Net Zero Carbon Seminar and Net Zero Energy Seminar

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Net Zero Energy Seminar

Net Zero Energy and Carbon Seminar

This is a  synopsis of the all the 14 talks In our  Net Zero Carbon Seminar .

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We have organized this Net Zero Carbon Seminar with the intention to promote the idea in simplicity for all to understand. This will spear head the designs of buildings as Energy Efficient . Design of building will be a response to the call of global weather changes. This seminar is also some time refereed to as Architect Seminar,Architect training,Architect workshop,Engineering workshop,Engineering seminar, Engineering Training,Architect Conference, Engineering Conference, International Architect Conference or International Engineering Conference.

Talk 1. Targeting for  Net Zero Carbon Emission in Process and Product Design …Net Zero Energy Buildings
Synopsis of the Talk  Dr YewAi Tan

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At the UN Climate Summit in New York on 23 September 2014, the Prime Minister of Malaysia reiterated Malaysia's commitment towards reducing its carbon emissions, in terms of emissions intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by 40% by 2020. This will be implemented by reducing carbon emissions through new policies on climate change and green technology. Under the 11 th Malaysian Plan, RM 2.3 billion has been set aside for green technology based projects. This pledge, originally made at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCC) 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was conditional to receiving technological and financial assistance from developed countries. This year, Malaysia looks on track to hit the targeted carbon reduction emissions having achieved 33% reduction carbon intensity of its GDP. As GDP is the monetary value of finished goods and services, Malaysia will therefore have to grow its GDP without a parallel increase in emissions in order to achieve the 40% reduction.

The Climate Change problem will never go away on its own and ignorance on its seriousness is no longer an excuse for inaction. For effective mitigation

Net Zero Carbon and Net Zero Energy Cost

Net Zero Energy Cost Seminar

against climate change, there must first be acknowledgement that the burden must be borne by all. The next step will be how each and every one of us, the residents of planet earth, can help in reducing carbon emissions with a target towards achieving zero net carbon emissions. Before embarking on efforts to achieve zero carbon emission in process and product design, it is essential to be clear and familiar with the many terms and terminologies commonly associated with carbon emissions such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon footprint (CFP) , carbon capture, carbon sink, carbon neutral and energy neutral, etc. For example, CFP is defined as a measure of GHG emissions over the full life cycle of a process or product including the design stage, if applicable. It is the overall amount of not only carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions but also emissions of other GHG such as methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O),chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro fluorocatbons (HCFs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) that are directly and indirectly associated with a product along its supply chain. GHG emission is an integral part of all systems of production and consumption, In the case of a process or product design, each activity within a supply chain process step which is involved in the production or design of the product must be analyzed to determine CFP measured in mass units (kg, t) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq) emitted. Through a carbon audit, any sector of an industry (e.g. palm oil or building industry) can systematically address environment-sensitive practices along the whole chain in the design and process of a product. One of the most important move that can be taken is to ensure that all products and services made and provided involve minimal carbon emissions. To arrive at net zero carbon emissions, emissions must be offset or subtracted and ways to achieve carbon neutrality will be highlighted in the paper. Suggestions on the formulation of possible mitigation strategies to curb GHG emissions and ways to target for zero net carbon emission by balancing emissions with simple negative emissions solutions such as tree- planting and the use of other more advanced technologies including the use of renewable energy generated from waste products, the sun or wind will also be discussed. The goal is to provide required information on the importance of our shared responsibility to reduce carbon emissions in the hope of ending the high emitting and energy-hungry practices of the modern world.

Talk 2. ACMV system design for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the tropics in the  Net Zero Carbon Seminar

by Dr Stellios Plainiotis

Net-zero energy buildings (Net-ZEBs) are a quantifiable design concept and an absolute solution to minimize the operational environmental impact of buildings. However designing such advanced buildings presents a challenge because there is no established design strategy to methodically reach the goal and many of the available calculation tools have limited applicability for Net-ZEBs. Appropriate modelling of building-integrated energy systems (passive and active) is essential for the design of ACMV systems and the study of optimal control strategies. These systems will play a major role in achieving the net-zero energy goal and need to be carefully selected, modelled, and sized for an optimum design. This talk focuses on optimizing active ACMV systems with emphasis on building simulation and parametric analysis. This presentation will review current design practice and tools for designing ACMV systems and presents methods employed by NEAPOLI to design ACMV systems in the tropics. It also discusses modelling issues and outlines the procedure used in several optimization case studies by NEAPOLI.

Talk 3: Achieving Net Zero Energy Status: the case of the Hospitality Sector in SE Asia

Synopsis of the Talk  in the  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by Dr Stellios Plainiotis
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Although the hospitality industry is responsible for only 2% of the world’s CO2 emissions, it makes an excellent sector for achieving Net-Zero Energy status  because energy  consumption  is  higher  than  in typical residential and non-residential buildings, so  there  is  a  larger potential for energy saving measures. Hospitality projects in Asia can benefit from reaching net-zero status through:

  • Energy savings and reduction of operational costs
  • Unique positioning in a highly competitive market
  • Improved image and service for guests
  • Access to a new “sustainability” market segment, both individuals and companies
  • Increased comfort as an added-value for hotels’ guests
  • Corporate Social Responsibility targets met; Environmental, social and economic sustainability.

There are however great challenges related to financing the additional initial capital expenditure and to  business model that includes a number of energy intensive operations associated to their customers’ comfort and expectations, therefore closely linked with their competitiveness and viability.  After presenting the fundamental concepts, design strategies, and technologies required to achieve net-zero energy in hospitality buildings, this presentation will discuss a case study of a Net-ZEB Hotel in Malaysia by NEAPOLI.

Talk 4: Generative and parametric design optimization techniques towards Net Zero Energy Buildings, Synopsis of the Talk  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by Mr Theodre G

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Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net-ZEBs) represent a new paradigm that radically changes the way we view and construct buildings. Our current practices, tools, and culture involved in the design and development of contemporary buildings are not entirely compatible with this new perspective. We are in dire need of new design paradigms that will allow the re-conception of the design process itself. NEAPOLI’s Research & Development efforts are focusing on two of the most important innovative design methodologies available today: generative and parametric design.

Generative design can be defined as an evolutionary process that charts the development of an original idea, searching quickly through all its possible permutations, testing different design configurations, learning and improving at each step. New design tools employed at NEAPOLI now allow cycling through thousands of design alternatives in small amounts of time, making generative design a very powerful approach especially for the early stage of design.

Parametric design can be defined as the varying of one (or more) building parameter(s) and performing a simulation to quantify that parameter’s impact. NEAPOLI employs parametric analyses to provide at least three valuable pieces of information:

  1. The optimal/near-optimal value of a design parameter, always in relation to other often competing parameters. If the performance metric for a particular parameter indicates that there is an optimum value, the design team may wish to use this value in the design, assuming it is practical, economical, and compatible with other design aspects.
  2. The relative sensitivity of a parameter. This is particularly useful when multiple parameters are compared.
  3.  The relative importance of accurately modelling a building system. The most care in accurate modelling should be given to the aspects that are most sensitive. Sensitivity analysis is a very important confidence building tool for NEAPOLI consultants.

This presentation will provide an exploration of these innovative design approaches, it will show how they can provide competitive advantages over contemporary processes, and finally share ideas and examples of their implementation in the design of Net-ZEBs.

 Talk 5: Net Zero Energy Design in practice: design optimization methodologies and tools Synopsis of the Talk  in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar  by Mr Theodre G

Traditional construction practice created buildings to meet current needs, without addressing how well they fit with the natural environment. Because they were lacking adaptive capabilities, they would usually require remodeling or replacement when use-patterns or external conditions changed, an approach that is costly both financially and environmentally. Net-ZEB buildings can provide solutions to this because not only are designed and built to produce all of their own energy, capture and treat all water, but they can also designed and operated to have a net-positive impact on the environment, including repairing surrounding ecosystems.

However new and innovative tools are required to achieve and realise that vision. While generative and parametric methodologies are gaining ground in both architecture and design practices, their practical use remains limited due to the lack of design tools equipped with generative and parametric capabilities.

This presentation will describe the current status of generative and parametric tools for the building design industry and how these are being used to improve building design. In a workshop-like manner, the audience will be taken, step-by-step, through real-life design examples showcasing NEAPOLI’s ‘box of tools’ paradigm which allows the development of highly complex and integrated models able to assess in parallel a wide variety of building performance and design issues.

Talk 6 : Net Zero Energy Design in Building Passive Design, Design Overall Integrated Design Approach in Net Zero Energy Design –Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam

  1. What is Net Zero Energy?
  2. Definitions of Net Zero Energy as per NREL

Net Zero Energy-The NREL has defined four ways of measuring the Net Zero Energy in buildings: –Net Zero Site Energy, Net Zero Source Energy, Net Zero Energy Emissions  , Net Zero Energy Cost

  • Principles of Net Zero Energy in establishing Net Zero Energy buildings
  • The overall integrated design approach with the Energy affecting considerations from the outset to create High Energy Performance building or Energy Efficient buildings.
  • Building Design Principles are:
    1) Optimum Orientation,
    2) Super Insulation of buildings by good thermal resistance materials,
    3) Shading, smart landscaping, living roof etc
    4) Good BAS system to manage energy consumption
    5) LED high performance systems
    6) Good active Mechanical and Electrical system
    7) Renewable Energy ( 4 Net Zero Energy categories)
    8) Energy Management in place-Sub metering, energy audit and Maintenance team crew
  • Calculations for NZEBs.
  • Conclusion with some real life project case studies of buildings designed in Malaysia
  • Terms used in NZEB
    NREL ,National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the USA, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Energy Neutral Zero Carbon Hub Renewable Energy, Low Energy Building, High Performance Building ,ENERGY STAR ,Energy Protection Agency ,Building Code

Talk 7: Net Zero Emission Definitions and terms Calculations

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar By Ar Perumal
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  1. What is Net Zero Carbon Emission?
  2. Terms used in of Net Zero Emission such as Carbon Neutral, Carbon footprint, ecological footprint, Water footprint, Biofuel- Primary energy Global warming, Acidification, Eutrophication, Carbon footprint, Ecological footprint, Accounting ,Carbon credit, Carbon offset , Carbon Emission, Transportation Carbon ,Operational Carbon-,Embodied Carbon emissions, Carbon neutrality, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) , Life Cycle Cost (LCC),Water footprint, Water neutrality, ‘Water neutral’ ,Bluewater ,Green water, Grey waterEnergy audit, Fossil fuel,Green energy
  3. Accounting Principles of Net Zero Emission
  4. Comparison of Net Zero Emission as defined by Challenge 2030, NREL and Zero Carbon Hub.
  5. Benefits of Net Zero Emission in design with Biodiversity in designs.
  6. Conclusions with the importance of Net Zero Emission

Talk 8:Renewable Energy – and the case for Zero Carbon

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
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By: Gregers Reimann

In a Low Carbon World, we will have to deploy on the dual strategy of energy efficiency and renewable energy. In this presentation, the focus will be on renewable energy and its stronger and stronger case as opposed to fossil fuels. Interestingly, renewable energy costs are starting to achieve grid parity. Moreover, once the true cost of fossil fuels is factored in, namely the external costs like (carbon) pollution, the business case for renewable energy becomes even better.

For Malaysia, biomass and solar energy are the most applicable conventional renewable energy sources, but once implemented on a big scale, they both take up significant land area. Therefore, apart from re-stating the importance of energy efficiency, this presentation will also examine how renewable energy can be integrated in our built environment without taking up ‘extra space’.
Highlights of this presentation include:

Referencing the recent IMF study on the true cost of fossil fuels and its astounding conclusions. For Malaysia, for example, if we were to pay the real cost of fossil fuels, the petrol should cost RM4.50 per liter, which is more than double of the current cost.

Calculations example of how much solar photo-voltaic panels are needed to cover the entire Malaysian annual electric consumption. The result may surprise you in a positive way.

Examples of BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) and other innovative to integrate renewable energy in the built environment

Talk 9 : “Zero Energy / Carbon and Innovative Tropical Building Case Studies

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar By: Gregers Reimann
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The biggest and cheapest carbon emission savings are found in the building sector. Therefore, the building sector will play a key role in achieving the low carbon sustainable society that experts are urgently calling for. This presentation will focus on Malaysian case studies of low energy buildings both for commercial and residential sector. The focus will be on the design strategies employed in the case studies, both with respect to innovative passive building design by working with the climate and with respect to innovative active design solutions for ventilation, cooling, lighting and controls.  The low carbon aspect of the presentation will focus on the operational energy, which constitutes the bulk of the life-time carbon emissions for most buildings. The case studies presented have achieved measured energy savings of 50% or more and often with an attractive short payback time from reduced monthly energy bills.
The presentation will also re-examine how to approach thermal comfort for people in an energy efficient way and with the added benefit of providing improved air quality.

Some of the case study highlights include:

Case study no. 1: Zero energy bungalow (2016) in Kuala Lumpur with innovative natural cooling system that lowers the indoor temperature by 2-3°C, hence, eliminating the need to use air-conditioning. In fact, the bungalow does not have any air-conditioning installed.

Case study no. 2: Innovative high rise day-lighting system (2015) in Kuala Lumpur. Even though the occupants engage the manual facade window blinds, the daylight system maintains 7-meter perimeter zone of the office fully day-light.

Case study no. 3: Energy efficient building retrofit project (ongoing) saving 50% of the energy consumption in part by a new approach to providing thermal comfort to the building occupants

Case study no. 4: Innovative energy efficient and low energy slab cooling as exemplified in two Malaysian offices buildings, the GEO Building (2007) and the ST Diamond building (2010).

Talk 10: Targeting for Zero Net Carbon Emission in Process and Product Design

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar
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  by YewAi Tan

At the UN Climate Summit in New York on 23 September 2014, the Prime Minister of Malaysia reiterated Malaysia’s commitment towards reducing its carbon emissions, in terms of emissions intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by 40% by 2020. This will be implemented by reducing carbon emissions through new policies on climate change and green technology. Under the 11th Malaysian Plan, RM 2.3 billion has been set aside for green technology based projects.  This pledge, originally made at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCC) 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was conditional to receiving technological and financial assistance from developed countries. This year, Malaysia looks on track to hit the targeted carbon reduction emissions having achieved 33% reduction carbon intensity of its GDP.  As GDP is the monetary value of finished goods and services, Malaysia will therefore have to grow its GDP without a parallel increase in emissions in order to achieve the 40% reduction.

The Climate Change problem will never go away on its own and ignorance on its seriousness is no longer an excuse for inaction.   For effective mitigations against climate change, there must first be acknowledgement that the burden must be borne by all.  The next step will be how each and every one of us, the residents of planet earth, can help in reducing carbon emissions with a target towards achieving zero net carbon emissions.

Before embarking on efforts to achieve zero carbon emission in process and product design, it is essential to be clear and familiar with the many terms and terminologies commonly associated with carbon emissions such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon footprint (CFP) , carbon capture, carbon sink, carbon neutral and energy neutral, etc. For example, CFP is defined as a measure of GHG emissions over the full life cycle of a process or product including the design stage, if applicable. It is the overall amount of not only carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions but also emissions of other GHG  such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorcatbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocatbons (HCFs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) that are directly and indirectly associated with a product along its supply chain.

GHG emission is an integral part of all systems of production and consumption, In the case of a process or product design, each activity within a supply chain process step which is involved in the production or design of the product must be analysed to determine CFP measured in mass units (kg, t) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) emitted. Through a carbon audit, any sector of an industry (e.g. palm oil or building industry) can systematically address environment-sensitive practices along the whole chain in the design and process of a product.   One of the most important move that can be taken is to ensure that all products and services made and provided involve minimal carbon emissions.  To arrive at net zero carbon emissions, emissions must be offset or subtracted and ways to achieve carbon neutrality will be highlighted in the paper.  Suggestions on the formulation of possible mitigation strategies to curb GHG emissions and ways to  target for zero net carbon emission by balancing emissions with simple negative emissions solutions such as tree-planting and the use of other more  advanced technologies including the use of renewable energy generated from waste products, the sun or wind will also be discussed. The goal is to provide required information on the importance of our shared responsibility to reduce carbon emissions in the hope of ending the high emitting and energy-hungry practices of the modern world.

Talk 11: LCA and LEED for Enhancing Energy and Environmental Performance of Buildings

Synopsis of the Talk in  Net Zero Carbon Seminar by YewAi Tan
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The orthodox goal of increasing housing for growing population needs is now slowly being replaced by a shift in focus to buildings that promote variety, access to healthy and clean air, and a healthy and ecological sustainability environment. This is driven by risks that climate change poses for human and natural systems.  Global warming, sea level rises and associated extreme weather events are now adversely affecting population health and will continue for centuries to come.

With over half the world’s population now living in urban areas, resilient urban housing plans will need to incorporate more extensive approaches to meet the challenges of a world imperiled by severe weather conditions resulting in floods and droughts.  Attention will be on enhancement of ecosystem health as well as the health and support of thriving urban environments.  The building and construction industry is known to be the one of largest contributors of environmental pollution.  According to the United Nations Environment Program Report, buildings account for a third of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 25% of global water consumption and 40% of global energy consumption and resources.   The fact that this energy consumption in buildings can be reduced by 30% to 80% using proven and commercially available technologies accentuates the importance of greening buildings as one of the most effective ways to reduce the carbon footprint (CFP) of the building and construction industry.

The main objective of Green buildings is to reduce negative impacts and increase occupants’ health. Green buildings address issues concerning sustainable site planning, water and energy efficiency, conservation of resources and improved health, and the impact of buildings on health and indoor environmental quality.  The Malaysia Green Building Index (GBI), initiated in 2009, is based partly on USA’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) but adapted to fit the Malaysian climatic conditions.

The LEED rating system is a voluntary U.S. based  green building programme which aims to “evaluate environmental performance from a whole building perspective over a building’s life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building’’. In essence, the LEED method rates the energy and environmental performance of buildings and is clearly an environmental assessment tool.

CFP is a computed number which an industry can use as a baseline reference for improvement.  At the same time, the methodological tracing through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the various sources of GHG emission in sustainable buildings will give a clearer indication on where mitigation steps can be implemented for GHG reduction.  LCA is also an essential component of building assessment as it is a step-by-step process for evaluating the environmental burdens associated with an activity, product or process.  The method, based on the life cycle of the activity, product or process identifies and quantifies energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, thereby assesses the impact of those energy and material use and wastes to the environment. LCA is applicable to all system levels in the building sector. Each system has its own set of assumptions and limitations and each is designed to address certain aspects of environmental impacts.  An inventory of all inputs (e.g. energy, material, water used) into and outputs (final product, emissions, wastes)  out of the system will allow for calculation of impacts based on energy consumption, waste generation or other impact categories such as global warming or land use.   The approach can be used for the selection of building materials or for assessing the environmental impact associated with the physical building.  Therefore, in order to obtain useful information from environmental assessment of buildings, the rigor of an LCA approach can be used to support and complement the evaluation of LEED compliance.

Malaysia’s Green Diamond Building headquarters of the Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga) of Malaysia in Putrajaya won Southeast Asia Energy Prize in 2012. The building, completed in 2009, earned Platinum ratings under Malaysia’s Green Building Index (GBI) and Singapore’s Green Mark program.

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Organized by System Design Architect
Ar Perumal Nagapushnam.

Net Zero Energy Resort

Bentong Cultural Village, Malaysia designed as Net Zero Carbon Emission in a Cultural Village with a 680 bed room Hotels, chalets &Indian Villages

Terminologies for Net Zero Carbon Emission in Net zero Energy buildings design

A Seminar on Net Zero Energy and Net Zero Carbon Emission , is being held and in the Seminar, we will elucidate the terms clearly, please visit our website page for booking a seat for the seminar.

The common words and terms and terminologies often used in Carbon Emission are :

Biofuelbiofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

Primary energy – Primary energy consumption is strictly speaking not an environmental impact category, but part of the inventory analysis. The primary energy is usually expressed as MJ per functional unit and includes feed stock energy, process energy, and production and delivery energy.

Global warming – Increasing amounts of greenhouse gases- GHG, which is CO2 or methane, increases the natural greenhouse effect and lead to an increase in global temperature. In the 20th century, global temperature increased by 0.6°C as a result of GHG

AcidificationAcidification refers to acid being deposited in the atmosphere, land or the sea , by the excessive emissions of SO2 and NO2.This can result in strong and damaging acid rains in the air and land which destroys the agricultural yields. The acidification of the sea, affect the weld being of sea life.

Eutrophication Eutrophication happens when an increase of nutrients in water bodies or ground as a result of human activity. Either in the synthetic fertilizers from agricultural land, or discharges from sewage or animal waste. It causes a reduction in species bio- diversity. It is often accompanied by massive growth of dominant species and an the increase production of dead biomass. This lead to depletion of oxygen in the water or soil since its degradation consumes oxygen. This contributes to changes in species composition and death of organisms.

Carbon foot printIt is the amount of CO2 produced in tones for human activity. The time frame of foot print may have to be defined, either the time frame of the construction, annually or the lifetime carbon emission of the building. The accounting principles should be established, such as emissions activates and the sequestering activity for offsetting. The boundary of the site may be used but in reality it extends beyond the site boundaries .for instance the carbon emission of material brought into the site during the construction.

Ecological footprintthe amount of land needed to produce what human, the world’s population what they consume. This concept was developed by Rees and Wackernagel (1994). The human activity is agricultural land for food and pasture, forestation for wood and for travel and comfort.

The land needed to transform the carbon dioxide into organic matter. It has been said that the total ecological footprint of inhabitants goes beyond the availability of space, which is considered ‘unsustainable’. Humanity has moved from using, in net terms, about half the planet’s bio capacity in 1961 to 1.25 times the bio capacity of the Earth in 2003 (Hails et al., 2006). The global ecological deficit of 0.25 Earths is equal to the globe’s ecological overshoot.

Accounting Principles are in 3 stages (as per the Greenhouse Gas Protocol):
stage 1- Required as a result of direct emission of gas.
Stage 2-Required as a result of indirect emission of gas.
Stage 3-Optional, the boundary of the base line for emission of gas can be self defined.

Carbon credit is also referred to as Carbon offset in Carbon Emission

A carbon credit is a tradable certificate or permit to emit one ton of carbon dioxide or the mass of greenhouse gas of equivalent to one ton of carbon dioxide.

Transportation Carbon is the amount of CO2 used by the occupants to get to work .It is measured as lbs .Co2/per occupant/ year. If the Transportation Carbon is included in the Net Zero Emission, the site location is important and to offset the Carbon, a fleet of cars could be used to transport them to work.

Operational Carbon
-is the amount of carbon emitted by the building’s operation and including the transportation Carbon of the occupants .

Embodied Carbon emissions
can be achieved in many ways such as:
a) purchasing REC (Renewable Energy Certificates) from reliable sources. The reliable sources are characterized by Additionality, which is funding another energy reduction project.
b) Generation of surplus of renewable energy

Carbon neutrality
carbon consideration includes the carbon emission from the production, embodied Carbon neutrality is easily achieved by considering stage 1 and 2 and this is as per the definition of Net Zero Carbon Emission. Total Carbon neutrality is far more difficult to achieve when considering embodied, transport emissions and operational emission.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an objective method to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material uses and releases to the environment, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to influence environmental improvements. The method assesses the entire life cycle of the product, process or activities, encompassing extracting and processing material; manufacturing, transporting and distribution; use, reuse and maintenance; recycling and final disposal (The Society of Environmental, Toxicology and Chemistry, 1993). It is a method for analyzing and assessing the environmental impact of a material, product or service throughout its entire life cycle, usually from the acquisition of raw materials to final disposal.

Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
Like any other investments, attempts to minimize environmental impact of building developments should take into account the associated costs. Life cycle cost (LCC) yields the present value of the current and future expenditures for the procurement of the building and the operation and maintenance throughout its useful life. This allows the financial implications of future savings due to additional investments made at present for enhancing performance (e.g. energy efficiency or durability of materials) which should be assessed for decision making

Water foot print
The water footprint is an indicator of water use that looks at both direct and indirect water use. The water footprint of a product (good or service) is the volume of fresh water used to produce the product, summed over the various steps of the production chain. The water footprint of a consumer is the sum of its direct water use, i.e. the water used at home or in the garden, and its indirect water use, i.e. the water used in the production and supply chains of the goods and services consumed. The water footprint of a business consists of its direct water use, for producing, manufacturing and supporting activities, plus its indirect water use, i.e. the water used in the business’s supply chain. ‘Water use’ is measured in terms of water volumes consumed (evaporated) and/or polluted. The ‘water footprint’ includes three components: consumptive use of rainwater (green water), consumptive use of water withdrawn from groundwater or surface water (blue water) and pollution of water (grey water). A water footprint can be calculated for any product or activity as well as for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g. an individual or family, or the inhabitants of a village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g. a public organization, private enterprise or a whole economic sector). A water footprint is more than a figure for the total water volume used; it refers specifically to the type of water use and where and when the water was used.

Water neutrality
Water neutral’ means that one reduces the water footprint of an activity as much as reasonably possible and offsets the negative externalities of the remaining water footprint. In some particular cases, when interference with the water cycle can be completely avoided – e.g. by full water recycling and zero waste – ‘water neutral’ means that the water footprint is nullified; in many other cases, like in the case of crop growth, water use cannot be nullified. Therefore ‘water neutral’ generally does not mean that water use is brought down to zero, but that the negative economic, social and environmental externalities are reduced as much as possible and that the remaining impacts are fully compensated. Compensation can be done by contributing to (investing in) a more sustainable and equitable use of water in the hydrological units in which the impacts of the remaining water footprint are located.

Blue water water withdrawn from groundwater or surface water
Green water-rain water

Grey water– pollution of water

Energy audit-It assesses the efficiency of the building, an audit of the energy consumption in a building. It will break down the consumption as per the lighting fittings. Air-conditioning, the plug load, equipment load etc. The energy audit will help to evaluate the ways to reduce the electric bill.

Fossil fuel-Fuel that are derived from petroleum or diesel. Coal or natural gas. It is derived from organic matter buried in the ground which has been converted to fuel by anaerobic process naturally.

Green energy– energy that are derived from renewable sources.

 

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Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam