-a coating which helps to reduce the heat into the building but not as efficient as the soft coats.
Heat soaked glass or Heat strengthen glass

Glass when is manufactured has impurities which will expand when is subjected to the heat from the sun. and this relative and differential expansion cause the glass break and shatter, heat soaked or heat strengthens glass is a process where the Glass is placed in a high-temperature heat furnace so that the defective glasses are eliminated during the heating in the furnace, so that after installation glasses do not fall off,

Manufacturers of glass

PPG– An American glass manufacturing glass that produces the latest type of glass
Pilkington– firm in the UK and the original company that pioneered the manufacturing of glass such as float glass.
NSG– Nippon  Sheet Glass, a Japanese glass manufacturer
MSG– Malaysian Sheet Glass, a Malaysian glass manufacturer

Prepared by Green Architect and Net Zero Architect Perumal Nagapushnam