Carbon Trading

The Kyoto Protocol,1992 in the UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change but adopted in 1997 established the basis of Carbon Trading, Carbon offsets.
192 nation agreed to reduce Carbon emissions, which Identifies the 6 GHG gasses as 1) CO2 2) methane, 3) N2O 4) hydrofluorocarbon  5) perfluorocarbon and 6) sulphur hex-fluorocarbon. All these gases are referred to as Carbon emission, Carbon dioxide is the weaker global warming effect but the amount of it is the largest amount. Before the Kyoto Convention 2 Convention were held to establish the basis of Carbon emission, what is was considered as Carbon emission etc.

Carbon Trading Price Fluctuations

carbon-trading graph

carbon-trading in Asia

Protocols

The Carbon Trading has been defined in 3 conventions as follows:
a) Earth Summit-Conference on Environment and Development –UNCED, Rio 1992
b) United Nation Framework Conference on Climate Change UNFCCC( not binding due to no time limit was set by the UN
c) Kyoto Protocol, 1997
Carbon Trading is under the purview of the UN, Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 and therefore the Kyoto Protocol is a treaty
In Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Trade is in charge of CDM. In Malaysia, 100 tonnes were traded in 2008, at RM4.8 Billion. I ton of carbon was  sold at RM48. The price of carbon rallied from US 25 – US 12 over these years.

Ways to earn Carbon Credits for Carbon Trading

There are a few established legitimate ways of Carbon trading , which are:
a) using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets are made
b) using wind turbines as Carbon Offsets are made
c) designing Net Zero Carbon Emission buildings or Net Zero Energy Buildings
d) Managing a forest ( Tropical) or wetlands, as the soil and tree sequesters CO2 by using PV solar panels as Carbon Offsets is made
e) Investing in a Carbon reducing projects such as Renewable energy projects, Geo-Thermal, Biomass, PV solar panels, micro turbine and wind turbines.
How much can you gain by Carbon Trading?
A typical building as in a 100,000 sq ft of gross built commercial space up area can offset carbon 390 tons of carbon per year.
The financial amount you can trade is 390 ton per year xRM48/ton=RM18,720
Carbon Emission for Combustion Fuels
Coal…………………0,37kgCO2/kWh
Gasoline…………. 0.27kg CO2/kWh
Diesel………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Light Oil…………. 0.26kgCO2/kWh
Natural Gas………0.23kgCO2/kWh
LPG…………………0.24kgCO2/kWh
Malaysian CO2 Emission Coefficient Rate is 0.631 kgCO2/kWh

Check out our Architect,Green Architect, House Plan relating to Net Zero Carbon designs

Carbon Trading

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Prepared by Ar Perumal Nagapushnam
Net Zero Emission Building Architect

Certifying Bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings

The certifying bodies for Net Zero Energy Buildings in the US A are :
A) Department of Energy
, DOE, an equivalent to the Malaysian Ministry of Energy
B) Zero Energy Commercial Building consortium
C) New Building Institute. NBI
A nonprofit organization that provides research and improved energy performance in commercial buildings
D)International Living Future Institute

The Programs surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings are :
1)2030 Challenge
The top 80% of 10 Architectural firms and 70% of the top 20 Architectural firms use The Challenge 2030.whereby all developments, new buildings and major renovation shall be carbon neutral by 2030 in the US and thereby reducing the temperature by 2 degree below the pre-industrial times.Net Zero Energy Buildings are also refereed too as Zero Energy Buildings.

2)Ashrae Vision 2020
Ashrae is a strong supporter of NZEB, and where Ashrae Vision 2020 was developed to promote energy Efficiency. NZE is defined as uses as much energy as it produces as measured at the site.

The Industry Codes and Regulations  surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the world are: 
1)Security Act of 2007
2)Energy Independence and Security Act( Malaysian Renewable Energy Act)
3)California Public Utilities Commission
4)Massachusetts Zero Energy Building Task Force

5)European Union
The parliament passed a directive to achieve NZE by 2019 but focused on residential buildings and not commercial buildings: UK-Zero Carbon Hub to be carbon neutral by 2016, Germany-Passivhaus, Netherlands-energy neutral by 2020, France to be Energy positive by 2020.

The Building Codes surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:  
1)IgCC– International Green Construction Code
This code is developed in conjunction with AIA,USGBC (MGBC-a Malaysian equivalent body –Malaysian Green Building Council) , 2)ASHRAE,ASTM,IES
3)CalGreen, California Green Building
4)Standard 189.1

The Building rating and Energy Labelling Systems surrounding the Net Zero Energy Buildings  in the USA are:

1) Energy Star
Is an energy labelling program of EPA( Environmental Protection Agency) and DOE( Department of Energy) It labels energy efficient products, homes, and commercial buildings. It scores on a table of 1 to 100.100 is a top performer. Energy Star does not recognize NZEBs. But the NZEB would score 90 in this program.
2) Leed/Green Building Index
The energy efficiency is the first and primary focus of the certification, one cannot obtain a platinum certification without designing for a high performance building. Incidentally the Net Zero building would easily obtain the Platinum with a marginal additional cost
3) Living Building Challenge by International Living Future Institute
Defines Imperatives for Net Zero Energy:

  • Net Zero Energy-if this imperative is not achieved it will not be qualified for the Living Building Challenge. The definition of NZEB are on: renewable energy, photo voltaic, wind turbines, water powered micro turbines, direct geo thermal. Biomass or combustion of any kind is not allowed. Hydrogen cell is allowed if energy is fueled by Hydrogen. Off grid connection is a must.
  • Site Imperatives-Site is restricted for gray fields and brownfields
  • Equity Imperatives-fresh air, sunlight and natural waterways
  • Beauty Imperatives-Beauty, spirit, inspiration and education

 

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heck out our Architect, Green Architect, House Plan

 

Prepared by Ar. Perumal Nagapushnam

Whoever Pay for their Monthly Electric Bills, this days!-Net Zero Energy Resort

Net Zero Energy Building Designs Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam

With the advent of technologies and special designs, the days when the electric bill stresses you up are of the far past. Whoever even pays for their Monthly Electric Bills this day! Not with Net Zero Energy Building Designs at your door steps. In this article, we will show that even large scaled projects such as Net Zero Energy Resort in Bentong have been designed for the Zero Net Energy.We will discuss the principles we used to achieve a Net Zero Energy Building for our resort.This Net Zero Energy Resort is the first of its kind in the world.

Net Zero Energy Building Technologies have made it possible to minimize paying the monthly bills. Yes! minimize electric bills to zero electrical bill. Yes, but what’s  the catch!It  is the averages sum of what you pay over the time of 1 year, is zero. There are months where you pay a small electric bill and there are months you produce more electricity that what you consume and you receive cash which brings your yearly average bill to zero.

A building owner pays an electric bill of USD200, 000 per month for one of his many outlets. If he was wise he could pay zero .Many like this building owner, feel that this is misnomer and a myth. Others think sure! all you have to do is to have spent a bomb on Photo voltaic panels and you are getting the zero bills. No!!!! That is not, what we mean…by Net Zero Energy Building Design. The principle is elucidated here, keep reading.

When you order for a cold chocolate drink in a food outlet. In most cases the chocolate, hot water, milk, sugar is mixed well enough and solid ice is added to chill up the drink. There is a sheer waste of energy  and in Net Zero Strategies in preparing for a cold drink with avoid using hot water see the diagram below. The wastage can amount to 75% in most cases.

Net Zero Energy Strategies

Net Zero Energy Design reduces the waste in our electric bill.

Net Zero Energy StrategiesNet Zero Energy Resort

The Net Energy Design strategy is making your building more energy efficient. Less wasteful and recycle the waste whenever possible.

  • Firstly by keeping the heat out of your building by orientating the building, minimizing the surface expose to direct heat and provide sufficient shading for the building. These wills reduce the electric cooling bill by 20%.
  • Smart landscaping will help reduce consumption, read https://www.firstenergycorp.com/content/customer/help/saving_energy/trees.html
  • Secondly by using energy saving systems, monitoring sensors and other systems the energy is reduced by 20% savings.of energy.
  • Thirdly the daylight harvesting we can reduce the energy bill by 15% of the bills, Imagine the amount of lighting levels needed for comfortable reading is 400lux, and in broad mid-day light, the amount light available is about 140,000lux . All we need to harvest a small light for consumption.Modern light fittings enable the light transfer from the external spaces to deep interiors to light up spaces
  • enabling control systems such as motions sensors, light sensors etc will further reduce energy bill.
  • Controls in the air conditions systems will help to reduce the energy bill bu 15% of the total bills
  • Electrical light fitting layouts will also reduce the energy consumption
  • High-performance systems and equipment will help reduce the consumption, such as pumps,
  • Sub-metering helps to review the energy consumption patterns and energy consumption is managed
  • Many other strategies on minimizing heat flow into the building and by effectively insulating the building from gaining heat are studied using software such as Ecotect, Vasari, Design studio, one is able to elevate the materials to be used to effective reduce the heat gain or heat loss and thereby reducing energy consumption.

Renewable Energy

Wind turbine

Wind turbine renewable energy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renewable energy that may be available in varied forms in the locality. The types will depend on the region:
1.)Where there is a waterfall ,
using a mini-hydro Hydro electricity may be tapped ,
2.)The wind energy may be tapped if the winds are strong in this region,
3.)The solar energy may be tapped if the sky is clear often by using PV panels.
4.)Biomass energy may be obtained if there were biomass waste in the region, such as sewerage waste, domestic waste,oil palm waste. these waste can be converted into renewable energy.
5.)Geothermal energy may be harvested, if the heat from the ground beneath, may be close to the surface of the site.
These renewable energies which are characteristic of the area will be created at the site  making the building energy efficient, This is how a building will finally become net zero in cost or consumption. The data of renewable energy for the most parts of the would are available from many climatic sources in the world wide web or sold by Climate and Weather Governmental Departments.These data will be imputed into computer software to calculate the amount of energy that is available from these renewable sources.

 

 

mono and poly PV Panels

All this sounds very simple but in the context of large buildings, one has to simulate the building in the computer(energy model) to evaluate the energy consumption for confirmation of the energy consumption before proceeding to the construction.

Net Zero Energy Resort

It is now becoming viable for projects of large scale to be designed for Net Zero Energy , such as Pertamina Tower , 99 levels building in Indonesia and Royal Bentong Cultural Resorts in Malaysia( of which we are the Net Zero Energy Architects). Previously it was envisaged that it is was viable only small scaled projects and this has been proven wrong with the advent of sophisticated software and technologies.

This also refereed to Zero Net Energy by the New York Times. Read and see how the future of Zero Net Energy is viable in the close  distant future even by the year 2020 in the cities of US.

Check our our Green and Sustainable House floor plans, click here.

Be in contact with us via our website for any clarification

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Prepared by Net Zero Energy Building Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect

Website address: http://www.sda-architect.com

Wind Turbines

This is the energy that helped the pioneering Americans to conquer the frontier, where, every village and farm was dotted with a wind mill .
Wind energy is free and clean and available in abundance and created without having to burn fossil fuels or manufacturing process that damages the environment.

The estimated energy that can be harvested in the wind is 20million MW world wide according to World Metro logical Organization.

Advantages of wind energy:

a) It is clean and does not employ fossil fuel
b) It can be installed in great speed unlike hydro energy
c) It is cost less those solar or any other sources of energy. It is about 3 cents/kWh compared to 5cents for coal powered plants.
d) It is modular system and can be added upon
e) It does not depend on the sun and the time of harvest in not restricted to the day but wind may be harvested during the night and storm situations when there is wind. About 90% of the time the wind turbine can harvest energy. The minimum wind for wind to be harvested is getting lower, presently technology to harvest wind as low as 5m/s
f) The cost of wind energy does not depend on the prices of fossil fuel or the market forces.
g) It is 60% efficient compared to 20 to 40 % efficiency of Photo voltaic panels.

The offshore wind energy is becoming more popular in UK and in the US, the following are some of the projects:
1.)Thanet off shore wind farm
Total off shore wind energy off the US Atlantic has the potential to take off the fossil fuel by 30% total energy off the grid.
2.) Vatenfall off shore wind farm
The wind turbine in England supplies energy for 200,000 homes built for £780 m it has 100 no of turbines of 380ft over 35km2 , Vatenfall, a Sweddish company secured the project

3. Block Island Wind Farm
Google has scheduled to construct along the Atlantic ocean for deep sea wind turbines along a 35m transmission line to generate electricity for 17.000 households- Block Island Wind Farm will tap the enormous energy of the Atlantic coastal winds.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/07/27/a-milestone-for-wind-energy-work-underway-on-first-offshore-platforms-in-u-s-waters/
4. Wind farm in Yorkshire England
The world largest wind farm in Yorkshire England will provide energy for 2,000,000 households. English pounds 14.5bm. Wind farm, comprising of 100 turbines of 380m high {115m} and spanning over an area of 35km sq{13.5 sq mile}

Wind energy is proportionally related to the following factors:
a) Wind speed
b) size of wind blades
c) type of blade system
d) the height of the wind turbine

A modern wind turbine produces electricity 90% of the time, but it generates different outputs depending on the wind speed.
a turbine’s best efficiency is 40% at a wind velocity of 9 meters per second (about 20 mph), it will be 40% only at that wind speed. At all other wind speeds it will be something worse.

Consideration for design

The wind should be 5-8mph, the height of the wind turbine is be above the surrounding by 10m to receive unobstructed wind supply, the supply of wind is uncertain but is available during the night, cloudy days, when the PV panels don’t work, complementing with the PV solar panels as a Hybrid system, may be a good consideration as they compliment each other. Location of site near the sea coast will make wind turbines a more viable option by the strong wind

Some interesting facts
The amount of energy the world needs is 155,500TetraWatt per Hour, which is 155.5x1012KwH.

The amount of energy the earth received from the sun is 10.3x1017KwH which compared to amount of energy that is sent in not 1%, not 0.1% but 0.015% which is a pittance of a proportion. Conclusive is to say that this calls for a case of renewable energy, if we could tap the energy from the sun, the energy we consume is hardly anything to think off in comparison to the environmental damage we create by fossil fuel. The energy of the sun is used for converted into wind, wave, movement of air and the vegetation in it.

Moreover the amount of Geothermal energy available in the US , according to a report produced in Harvard ,is sufficient to supply the US’s energy for 2000 years.

Hyper Green architect

Green architect

 

 

 

 

Prepared by Architect Perumal Nagapushnam
System Design Architect
http://www.sda-architect.com/